A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and in quantity, they are voiced, are involved in prosodic variation such as tone and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract; the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them. There are two complementary definitions of one phonetic and the other phonological. In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English "ah" or "oh", produced with an open vocal tract. There is no significant build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis; this contrasts with consonants, such as the English "sh", which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, the sound that forms the peak of a syllable. A phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel.
In oral languages, phonetic vowels form the peak of many or all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table or the syllabic r in the Serbo-Croatian word vrt "garden"; the phonetic definition of "vowel" does not always match the phonological definition. The approximants and illustrate this: both are without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables which suggests that phonologically they are consonants. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a rhotic dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/; the American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms "vocoid" for a phonetic vowel and "vowel" for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology, are classified as vocoids but not vowels. However and Emmory demonstrated from a range of languages that semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, so may be considered consonants on that basis.
Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic /l/ in table, or the syllabic nasals in button and rhythm. The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels. Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness; these three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right. There are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, tongue root position; this conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928. Peter Ladefoged has said that "early phoneticians... thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, but they were not. They were describing formant frequencies."
The IPA Handbook concedes that "the vowel quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction and not a direct mapping of tongue position."Nonetheless, the concept that vowel qualities are determined by tongue position and lip rounding continues to be used in pedagogy, as it provides an intuitive explanation of how vowels are distinguished. Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1, associated with the height of the tongue. In close vowels known as high vowels, such as and, the first formant is consistent with the tongue being positioned close to the palate, high in the mouth, whereas in open vowels known as low vowels, such as, F1 is consistent with the jaw being open and the tongue being positioned low in the mouth. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value: The higher the frequency of the first formant, the lower the vowel; the International Phonetic Alphabet defines seven degrees of vowel height, but no language is known to distinguish all of them without distinguishing another attribute: close near-close close-mid mid open-mid near-open open The letters are used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels.
However, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. The Kensiu language, spoken in Malaysia and Thailand, is unusual in that it contrasts true-mid with close-mid and open-mid vowels, without any difference in other parameters like backness or roundness. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness, many are parts of diphthongs, it appears that some varieties of German have five vowel heights that contrast independently of length or other parameters. The Bavarian dialect of Amstetten h
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth. They are more developed in mammals, they are used to grind food during chewing. The name molar derives from Latin, molaris dens, meaning "millstone tooth", from mola and dens, tooth. Molars show a great deal of diversity in shape across mammal groups. In humans, the molar teeth have either five cusps. Adult humans have 12 molars, in four groups of three at the back of the mouth; the third, rearmost molar in each group is called a wisdom tooth. It is the last tooth to appear, breaking through the front of the gum at about the age of 20, although this varies from individual to individual. Race can affect the age at which this occurs, with statistical variations between groups. In some cases, it may not erupt at all; the human mouth contains lower molars. They are: maxillary first molar, maxillary second molar, maxillary third molar, mandibular first molar, mandibular second molar, mandibular third molar. In mammals, the crown of the molars and premolars is folded into a wide range of complex shapes.
The basic elements of the crown are the more or less conical projections called cusps and the valleys that separate them. The cusps contain both dentine and enamel, whereas minor projections on the crown, called crenullations, are the result of different enamel thickness. Cusps are joined to form ridges and expanded to form crests. Cingula are incomplete ridges that pass around the base of the crown; these mammalian, multicusped cheek teeth evolved from single-cusped teeth in reptilians, although the diversity of therapsid molar patterns and the complexity in the molars of the earliest mammals make determining how this happened impossible. According to the accepted "differentiation theory", additional cusps have arisen by budding or outgrowth from the crown, while the rivalling "concrescence theory" instead proposes that complex teeth evolved by the clustering of separate conical teeth. Therian mammals are agreed to have evolved from an ancestor with tribosphenic cheek teeth, with three main cusps arranged in a triangle.
Each major cusp on an upper molar is called a cone and is identified by a prefix dependent on its relative location on the tooth: proto-, para-, meta-, hypo-, ento-. Suffixes are added to these names: -id is added to cusps on a lower molar. A shelf-like ridge on the lower part of the crown is called a cingulum; the design, considered one of the most important characteristics of mammals is a three-cusped shape called a tribosphenic molar. This molar design has two important features: the trigonid, or shearing end, the talonid, or crushing heel. In modern tribosphenic molars, the trigonid is towards the front of the jaw and the talonid is towards the rear; the tribosphenic tooth is found in young platypuses. Upper molars look like three-pointed mountain ranges; the tribosphenic design appears primitively in all groups of mammals. Some paleontologists believe that it developed independently in monotremes, rather than being inherited from an ancestor that they share with marsupials and placentals. For example, the dentition of the Early Cretaceous monotreme Steropodon is similar to those of Peramus and dryolestoids, which suggests that monotremes are related to some pre-tribosphenic therian mammals, but, on the other hand, the status of neither of these two groups is well-established.
Some Jurassic mammals, such as Shuotherium and Pseudotribos, have "reversed tribosphenic" molars, in which the talonid is towards the front. This variant is regarded as an example of convergent evolution. From the primitive tribosphenic tooth, molars have diversified into several unique morphologies. In many groups, a fourth cusp, the hypocone, subsequently evolved. Quadrate molars have an additional fourth cusp on the lingual side called the hypocone, located posterior to the protocone. Quadrate molars appeared early in mammal evolution and are present in many species, including hedgehogs and many primates, including humans. There may be a fifth cusp. In many mammals, additional smaller cusps called, they are named after their locations, e.g. a paraconule is located between a paracone and a metacone, a hypoconulid is located between a hypoconid and an entoconid. In bunodont molars, the cusps rounded hills rather than sharp peaks, they are most common among omnivores such as pigs and humans. Bunodont molars are effective crushing devices and basically quadrate in shape.
Hypsodont dentition is characterized by high-crowned teeth and enamel that extends far past the gum line, which provides extra material for wear and tear. Some examples of animals with hypsodont dentition are cattle and horses, all animals that feed on gritty, fibrous material. Hypsodont molars can continue to grow for example in some species of Arvicolinae. Hypsodont molars lack both a neck; the occlusal surface is rough and flat, adapted for crushing and grinding plant material. The body is covered with cementum both above and below the gingival line, below, a layer of enamel covering the entire length of the body; the cementum and the enamel invaginate into the thick
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
Llanelli is the largest town in both the county of Carmarthenshire and the preserved county of Dyfed, Wales. Located on the Loughor estuary 10 miles northwest of Swansea and 12 miles southeast of the county town, Llanelli is famous for its proud rugby tradition and for being a centre of tinplate production. There are many communities in the Llanelli Rural district; those that surround the town are unofficially referred to as Llanelli. The spelling'Llanelly' is an anglicised form, used until 1966, after which it was changed following a local public campaign; this is evident in the name of the local historic building,'Llanelly House'. It can lead to confusion with the village and parish, in south-east Wales near Abergavenny; the town lies on the River Lliedi, although much of the river is not visible in the town centre, where the river is underneath the town. The first beginnings of Llanelli can be found on the lands of present day Parc Howard. An Iron Age hill fort once stood, called Bryn-Caerau.
Evidence suggests. During the dark ages a saint named Elli or Ellyw who in legend is the son or daughter of King Brychan set up a church on the banks of the Afon Lliedi, it was around this time that the people of Bryn-Caerau began to come down the hill either to the Felinfoel area or to near Saint Ellyw's church. This was the start of the building of its church; the church would've been a wooden or stone thatched chapel. It wasn't until the 1200s that they built a stone church; however the church was rebuilt at the beginning of the 20th century. The reason the church still looks old is. A mining town, Llanelli grew in the 18th century and 19th century with the mining of coal and the tinplate industry and steelworks. Many of these industries were served by the Llanelly and Mynydd Mawr Railway which opened in 1803. Llanelli became such a significant regional producer of tin that it was referred to as "Tinopolis" by the latter half of the 19th century; the closure of coal mines and competition from overseas steel plants meant that Llanelli, like many other towns in southern Wales, saw significant and sustained economic decline from the late 1970s.
People from Llanelli are sometimes nicknamed "Turks". The origin of this name is uncertain. One theory is. Llanelli has hosted the National Eisteddfod six times: in 1895, 1903, 1930, 1962, 2000 and 2014. In the mid-20th century, Llanelli was the largest town in the world where more than half the population spoke a Celtic language, it is ranked the 7th largest urban area in Wales. According to the 2011 UK Census returns, 23.7% of Llanelli town residents could speak the Welsh language. However the area around Llanelli is a Welsh stronghold where 56% speak Welsh, in communities such as Llwynhendy and Burry Port. During the 1950s, Trefor and Eileen Beasley campaigned to get Llanelli Rural Council to distribute tax papers in Welsh by refusing to pay taxes until their demand was met; the council reacted by sending in the bailiffs and selling their furniture to recover the money owed. The Beasleys' neighbours returned it to them; the council reversed this policy during the 1960s when they accepted that the Welsh language should be equal with the English language.
In 1991 Llanelli was a distinct Travel to Work Area, but the 2001-based revision has merged the locality into a wider Swansea Bay Travel to Work Area. The area around Llanelli in eastern Carmarthenshire is home to a number of manufacturing companies, many of which service the automotive industry; the Technium Performance Engineering Centre was developed at Llanelli Gate as a business incubator for businesses in the automotive and aerospace sectors. The traditional industries of Llanelli have been in gradual decline over recent decades and local government has responded by promoting developments such as the Machynys Golf Course, new retail parks at Trostre and Pemberton, the Millennium Coastal Park, to help attract tourism; the core shopping area has now relocated from the town centre to the Trostre/Pemberton area. Llanelli has a brewing tradition, with the Felinfoel Brewery in Felinfoel, located just outside the town; the Reverend James Buckley was an ordained Methodist minister, born in Oldham, Lancashire in 1770.
After moving to Llanelli towards the end of the 18th century, he became involved in the establishment of a small brewery in the town. After the death of the owner, the Rev. Buckley came into the possession of the brewery and changed its name to Buckley's Brewery. In 1998, the brewery was purchased by Brains Brewery, production was transferred to their brewery in Cardiff. However, Brains continue to produce a bitter named in memory of the Reverend; the brewery has now been demolished. Over the past decade, the emphasis on heavy industry that once played an important part in the district has changed to an emphasis on creating tertiary sector employment in leisure and tourism. Llanelli is now being developed as a leisure and tourism destination, with many ongoing developments such as the new Llanelli Scarlets rugby stadium, the Old Castle Works leisure village and a National Hunt racecourse at Ffos Las near Trimsaran. Machynys Ponds, a Site of Special Scientific Interest notable for its dragonfly po
The term phonation has different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration; this is the definition used among those who study laryngeal anatomy and physiology and speech production in general. Phoneticians in other subfields, such as linguistic phonetics, call this process voicing, use the term phonation to refer to any oscillatory state of any part of the larynx that modifies the airstream, of which voicing is just one example. Voiceless and supra-glottal phonations are included under this definition; the phonatory process, or voicing, occurs when air is expelled from the lungs through the glottis, creating a pressure drop across the larynx. When this drop becomes sufficiently large, the vocal folds start to oscillate; the minimum pressure drop required to achieve phonation is called the phonation threshold pressure, for humans with normal vocal folds, it is 2–3 cm H2O.
The motion of the vocal folds during oscillation is lateral, though there is some superior component as well. However, there is no motion along the length of the vocal folds; the oscillation of the vocal folds serves to modulate the pressure and flow of the air through the larynx, this modulated airflow is the main component of the sound of most voiced phones. The sound that the larynx produces is a harmonic series. In other words, it consists of a fundamental tone accompanied by harmonic overtones, which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. According to the source–filter theory, the resulting sound excites the resonance chamber, the vocal tract to produce the individual speech sounds; the vocal folds will not oscillate if they are not sufficiently close to one another, are not under sufficient tension or under too much tension, or if the pressure drop across the larynx is not sufficiently large. In linguistics, a phone is called voiceless. In speech, voiceless phones are associated with vocal folds that are elongated tensed, placed laterally when compared to vocal folds during phonation.
Fundamental frequency, the main acoustic cue for the percept pitch, can be varied through a variety of means. Large scale changes are accomplished by increasing the tension in the vocal folds through contraction of the cricothyroid muscle. Smaller changes in tension can be effected by contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle or changes in the relative position of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, as may occur when the larynx is lowered or raised, either volitionally or through movement of the tongue to which the larynx is attached via the hyoid bone. In addition to tension changes, fundamental frequency is affected by the pressure drop across the larynx, affected by the pressure in the lungs, will vary with the distance between the vocal folds. Variation in fundamental frequency is used linguistically to produce tone. There are two main theories as to how vibration of the vocal folds is initiated: the myoelastic theory and the aerodynamic theory; these two theories are not in contention with one another and it is quite possible that both theories are true and operating to initiate and maintain vibration.
A third theory, the neurochronaxic theory, was in considerable vogue in the 1950s, but has since been discredited. The myoelastic theory states that when the vocal cords are brought together and breath pressure is applied to them, the cords remain closed until the pressure beneath them, the subglottic pressure, is sufficient to push them apart, allowing air to escape and reducing the pressure enough for the muscle tension recoil to pull the folds back together again; the pressure builds up once again until the cords are pushed apart, the whole cycle keeps repeating itself. The rate at which the cords open and close, the number of cycles per second, determines the pitch of the phonation; the aerodynamic theory is based on the Bernoulli energy law in fluids. The theory states that when a stream of breath is flowing through the glottis while the arytenoid cartilages are held together, a push-pull effect is created on the vocal fold tissues that maintains self-sustained oscillation; the push occurs during glottal opening, when the glottis is convergent, the pull occurs during glottal closing, when the glottis is divergent.
Such an effect causes a transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal fold tissues which overcomes losses by dissipation and sustain the oscillation. The amount of lung pressure needed to begin phonation is defined by Titze as the oscillation threshold pressure. During glottal closure, the air flow is cut off until breath pressure pushes the folds apart and the flow starts up again, causing the cycles to repeat; the textbook entitled Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation by Ingo Titze credits Janwillem van den Berg as the originator of the theory and provides detailed mathematical development of the theory. This theory states that the frequency of the vocal fold vibration is determined by the chronaxie of the recurrent nerve, not by breath pressure or muscular tension. Advocates of this theory thought that every single vibration of the vocal folds was due to an impulse from the recurrent laryngeal nerves and that the acoustic center in the brain regulated the speed of vocal fold vibration.
Speech and voice scientists have long since left this theory as the muscles have been shown to not be able to contract fast enough to accomplish the vibration. In addition, persons with paralyzed vocal folds can produce phonation, whic
Manner of articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators when making a speech sound. One parameter of manner is stricture, that is, how the speech organs approach one another. Others include those involved in the r-like sounds, the sibilancy of fricatives; the concept of manner is used in the discussion of consonants, although the movement of the articulators will greatly alter the resonant properties of the vocal tract, thereby changing the formant structure of speech sounds, crucial for the identification of vowels. For consonants, the place of articulation and the degree of phonation of voicing are considered separately from manner, as being independent parameters. Homorganic consonants, which have the same place of articulation, may have different manners of articulation. Nasality and laterality are included in manner, but some phoneticians, such as Peter Ladefoged, consider them to be independent. Manners of articulation with substantial obstruction of the airflow are called obstruents.
These are prototypically voiceless, but voiced obstruents are common as well. Manners without such obstruction are called sonorants. Voiceless sonorants are uncommon, but are found in Welsh and Classical Greek, in Standard Tibetan, the "wh" in those dialects of English that distinguish "which" from "witch". Sonorants may be called resonants, some linguists prefer that term, restricting the word'sonorant' to non-vocoid resonants. Another common distinction is between continuants. From greatest to least stricture, speech sounds may be classified along a cline as stop consonants, fricative consonants and vowels. Affricates behave as if they were intermediate between stops and fricatives, but phonetically they are sequences of a stop and fricative. Over time, sounds in a language may move along this cline toward less stricture in a process called lenition, or towards more stricture in a process called fortition. Sibilants are distinguished from other fricatives by the shape of the tongue and how the airflow is directed over the teeth.
Fricatives at coronal places of articulation may be sibilant or non-sibilant, sibilants being the more common. Flaps are similar to brief stops. However, their articulation and behavior are distinct enough to be considered a separate manner, rather than just length; the main articulatory difference between flaps and stops is that, due to the greater length of stops compared to flaps, a build-up of air pressure occurs behind a stop which does not occur behind a flap. This means that when the stop is released, there is a burst of air as the pressure is relieved, while for flaps there is no such burst. Trills involve the vibration of one of the speech organs. Since trilling is a separate parameter from stricture, the two may be combined. Increasing the stricture of a typical trill results in a trilled fricative. Trilled affricates are known. Nasal airflow may be added as an independent parameter to any speech sound, it is most found in nasal occlusives and nasal vowels, but nasalized fricatives and approximants are found.
When a sound is not nasal, it is called oral. Laterality is the release of airflow at the side of the tongue; this can be combined with other manners, resulting in lateral approximants, lateral flaps, lateral fricatives and affricates. Stop, an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral vocal tract, no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include English /p t k/ and /b d ɡ/. If the consonant is voiced, the voicing is the only sound made during occlusion. What we hear as a /p/ or /k/ is the effect that the onset of the occlusion has on the preceding vowel, as well as the release burst and its effect on the following vowel; the shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different stops their characteristic sounds. All languages have stops. Nasal, a nasal occlusive, where there is occlusion of the oral tract, but air passes through the nose; the shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds.
Examples include English /m, n/. Nearly all languages have nasals, the only exceptions being in the area of Puget Sound and a single language on Bougainville Island. Fricative, sometimes called spirant, where there is continuous frication at the place of articulation. Examples include etc.. Most languages have fricatives, though many have only an /s/. However, the Indigenous Australian languages are completely devoid of fricatives of any kind. Sibilants are a type of fricative where the airflow is guided by a groove in the tongue toward the teeth, creating a high-pitched and distinctive sound; these are by far the most common fricatives. Fricatives at coronal places of articulation are though not always, sibilants. English sibilants include /s/ and /z/. Lateral fricatives are a rare type of fricative, where the frication occurs on one or both sides of the edge of th