Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how closely the speech organs approach one another, others include those involved in the r-like sounds, and the sibilancy of fricatives. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Often nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, from greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates often behave as if they were intermediate stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant and flaps are similar to very brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs, since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative, nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound. It is most commonly found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives, when a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue and this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, and lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the vocal tract. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/, if the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion, if it is voiceless, a stop is completely silent.
What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the vowel, as well as the release burst. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds, nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds, nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation, examples include English /f, s/, /v, z/, etc
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth. They are more developed in mammals and they are used primarily to grind food during chewing. The name molar derives from Latin, molaris dens, meaning tooth, from mola and dens. Molars show a great deal of diversity in size and shape across mammal groups, in humans, the molar teeth have either four or five cusps. Adult humans have twelve molars, in four groups of three at the back of the mouth, the third, rearmost molar in each group is called a wisdom tooth. It is the last tooth to appear, breaking through the front of the gum at about the age of twenty, ethnicity can affect the age at which this occurs, with statistical variations between groups. In some cases, it may not even erupt at all, the human mouth contains upper and lower molars. They are, maxillary first molar, maxillary second molar, maxillary third molar, mandibular first molar, mandibular second molar, in mammals, the crown of the molars and premolars are folded into a wide range of complex shapes.
The basic elements of the crown are the more or less conical projections called cusps, the cusps contain both dentine and enamel, whereas minor projections on the crown, called crenullations, are the result of different enamel thickness. Cusps are occasionally joined to form ridges and expanded to form crests, cingula are often incomplete ridges that pass around the base of the crown. It is generally agreed that therian mammals evolved from an ancestor with tribosphenic cheek teeth, with three main cusps arranged in a triangle. Each major cusp on an upper molar is called a cone and is identified by a dependent on its relative location on the tooth, proto-, para-, meta-, hypo-. Suffixes are added to names, -id is added to cusps on a lower molar. A shelf-like ridge on the part of the crown is called a cingulum, the same feature on the lower molar a cingulid, and a minor cusp on these, for example. The design that is considered one of the most important characteristics of mammals is a shape called a tribosphenic molar.
This molar design has two important features, the trigonid, or shearing end, and the talonid, or crushing heel, in modern tribosphenic molars, the trigonid is towards the front of the jaw and the talonid towards the rear. The tribosphenic tooth is found in insectivores and young platypuses, upper molars look like three-pointed mountain ranges, lowers look like two peaks and a third off to the side. The tribosphenic design appears primitively in all groups of mammals, some Jurassic mammals, such as Shuotherium and Pseudotribos, have reversed tribosphenic molars, in which the talonid is towards the front
Specials (Unicode block)
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, five are assigned as of Unicode 9, U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the sense. They can be used to guess a texts encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by not a correctly encoded Unicode text. The replacement character � is a found in the Unicode standard at codepoint U+FFFD in the Specials table. It is used to indicate problems when a system is unable to render a stream of data to a correct symbol and it is usually seen when the data is invalid and does not match any character, Consider a text file containing the German word für in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. This file is now opened with an editor that assumes the input is UTF-8. The first and last byte are valid UTF-8 encodings of ASCII, therefore, a text editor could replace this byte with the replacement character symbol to produce a valid string of Unicode code points.
The whole string now displays like this, f�r, a poorly implemented text editor might save the replacement in UTF-8 form, the text file data will look like this, 0x66 0xEF 0xBF 0xBD 0x72, which will be displayed in ISO-8859-1 as fï¿½r. Since the replacement is the same for all errors this makes it impossible to recover the original character, a better design is to preserve the original bytes, including the error, and only convert to the replacement when displaying the text. This will allow the text editor to save the original byte sequence and it has become increasingly common for software to interpret invalid UTF-8 by guessing the bytes are in another byte-based encoding such as ISO-8859-1. This allows correct display of both valid and invalid UTF-8 pasted together, Unicode control characters UTF-8 Mojibake Unicodes Specials table Decodeunicodes entry for the replacement character
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. Bachs compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor and his music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth. He is now regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time. Bach was born in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach and his father Johann Ambrosius Bach was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, apparently at his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michaels School in Lüneburg for two years. He received the title of Royal Court Composer from Augustus III in 1736, Bachs health and vision declined in 1749, and he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany and he was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt.
He was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin. His uncles were all musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, Bachs mother died in 1694, and his father died eight months later. The 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, there he studied and copied music, including his own brothers, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private and blank ledger paper of that type was costly. He received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord, during this time he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700 Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann–who was two years Bachs elder–were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michaels School in Lüneburg, some two weeks travel north of Ohrdruf and their journey was probably undertaken mostly on foot. His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a range of European culture.
In addition to singing in the choir, he played the Schools three-manual organ and he came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northern Germany, sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in other disciplines. While in Lüneburg, Bach had access to St. Johns Church and possibly used the famous organ from 1553. His role there is unclear, but it probably included menial, non-musical duties, despite strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. The main difference between a flap and a stop is that in a flap there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation, otherwise a flap is similar to a brief stop. Flaps contrast with trills, where the causes the articulator to vibrate. Trills may be realized as a contact, like a flap. When a trill is brief and made with a single contact it is erroneously described as an flap. Many linguists use the terms tap and flap indiscriminately, peter Ladefoged proposed for a while that it might be useful to distinguish between them. However, his usage was inconsistent, contradicting itself even between different editions of the same text, however, he used the term flap in all cases. Subsequent work on the flap has clarified the issue, flaps involve retraction of the active articulator. For linguists that do make the distinction, the tap is transcribed as a fish-hook ar, and while the flap can be transcribed as a small capital dee.
In IPA terms the retroflex flap symbol captures the initial retraction, otherwise alveolars are typically called taps, and other articulations flaps. No language has been confirmed to contrast a tap and a flap at the place of articulation. However, such a distinction has been claimed for Norwegian, where the alveolar apical tap /ɾ/, the former could be mistaken for a short trill, and is more clearly transcribed ⟨ɢ̆ ⟩, whereas for a nasal tap the unambiguous transcription ⟨ɾ̃⟩ is generally used. Most of the alternative transcriptions in parentheses imply a tap rather than flap articulation, so for example the flap, spanish features a good illustration of an alveolar flap, contrasting it with a trill, pero /ˈpeɾo/ but vs. perro /ˈpero/ dog. Among the Germanic languages, this occurs in American and Australian English. In American and Australian English it tends to be an allophone of intervocalic /t/ – see intervocalic alveolar flapping. In a number of Low Saxon dialects it occurs as an allophone of intervocalic /d/ or /t/, e. g. bäden /beeden/ → ‘to pray’, ‘to request’, /gaa tou bede/ → ‘go to bed.
’, Water /vaater/ → ‘water’, Vadder /fater/ → ‘father’. Occurrence varies, in some Low Saxon dialects it affects both /t/ and /d/, while in others it affects only /d/, other languages with this are Portuguese and Austronesian languages with /r/. In Galician and Sardinian, a flap often appears instead of a former /l/ and this is part of a wider phenomenon called rhotacism
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures, articulatory phonetics is concerned with the transformation of aerodynamic energy into acoustic energy. Aerodynamic energy refers to the airflow through the vocal tract and its potential form is air pressure, its kinetic form is the actual dynamic airflow. Acoustic energy is variation in the air pressure that can be represented as sound waves, the main air cavities present in the articulatory system are the supraglottal cavity and the subglottal cavity. They are so-named because the glottis, the space between the vocal folds internal to the larynx, separates the two cavities. The supraglottal cavity or the orinasal cavity is divided into an oral subcavity, the subglottal cavity consists of the trachea and the lungs. The atmosphere external to the stem may be considered an air cavity whose potential connecting points with respect to the body are the nostrils.
The term initiator refers to the fact that they are used to initiate a change in the volumes of air cavities, and, by Boyles Law, the term initiation refers to the change. Since changes in air pressures between connected cavities lead to airflow between the cavities, initiation is referred to as an airstream mechanism. The three pistons present in the system are the larynx, the tongue body, and the physiological structures used to manipulate lung volume. The lung pistons are used to initiate a pulmonic airstream, the larynx is used to initiate the glottalic airstream mechanism by changing the volume of the supraglottal and subglottal cavities via vertical movement of the larynx. Ejectives and implosives are made with this airstream mechanism, the tongue body creates a velaric airsteam by changing the pressure within the oral cavity, the tongue body changes the mouth subcavity. Click consonants use the velaric airstream mechanism, pistons are controlled by various muscles. Airflow occurs when an air valve is open and there is a difference between the connecting cavities.
When an air valve is closed, there is no airflow, like the pistons, the air valves are controlled by various muscles. To produce any kind of sound, there must be movement of air. To produce sounds that people today can interpret as words, the movement of air must pass through the chords, up through the throat and. Different sounds are formed by different positions of the mouth—or, as linguists call it, sounds of all languages fall under two categories and Vowels
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, with two competing definitions. There is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis and this contrasts with consonants, such as the English sh, which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the other, phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, a phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel. In oral languages, phonetic vowels normally form the peak of many to all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning vocal. In English, the vowel is commonly used to mean both vowel sounds and the written symbols that represent them. The phonetic definition of vowel does not always match the phonological definition, the approximants and illustrate this, both are produced without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/.
The American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms vocoid for a vowel and vowel for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology. Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic el in table, or the syllabic nasals in button, daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness. These three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right, there are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, and tongue root position. This conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928, Peter Ladefoged has said that early phoneticians. Thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, and they were actually describing formant frequencies. The IPA Handbook concedes that the quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction. Vowel height is named for the position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw.
However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value, The higher the frequency of the first formant, however, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness and it appears that some varieties of German have five contrasting vowel heights independently of length or other parameters
Clicks are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the tsk. tsk. or tut-tut used to express disapproval or pity, used to spur on a horse, and the clip-clop. Sound children make with their tongue to imitate a horse trotting, clicks are obstruents articulated with two closures in the mouth, one forward and one at the back. The enclosed pocket of air is rarefied by an action of the tongue. Click consonants occur at five places of articulation. IPA represents a click by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation adjacent to a symbol for a sound at the rear place of articulation. The IPA symbols are used in writing most Khoisan languages, but Bantu languages such as Zulu typically use Latin ⟨c⟩, ⟨x⟩ and ⟨q⟩ for dental, the easiest clicks for English speakers are the dental clicks written with a single pipe, ǀ. They are all sharp squeaky sounds made by sucking on the front teeth, a simple dental click is used in English to express pity or to shame someone, and sometimes to call an animal, and is written tsk.
in American English and tut. in British English. Curiously, in Italian this sound means no used as an answer to a direct question, next most familiar to English speakers are the lateral clicks written with a double pipe, ǁ. They are sounds, though less sharp than ǀ. A simple lateral click is made in English to get a horse moving, there are the labial clicks, written with a bulls eye, ʘ. These are lip-smacking sounds, but without the pursing of the found in a kiss. The above clicks sound like affricates, in that they involve a lot of friction, the other two families are more abrupt sounds that do not have this friction. Like a cork being pulled from an empty bottle and these sounds can be quite loud. Finally, the clicks, ǂ, are made with a flat tongue. Clicks occur in all three Khoisan language families of southern Africa, where they may be the most numerous consonants, to a lesser extent they occur in three neighbouring groups of Bantu languages—which borrowed them, directly or indirectly, from Khoisan.
These sounds occur not only in borrowed vocabulary, but have spread to native Bantu words as well, some creolized varieties of Afrikaans, such as Oorlams, retain clicks in Khoekhoe words. Three languages in East Africa use clicks and Hadza of Tanzania, and Dahalo and it is thought the latter may remain from an episode of language shift
Place of articulation
Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound. The terminology in this article has developed for precisely describing all the consonants in all the worlds spoken languages. No known language distinguishes all of the described here so less precision is needed to distinguish the sounds of a particular language. The human voice produces sounds in the manner, Air pressure from the lungs creates a steady flow of air through the trachea. The vocal folds in the larynx vibrate, creating fluctuations in air pressure and nose openings radiate the sound waves into the environment. The larynx or voice box is a framework of cartilage that serves to anchor the vocal folds. When the muscles of the vocal folds contract, the airflow from the lungs is impeded until the vocal folds are forced apart again by the air pressure from the lungs. The process continues in a cycle that is felt as a vibration. In singing, the frequency of the vocal folds determines the pitch of the sound produced.
Voiced phonemes such as the vowels are, by definition. The lips of the mouth can be used in a way to create a similar sound. A rubber balloon, inflated but not tied off and stretched tightly across the neck produces a squeak or buzz, depending on the tension across the neck, similar actions with similar results occur when the vocal cords are contracted or relaxed across the larynx. k. a. The pharynx The epiglottis at the entrance to the windpipe, above the voice box The regions are not strictly separated. Likewise, the alveolar and post-alveolar regions merge into other, as do the hard and soft palate, the soft palate and the uvula. Terms like pre-velar, post-velar, and upper vs. lower pharyngeal may be used to more precisely where an articulation takes place. The articulatory gesture of the place of articulation involves the more mobile part of the vocal tract. That is unlike coronal gestures involving the front of the tongue, the epiglottis may be active, contacting the pharynx, or passive, being contacted by the aryepiglottal folds.
Distinctions made in these areas are very difficult to observe and are the subject of ongoing investigation
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration and this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition, the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate, the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, and for humans with normal vocal folds, it is approximately 2–3 cm H2O. The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is mostly lateral, there is almost no motion along the length of the vocal folds. The oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, the sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series.
In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, in linguistics, a phone is called voiceless if there is no phonation during its occurrence. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with folds that are elongated, highly tensed. Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce intonation and tone, There are currently two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated, the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory. These two theories are not in contention with one another and it is possible that both theories are true and operating simultaneously to initiate and maintain vibration. A third theory, the theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s. Pressure builds up again until the cords are pushed apart. The rate at which the open and close—the number of cycles per second—determines the pitch of the phonation.
The aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids, the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, whereas the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent. Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation. The amount of pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and this theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, and not by breath pressure or muscular tension