Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold, baptised Charles Martin, was Duke of Burgundy from 1467 to 1477. He was the last Duke of Burgundy from the House of Valois, his early death at the Battle of Nancy at the hands of Swiss mercenaries fighting for René II, Duke of Lorraine, was of great consequence in European history. The Burgundian domains, long wedged between the growing powers of France and the Habsburg Empire, were divided, but the precise disposition of the vast and disparate territorial possessions involved was disputed among the European powers for centuries. Charles the Bold was born in the son of Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal. Before the death of his father in 1467, he bore the title of Count of Charolais, he was made a Knight of the Golden Fleece just twenty days after his birth, invested by Charles I, Count of Nevers, the seigneur de Croÿ. Charles was brought up under the direction of Jean d'Auxy and early showed great application alike to academic studies and warlike exercises, his father's court was the most extravagant in Europe at the time, a centre for the arts and commerce.
While he was growing up, Charles witnessed his father's efforts to unite his far-flung and ethnically diverse dominions into a single state, his own efforts centered on continuing and securing his father's successes in this endeavor. In 1440, at the age of seven, Charles was married to Catherine, daughter of King Charles VII of France and sister of the Dauphin, she was five years older than her husband, she died in 1446 at the age of 18. They had no children. In 1454, at the age of 21, Charles married a second time, he wanted to marry a daughter of his distant cousin Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, but under terms of the Treaty of Arras of 1435, he was required to marry a French princess. His father chose Isabella of Bourbon, three years younger than he was. Isabella was the daughter of Philip the Good's sister Agnes and a distant cousin of Charles VII of France. Isabella died in 1465, their daughter Mary of Burgundy was Charles' only surviving child. Charles was on friendly terms with his brother-in-law Louis, the Dauphin of France, a refugee at the court of Burgundy from 1456 until he succeeded his father as king of France in 1461.
But Louis began to pursue some of the same policies as his father, for example Louis's repurchase of the towns on the Somme River that Louis's father had ceded in 1435 to Charles's father in the Treaty of Arras, which Charles viewed with chagrin. When his father's failing health enabled him to assume the reins of government, he initiated a policy of hostility toward Louis XI that led to the Burgundian Wars, he became one of the principal leaders of the League of the Public Weal, an alliance of west European nobles opposed to policies of Louis XI that sought to centralize the royal authority within France. For his third wife, Charles was offered the hand of Louis XI's daughter Anne; the wife he chose, was his second cousin Margaret of York. Upon the death of his father in 1467, Charles was no longer bound by the terms of the Treaty of Arras, he decided to ally himself with Burgundy's old ally England. Louis did his best to prevent or delay the marriage with Margaret, but in the summer of 1468, it was celebrated sumptuously at Bruges, Charles was made a Knight of the Garter.
The couple had no children. After Mary's death many years she kept Mary's two infant children as long as she was allowed. On 12 April 1465, Philip relinquished control of the government of his domains to Charles, who spent the next summer prosecuting the War of the Public Weal against Louis XI. Charles was left master of the field at the Battle of Montlhéry on 13 July 1465, but this neither prevented the king from re-entering Paris nor did it assure Charles of a decisive victory, he succeeded, however, in forcing upon Louis the Treaty of Conflans of 4 October 1465, by which the king restored to him certain towns on the Somme River, the counties of Boulogne and Guînes, various other small territories. During the negotiations for the treaty, his wife Isabella died at Les Quesnoy on 25 September, making a political marriage possible; as part of the treaty, Louis promised him the hand of his infant daughter Anne, with the territories of Champagne and Ponthieu as a dowry, but no marriage took place.
In the meanwhile, Charles obtained the surrender of Ponthieu. Charles' concentration on the affairs of France was diverted by the Revolt of Liège against his father and the bishop of Liège and a desire to punish the town of Dinant in the province of Namur. During the wars of the summer of 1465, Dinant celebrated a false rumour that Charles had been defeated at Montlhéry by burning him in effigy and chanting that he was the bastard child of his mother Isabella of Portugal and John of Heinsburg, the previous Bishop of Liège. On 25 August 1466, Charles marched into Dinant, determined to avenge this slur on the honour of his mother, sacked the city, killing every man and child within. After the death of Charles' father Philip the Good in 1467, the Bishopric of Liège renewed hostilities, bu
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. He was never crowned by the Pope, he was instead proclaimed Emperor elect by Pope Julius II at Trent, thus breaking the long tradition of requiring a papal coronation for the adoption of the imperial title. Maximilian was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, Eleanor of Portugal, he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 to his father's death in 1493. Maximilian expanded the influence of the House of Habsburg through war and his marriage in 1477 to Mary of Burgundy, the heiress to the Duchy of Burgundy, though he lost the Austrian territories in today's Switzerland to the Swiss Confederacy. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459.
His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread; the young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. At the time, the dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal family, with their sophisticated nobility and court culture, were the rulers of substantial territories on the eastern and northern boundaries of France; the reigning duke, Charles the Bold, was the chief political opponent of Maximilian's father Frederick III. Frederick was concerned about Burgundy's expansive tendencies on the western border of his Holy Roman Empire, and, to forestall military conflict, he attempted to secure the marriage of Charles's only daughter, Mary of Burgundy, to his son Maximilian.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. Maximilian's wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her father's death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs; the Duchy of Burgundy was claimed by the French crown under Salic Law, with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wife's dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the modern Enguinegatte, on 7 August 1479. Maximilian and Mary's wedding contract stipulated that their children would succeed them but that the couple could not be each other's heirs. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded.
After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and, in 1482, they signed a treaty with Louis XI in Arras that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and Artois to the French crown, they rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen.
He became ruler of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, as they had occupied the territory under the reign of Frederick. In 1490, Maximilian entered Vienna; as the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. In 1499/1500 he drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile; this brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan; the prolonged Italian Wars resulted in Maximilian joining the Holy League to counter the French. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France.
His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, his progress there was checked. The situation in Italy was not the only problem; the Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Cou
Switzerland in the Napoleonic era
During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria. In 1798, Switzerland was overrun by the French and was renamed the Helvetic Republic; the Helvetic Republic encountered severe political problems. In 1798 the country became a battlefield of the Revolutionary Wars, culminating in the Battles of Zürich in 1799. In 1803 Napoleon's Act of Mediation reestablished a Swiss Confederation that restored the sovereignty of the cantons, the former tributary and allied territories of Aargau, Graubünden, St. Gallen and Ticino became cantons with equal rights; the Congress of Vienna of 1815 re-established Swiss independence and the European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality. At this time, the territory of Switzerland was increased for the last time, by the new cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva; the Restoration, the time leading up to the Sonderbundskrieg, was marked with turmoil, the rural population struggling against the yoke of the urban centres, for example in the Züriputsch of 1839.
During the last years of the Ancien Régime, the growing conflicts throughout the Confederation had weakened and distracted the Diet. In Paris, the Helvetian Club, founded in 1790 by several exiled Vaudois and Fribourgers, was the centre from which the ideas of the French Revolution were spread in the western part of the Confederation. During the next eight years, revolts sprang up across the Confederation and, unlike earlier ones, many were successful. In 1790 the Lower Valais rose against the upper districts. In 1791, Porrentruy rebelled against the Bishop of Basel and became the Rauracian republic in November 1792 and in 1793, there was a rebellion in the French department of the Mont Terrible. In 1795, St Gallen revolted against the prince-abbot; these revolts were supported or encouraged by France, but the French army did not directly attack the Confederation. However, following the French success in the War of the First Coalition against the aristocratic armies of Prussia and Austria, the time had come for direct action against the aristocratic Ancien Régime in Switzerland.
In 1797, the districts of Chiavenna and Bormio, dependencies of the Three Leagues, revolted under the encouragement of France. They were invaded and annexed to the Cisalpine Republic on 10 October 1797. In December of the same year, the Bishopric of Basel annexed. On 9 December 1797, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, a member of the Helvetian Club from Vaud, asked France to invade Bern to protect Vaud. Seeing a chance to remove a feudal neighbor and gain Bern's wealth, France agreed. By February 1798, French troops occupied Biel/Bienne. Meanwhile, another army entered Vaud, the Lemanic Republic was proclaimed; the Diet broke up in dismay without taking any steps to avert the coming storm. On 5 March, troops entered Bern, distracted by quarrels within. With Bern, the stronghold of the aristocratic party, in revolutionary hands, the old Confederation collapsed. Within a month, the Confederation was under French control, all the associate members of the Confederation were gone. On 12 April 1798 121 cantonal deputies proclaimed the Helvetic Republic, "One and Indivisible".
The new régime abolished feudal rights. The occupying forces established a centralised state based on the ideas of the French Revolution. Before the Helvetic Republic, each individual canton had exercised complete sovereignty over its own territory or territories. Little central authority had existed, with matters concerning the country as a whole confined to the Diet, a meeting of leading representatives from the cantons; the constitution of the Helvetic Republic came from the design of Peter Ochs, a magistrate from Basel. It established a central two-chamber legislature which included the Senate; the executive, known as the Directory, comprised 5 members. The Constitution established actual Swiss citizenship, as opposed to just citizenship of one's canton of birth. With Swiss citizenship came the absolute freedom to settle in any canton, the political communes were now composed of all residents, not of the burghers. However, the community land and property remained with the former local burghers who were gathered together into the Bürgergemeinde.
No general agreement existed about the future of Switzerland. Leading groups split into the Unitaires, who wanted a united republic, the Federalists, who represented the old aristocracy and demanded a return to cantonal sovereignty. Coup-attempts became frequent, the new régime had to rely on the French to survive. Furthermore, the occupying forces plundered many villages; this made it difficult to establish a new working state. Many Swiss citizens resisted these "progressive" ideas in the central areas of the country; some of the more controversial aspects of the new regime limited freedom of worship, which outraged many of the more devout citizens. Several uprisings took place, with the three Forest Cantons rebelling in early 1798; the Schwyzers, under Alois von Reding, were crushed by the French on the heights of Morgarten in April and May, as were the Unterwaldners in August and September. Due to the destruction and plundering, the Swiss soon turned against the French. After the Forest Cantons uprising, some cantons were merged, thus reducing their anti-centralist effectiveness in the legislature.
Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden toge
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. The cherry fruits of commerce are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry and the sour cherry; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized'shaker'. Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonne
Rheinfelden is a municipality in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland, seat of the district of Rheinfelden. It is located 15 kilometres east of Basel; the name means the fields of the Rhine. It is home to Feldschlösschen, the most popular beer in Switzerland; the city is across the river from Rheinfelden in Baden-Württemberg. The old town of Rheinfelden lies on the left bank of the Rhine, where the river is divided into two arms by the "Inseli", a 150 metres long island. Downstream of the Inseli and the Rheinbrücke, the river bottoms drops to about 30 m deep, creating a huge and deadly vortex, known as the St-Anna-Loch. Nearly 400 m east is the Magdenerbach; the wooded, gently-rising foothills of the Tafeljura lie south of the town. These are the "Berg", both in the south-east. Between these two hills lie the incised valleys of the Magdenerbach. Rheinfelden has an area, of 16.02 km2. Of this area, about 20.7 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 22.6% is settled and 6.7% is unproductive land.
In the 2013/18 survey a total of 213 ha or about 13.3% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 57 ha over the 1982 amount. Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 25 ha and is now about 3.43% of the total area. Of the agricultural land, 4 ha is used for orchards and vineyards, 297 ha is grasslands. Since 1982 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 104 ha. Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 6 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 108 ha in the municipality; the highest point is located on "Berg", the lowest point is on the Rhine. Neighbouring cities are Kaiseraugst to the west, Olsberg to the south-west, Magden to the south and Möhlin to the east; the area around Rheinfelden was settled in the Middle Stone Age, around 10,000 years before the present day. At that time, people lived in a small natural cave next to the current highway. In the year 45 BC, a few kilometres further west, the settlement Augusta Raurica was founded, the first Roman town in Switzerland, near modern Kaiseraugst.
In the plains at Rheinfelden was a large estate. Towards the end of the 4th century a border fort was constructed at the western settlement. Rheinfelden is first mentioned about 851 as Rifelt and in the first half of the 12th century it was called Rinfelden. In the second half of the 10th century, the entire Fricktal area—the Frick valley, a finger of land in northwestern Switzerland east of present-day Basel, between the Jura Mountains to the south, the High Rhine border with present-day Germany to the north—was within Kingdom of Burgundy. At that time, Rheinfelden was granted to the von Wetterau family, they adopted the title of Count of Rheinfelden. The Rheinfeldens built a fortress, "Stein", on the strategically located island; the last of this comital line was Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia and German antiking during the Investiture Controversy. When Rudolf died on October 15, 1080 in Merseburg, his territories were inherited by Berthold II of Zähringen.but the town went to his son Otto and his family the von Wetter's.
Berhold's second son, awarded market rights to the city, making it the oldest Zähringerstadt in Switzerland and the oldest city in the Aargau. In 1218, Berthold V died without issue. In 1225, Rheinfelden gained Reichsfreiheit to become an Imperial City. A little over a century in 1330, the city pledged itself to the Habsburgs, becoming a part of Further Austria. In 1445, when the Habsburgs were fighting the Old Zürich War, insurgents destroyed the castle on the "Inseli", due to the city's allegiance with Basel. After a siege lasting several months, Rheinfelden was returned to Austrian subjugation in 1449. After the Waldshut War from 1468, all of Fricktal Burgundy pledged to the Habsburgs. After the Burgundians were beaten by the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Burgundian Wars, Rheinfelden land, not Title, was restored to Austria in 1477. During the 17th century, there was little time during which the city enjoyed peace. During the Rappenkrieg, a peasant uprising that lasted from 1612 until 1614, the city was unsuccessfully besieged but devastated.
Between 1633 and 1638 the Thirty Years' War reached Fricktal, where Rheinfelden played an important role. On 15 July 1633, French troops devastated the city. On 5 February 1638, the city was besieged by Protestant troops under the command of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. On 28 February the Battle of Rheinfelden began, as the city was attacked by numerically-superior Imperial and Bavarian troops under the command of Johann von Werth and Federico Savelli; the Protestants withdrew. Bernhard brought them weapons, but in the second action, on 3 March, they were victorious, as he and his men unexpectedly re-appeared on the battlefield. By the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Austrians had built a fortress on the island to secure the southwestern border of the Breisgau. In 1678, F
House of Zähringen
The House of Zähringen was a dynasty of Swabian nobility. Their name is derived from Zähringen castle near Freiburg im Breisgau; the Zähringer in the 12th century used the title of Duke of Zähringen, in compensation for having conceded the title of Duke of Swabia to the Staufer in 1098. The "Duchy of Zähringen" by definition consisted of the territories and fiefs held by the Zähringer, it was not seen as a duchy in equal standing with the old stem duchies; the Zähringer attempted to expand their territories in Swabia and Burgundy into a recognized duchy, but their expansion was halted in the 1130s due to their feud with the Welfs. They were granted the special title of Rector of Burgundy in 1127, they continued to use both titles until their extinction in 1218. Pursuing their territorial ambitions, they founded numerous cities and monasteries, on either side of the Black Forest as well as in the western Swiss plateau. After their extinction, parts of their territories reverted to the crown, other parts were divided between the houses of Kyburg, Urach and Fürstenberg.
The title of "Duke of Zähringen" was revived in the 19th century by the House of Baden, which shares descent from Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia with the House of Zähringen. The earliest known ancestor of the family was one Berthold, Count in the Breisgau, first mentioned in 962. In view of his name, he may have been related to the Alemannic Ahalolfing dynasty. Berthold's great-grandson, the Berthold II, Duke of Carinthia, held several lordships in the Breisgau, in Thurgau and Baar. By his mother, he was related to the rising Hohenstaufen family. Emperor Henry III had promised his liensman Berthold the Duchy of Swabia, but this was not fulfilled, as upon Henry's death, his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Count Rudolf of Rheinfelden to the position of Duke of Swabia in 1057. In compensation, Berthold was made Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Verona in 1061. However, this dignity was only a titular one, Berthold subsequently lost it when, in the course of the Investiture Controversy, he joined the rising of his former rival Rudolf of Rheinfelden against German king Henry IV in 1073.
Berthold's son Berthold II, who like his father fought against Henry IV, inherited a lot of the lands of Rudolf's son Count Berthold of Rheinfelden in 1090. Berthold II is so named both as head of the House of Zähringen. Berthold II did use the "Zähringen" name, although he moved his main residence from Zähringen Castle to the newly-built Freiburg Castle in 1091. In 1092, Berthold II was elected Duke of Swabia against Frederick I of Hohenstaufen. In 1098, he reconciled with Frederick, renounced all claims to Swabia and instead concentrated on his possessions in the Breisgau region, assuming the title of Duke of Zähringen, he was succeeded in turn by Berthold III and Conrad. In 1127, upon the assassination of his nephew Count William III, Conrad claimed the inheritance of the County of Burgundy against Count Renaud III of Mâcon. Renaud prevailed, though he had to cede large parts of the eastern Transjuranian lands to Conrad, who thereupon was appointed by Emperor Lothair III as a "rector" of the Imperial Kingdom of Arles or Burgundy.
This office was confirmed in 1152 and held by the Zähringen dukes until 1218, hence they are sometimes called "Dukes of Burgundy", although the existing Duchy of Burgundy was not an Imperial but a French fief. Duke Berthold IV, who followed his father Conrad and founded the Swiss city of Fryburg in 1157, spent much of his time in Italy in the train of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his son and successor, Berthold V, showed his prowess by reducing the Burgundian nobles to order. This latter duke was the founder of the city of Bern, when he died in February 1218, the ducal line of the Zähringen family became extinct. Among other titles, the Zähringen family acted as Reichsvogt of the Zürichgau area. After the extinction of the ducal line in 1218, much of their extensive territory in the Breisgau and modern-day Switzerland returned to the crown, except for their allodial titles, which were divided between the counts of Urach and the counts of Kyburg, both descended from the sisters of Berthold V.
Less than fifty years the Kyburgs died out and large portions of their domains were inherited by the House of Habsburg. Bern achieved the status of a free imperial city, whereas other cities such as Fribourg-Freiburg only obtained the same status in history. Berthold I held the comital titles of Breisgau, Thurgau, as well as being reeve in Stein am Rhein; the county of Thurgau was lost in c. 1077. Berthold II, founder of the House of Zähringen proper, in 1098 received Zähringen castle and the jurisdiction over Zürich. Ownership of the county of Rheinfelden and of Burgdorf dates to c. 1198. The "rectorate" of the county of Burgundy was granted in 1127. Ownership of Burgundy was contested, Zähringer de facto rule was limited to the parts of Upper Burgundy east of the Jura and north of Lake Geneva; the territories south of Lake Geneva were conceded to the Savoy an