Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
John Robert Parker Ravenscroft, known professionally as John Peel, was an English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist. He was the longest serving of the original BBC Radio 1 DJs, broadcasting from 1967 until his death in 2004, he was one of the first broadcasters to play psychedelic rock and progressive rock records on British radio, he is acknowledged for promoting artists working in a multitude of genres including pop, dub reggae, punk rock and post-punk, electronic music and dance music, indie rock, extreme metal, British hip hop. Fellow DJ Paul Gambaccini described Peel as "the most important man in music for about a dozen years". In 2012 he was among the British cultural icons selected by artist Sir Peter Blake to appear in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover. Peel's Radio 1 shows were notable for the regular "Peel sessions", which consisted of four songs recorded by an artist live in the BBC's studios, which provided the first major national coverage to bands that would achieve great fame.
Another popular feature of his shows was the annual Festive Fifty countdown of his listeners' favourite records of the year. Peel appeared on British television as one of the presenters of Top of the Pops in the 1980s, he provided voice-over commentary for a number of BBC programmes, he became popular with the audience of BBC Radio 4 for his Home Truths programme, which ran from the 1990s, featuring unusual stories from listeners' domestic lives. John Peel was born in Heswall Cottage Hospital in Heswall near Liverpool, his father was an upper middle-class cotton merchant, he grew up in the nearby village of Burton. He was educated as a boarder at Shrewsbury School, where one of his contemporaries was future Monty Python member Michael Palin; the solitary Peel was an avid radio listener and record collector from an early age, cutting his teeth on fare offered by the American Forces Network and Radio Luxembourg. He recalled an early desire to host a radio programme of his own "so that I could play music that I heard and wanted others to hear."His housemaster, R. H. J. Brooke, whom Peel described as "extraordinarily eccentric" and "amazingly perceptive", wrote on one of his school reports, "Perhaps it's possible that John can form some kind of nightmarish career out of his enthusiasm for unlistenable records and his delight in writing long and facetious essays."In his posthumously published autobiography, Peel said that he had been raped by an older pupil while at Shrewsbury.
After finishing his National Service in 1959 in the Royal Artillery as a B2 radar operator, he worked as a mill operative at Townhead Mill in Rochdale and travelled home each weekend to Heswall on a scooter borrowed from his sister. Whilst in Rochdale during the week, he stayed in a bed-and-breakfast in the area of Milkstone Road and Drake Street and would develop long-term associations with the town as the years progressed. In 1960, aged 21, he went to the United States to work for a cotton producer who had business dealings with his father. Once this job finished, he took a number of others, including working as a travelling insurance salesman. While in Dallas, where the insurance company he worked for was based, he conversed with the presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, his running mate Lyndon B. Johnson, who were touring the city during the 1960 election campaign, took photographs of them. Following Kennedy's assassination in November 1963, Peel passed himself off as a reporter for the Liverpool Echo in order to attend the arraignment of Lee Harvey Oswald, he and a friend can be seen in the footage of the 22/23 November midnight press conference at Dallas Police Department when Oswald was paraded before the media.
He phoned in the story to the Liverpool Echo. While working for the insurance company, Peel wrote programs for punched card entry for an IBM 1410 computer, he got his first radio job, albeit unpaid, working for WRR in Dallas. There, he presented the second hour of the Monday night programme Kat's Karavan, hosted by the American singer and radio personality Jim Lowe. Following this, as Beatlemania hit the United States, Peel got a job with the Dallas radio station KLIF as the official Beatles correspondent on the strength of his connection to Liverpool, he worked for KOMA in Oklahoma City, until 1965 when he moved to KMEN in San Bernardino, using the name John Ravencroft to present the breakfast show. While in Dallas, in 1965, he married his first wife, Shirley Anne Milburn aged 15, in what Peel described as a "mutual defence pact"; the marriage was never happy and although she accompanied Peel back to Britain in 1967, they were soon separated. The divorce became final in 1973. Milburn took her own life.
Peel returned to England in early 1967 and found work with the offshore pirate radio station Radio London. He was offered the midnight-to-two shift, which developed into a programme called The Perfumed Garden, it was on "Big L" that he first adopted the name "John Peel" and established himself as a distinctive radio voice. Peel's show was an outlet for the music of the UK underground scene, he played classic blues, folk music and psychedelic rock, with an emphasis on the new music emerging from Los Angeles and San Francisco. As important as the musical content of the programme was the personal – sometimes confessional – tone of Peel's pres
Stanley Clarke is an American bassist and founding member of Return to Forever, one of the first jazz fusion bands. He has worked with musicians in many genres. Like Jaco Pastorius, Clarke gave the bass guitar a prominence. Clarke was born in Philadelphia, his mother sang opera around the house, belonged to a church choir, encouraged him to study music. He started on accordion tried violin, but he felt awkward holding such a small instrument in his big hands when he was twelve years old and over six feet tall. No one wanted the acoustic bass in the corner, so he picked it up, he took lessons on double bass at the Settlement Music School in Philadelphia, beginning with five years of classical music. He picked up bass guitar in his teens so that he could perform at parties and imitate the rock and pop bands that girls liked. Clarke attended the Philadelphia Musical Academy and after graduating moved to New York City in 1971, his recording debut was with Curtis Fuller. He worked with Joe Henderson and Pharoah Sanders in 1972 with Stan Getz, Dexter Gordon, Art Blakey, followed by Gil Evans, Mel Lewis, Horace Silver.
He intended to become the first black musician in the Philadelphia Orchestra until he met jazz pianist Chick Corea. In 1973, he and Corea founded the band Return to Forever; the first edition of Return to Forever performed Latin-oriented music. This band consisted of singer Flora Purim, her husband Airto Moreira on drums and percussion, Corea's longtime musical co-worker Joe Farrell on saxophone and flute, Clarke on bass, their first album, titled Return to Forever, was recorded for ECM Records in 1972. Their second album, Light as a Feather, was released by Polydor and included the song "Spain". After the second album, Farrell and Moreira left the group to form their own band, guitarist Bill Connors, drummer Steve Gadd and percussionist Mingo Lewis were added. Lenny White replaced Gadd and Lewis on drums and percussion, the group's third album, Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy, was rerecorded. Fusion was a combination of jazz which they helped develop in the early 1970s. Like Jaco Pastorius, Clarke was playing a new kind of music, using new techniques, giving the bass guitar a prominence it lacked.
He drew attention to the bass guitar as a solo instrument that could be melodic and dominant in addition to being part of the rhythm section. For helping to bring the bass guitar to the front of the band, Clarke cites Pastorius, Paul McCartney, Jack Bruce, Larry Graham. After Return to Forever's second album, Light as a Feather, Clarke received job offers from Bill Evans, Miles Davis, Ray Manzarek of the Doors, but he remained with Return to Forever until 1977. During the early 1980s, he toured with Corea and Return to Forever worked with Bobby Lyle, Eliane Elias, David Benoit and Michel Petrucciani, he toured in a band with Herbie Hancock and Wayne Shorter in 1991. In 1998 he founded Superband with Lenny White, Larry Carlton, Jeff Lorber. Corea produced Clarke's first solo album, Children of Forever, played keyboards on it with guitarist Pat Martino, drummer Lenny White, flautist Art Webb, vocalists Andy Bey and Dee Dee Bridgewater. Clarke played bass guitar. Clarke's second self-titled album Stanley Clarke featured Tony Williams on Drums, Bill Connors - Electric Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Jan Hammer - Synthesizer, Electric Piano, Piano.
While on tour, British guitarist Jeff Beck was performing the song "Power" from that album, this was the impetus for their meeting and Beck's introduction to Hammer. They toured together, Beck appeared on some of Clarke's albums, including Journey to Love and Modern Man; the album School Days praise he had received so far. With its memorable riff, the title song became so revered that fans called out for it during concerts. Clarke has spent much of his career outside jazz. In 1979, Ronnie Wood of the Rolling Stones formed the New Barbarians with Keith Richards. Two years Clarke and keyboardist George Duke formed the Clarke/Duke Project, which combined pop, funk, R&B, they met in 1971 in Finland. They recorded together for the first time on Clarke's album Journey to Love; the first Clark/Duke Project album contained the single "Sweet Baby". They reunited for tours during the 2000s. In 1988, Clarke and drummer Stewart Copeland of the rock band the Police formed Animal Logic with singer-songwriter Deborah Holland.
He and Copeland were friends. Copeland appeared on Clark's album Up. In 2005 Clarke toured as Trio! with Béla Fleck and Jean-Luc Ponty. Clarke and Ponty had worked in a trio with guitarist Al Di Meola in 1995 and recorded the album The Rite of Strings, they worked in a trio again in 2012 with guitarist Biréli Lagrène and two years recorded D-Stringz. In 2008, Clarke formed SMV with bassists Marcus Miller and Victor Wooten and recorded the album Thunder. In 2009 he released Jazz in the Garden, featuring the Stanley Clarke Trio with pianist Hiromi Uehara and drummer Lenny White; the following year he released the Stanley Clarke Band, with Ruslan Sirota on keyboards and Ronald Bruner, Jr. on drums.
New wave of British heavy metal
The new wave of British heavy metal was a nationwide musical movement that started in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. Journalist Geoff Barton coined the term in a May 1979 issue of the British music newspaper Sounds to describe the emergence of new heavy metal bands in the mid to late 1970s, during the period of punk rock's decline and the dominance of new wave music. Although encompassing diverse mainstream and underground styles, the music of the NWOBHM is best remembered for drawing on the heavy metal of the 1970s and infusing it with the intensity of punk rock to produce fast and aggressive songs; the DIY attitude of the new metal bands led to the spread of raw-sounding, self-produced recordings and a proliferation of independent record labels. Song lyrics were about escapist themes such as mythology, fantasy and the rock lifestyle; the NWOBHM began as an underground phenomenon growing in parallel to punk and ignored by the media.
It was only through the promotion of rock DJ Neal Kay and Sounds' campaigning that it reached the public consciousness and gained radio airplay and success in the UK. The movement involved young, white and working-class musicians and fans, who suffered the hardships brought on by rising unemployment for years after the 1973–75 recession; as a reaction to their bleak reality, they created a community separate from mainstream society to enjoy each other's company and their favourite loud music. The NWOBHM was criticised for the excessive hype generated by local media in favour of talentless musicians. Nonetheless, it generated a renewal in the genre of heavy metal music and furthered the progress of the heavy metal subculture, whose updated behavioural and visual codes were adopted by metal fans worldwide after the spread of the music to continental Europe, North America and Japan; the movement spawned a thousand heavy metal bands, but only a few survived the advent of MTV and the rise of the more commercial glam metal in the second half of the 1980s.
Among them, Iron Maiden and Def Leppard became international stars, Motörhead and Saxon had considerable success. Other groups, such as Diamond Head and Raven, remained underground, but were a major influence on the successful extreme metal subgenres of the late 1980s and 1990s. Many bands from the NWOBHM reunited in the 2000s and remained active through live performances and new studio albums. In the second half of the 1970s, the United Kingdom was in a state of social unrest and widespread poverty as a result of the ineffective social politics of both Conservative and Labour Party governments during a three-year period of economic recession; as a consequence of deindustrialization, the unemployment rate was exceptionally high among working class youth. It continued to rise in the early 1980s, peaking in February 1983; the discontent of so many people caused social unrest with frequent strikes, culminated in a series of riots. During this period, the mass of young people, deprived of the prospect of relatively low-skill jobs that were available to the previous generations, searched for different ways to earn money in the music and entertainment businesses.
The explosion of new bands and new musical styles coming from the UK in the late 1970s was a result of their efforts to make a living in the economic depression that hit the country before the governments of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The desperation and the violent reaction of a generation robbed of a safe future are well-represented by the British punk movement of 1977–1978, whose rebellion against the establishment continued diluted in the new wave and post-punk music of the 1980s; these self-proclaimed punks were politically militant, relishing their anarchic attitude and stage practices like pogo dancing. They wore short and spiked hairstyles or shaved heads with safety pins and ripped clothes, considered musical prowess unimportant as long as the music was simple and loud. However, not all working-class male youths embraced the punk movement; the UK was a cradle of the first wave of heavy metal, born at the end of the 1960s and flowered in the early 1970s. Of the many British bands that came to prominence during that period, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple achieved worldwide success and critical acclaim.
The success of the music genre called heavy rock at the time, generated a community of UK fans with strong ties to psychedelia, hippie doctrines and biker subculture. Each of these bands was in crisis in the mid-to-late 1970s: Led Zeppelin were plagued by discord and personal tragedies and had drastically reduced their activities, Black Sabbath fired their charismatic but unreliable frontman Ozzy Osbourne, Deep Purple disbanded; as a consequence, the whole movement lost much of its momentum and media interest, which were refocused on what British writer Malc Macmillan calls "the more fashionable or lucrative markets of the day" such as disco, mod revival, new wave and electronic music. Just like progressive rock acts and other mainstream music groups of the 1970s, heavy rock bands were viewed as – in the words of journalist Garry Bushell – "lumbering dinosaurs" by a music press infatuated with punk rock and new wave; some writers declared the premature demise of heavy metal altogether. The crisis of British heavy rock giants left space for the rise of other rock bands in the mid-1970s, including Queen, Budgie, Bad Company, Status Qu
Mahavishnu Orchestra were a jazz fusion band formed in New York City in 1971 by English guitarist John McLaughlin. The band underwent several line-up changes throughout its history across two stints from 1971 to 1976 and 1984 to 1987. With its first line-up consisting of musicians Billy Cobham, Jan Hammer, Jerry Goodman and Rick Laird, the band received its initial acclaims for its complex, intense music consisting of a blend of Indian classical music and psychedelic rock, their dynamic live performances between 1971 and 1973; the band's first lineup featured English guitarist "Mahavishnu" John McLaughlin, Panamanian drummer Billy Cobham, Irish bassist Rick Laird, Czechoslovakian keyboardist Jan Hammer, American violinist Jerry Goodman. McLaughlin had worked with Cobham and Goodman on his third solo album My Goal's Beyond, when he asked Cobham to become the drummer in the new jazz-rock fusion band he wished to form, he accepted; the violin was an instrument. He could not have his first choice, due to immigration problems.
After listening to various albums featuring a violinist, he hired Goodman of The Flock. Although bassist Tony Levin was the first person McLaughlin wanted to join the band, Laird had known McLaughlin for several years and accepted the invitation. Hammer was found through a mutual friendship with Miroslav Vitous of Weather Report; the group first rehearsed for one week. Their first live performance followed at The Gaslight Cafe in New York City, where they were the opening act for bluesman John Lee Hooker. McLaughlin recalled: "The first set was shaky but the second set just took off and every night it was great, they wanted to hold us over and a few days after the second week... we went into the studio". McLaughlin had specific ideas for the instrumentation of the group in keeping with his original concept of genre-blending in composition, he wanted a violinist as an integral contributor to its overall sound. As the group evolved, McLaughlin adopted what became his visual trademark — a double neck guitar which allowed for a great degree of diversity in musical textures — and Hammer became one of the first to play a Minimoog synthesizer in an ensemble, which enabled him to add more sounds and solo more alongside the guitar and the violin.
Their musical style was an original blend of genres: they combined the high-volume electrified rock sound, pioneered by Jimi Hendrix, complex rhythms in unusual time signatures that reflected McLaughlin's interest in Indian classical music as well as funk, harmonic influence from European classical music. The group's early music, represented on such albums as The Inner Mounting Flame and Birds of Fire, was instrumental. In the aforementioned two albums, the group goes from an energetic fusion of upbeat genres to serene, chamber music-like tunes, such as "A Lotus On Irish Streams," a composition for acoustic guitar and violin, "Thousand Island Park," which drops the violin and incorporates double bass. Due to the pressures of sudden fame, exhaustion and a lack of communication, the original band began to tire as 1973 continued; the stress was further exacerbated by a disastrous recording session at London's Trident Studios that found some of the players not speaking to others. Their project was never completed.
The last straw came as John McLaughlin read an interview in Crawdaddy magazine in which Jan Hammer and Jerry Goodman expressed their frustrations with John's leadership style. An effort to fix things back in New York fell through. On in the 1970s, McLaughlin stated in an interview in Gig magazine that he would like the album to come out, as he thought it was good. In its place, the live album Between Nothingness & Eternity was released featuring material from the studio album. 30 years during the beginning of a renaissance of Mahavishnu's music, the incomplete album from the failed London recording was released as The Lost Trident Sessions. After the original group dissolved, it reformed in 1974 with a new cast of musicians behind McLaughlin: Jean-Luc Ponty on violin, Gayle Moran on keyboards, Ralphe Armstrong on bass, Narada Michael Walden on percussion, Steven Kindler and Carol Shive on violin, Marcia Westbrook on viola, Phil Hirschi on cello, Steve Frankevich and Bob Knapp on brass; this "new" Mahavishnu Orchestra changed personnel between 1974's Apocalypse and Visions of the Emerald Beyond in 1975.
Apocalypse was recorded in London with the London Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Michael Tilson Thomas, with George Martin producing and Geoff Emerick engineering the sessions. The band was reduced to a four-piece for 1976's Inner Worlds, with Jean-Luc Ponty leaving after a heated disagreement about writing credits on the Visions album, Gayle Moran being replaced with Stu Goldberg. Ponty would settle over the royalties for the tracks Pegasus and Opus 1 for an undisclosed amount of money. After the dissolution of this version of the Orchestra, McLaughlin formed another group called Shakti to explore his interest in Indian music.
Peter Green (musician)
Peter Green is a British blues rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. As the founder of Fleetwood Mac, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998. Green's songs, such as "Albatross", "Black Magic Woman", "Oh Well", "The Green Manalishi" and "Man of the World", appeared on the record charts, several have been adapted by a variety of musicians. Green was a major figure in the "second great epoch" of the British blues movement. B. B. King commented, "He has the sweetest tone I heard. Eric Clapton has praised his guitar playing. Rolling Stone ranked Green at number 58 in its list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time", his tone on the instrumental "The Supernatural" was rated as one of the 50 greatest of all time by Guitar Player. In June 1996, Green was voted the third-best guitarist of all time in Mojo magazine. Peter Allen Greenbaum was born in Bethnal Green, London on 29 October 1946, he first played bass guitar in a band called Bobby Dennis and the Dominoes, which performed pop chart covers and rock'n' roll standards, including Shadows covers.
He stated that Hank Marvin was his guitar hero and he played The Shadows song Midnight on the 1996 tribute album "Twang." He went on to join a rhythm and blues outfit, the Muskrats a band called The Tridents in which he played bass. In 1966, Green played lead guitar in Peter Bardens' band "Peter B's Looners", where he met drummer Mick Fleetwood, it was with Peter B's Looners that he made his recording début with the single "If You Wanna Be Happy" with "Jodrell Blues" as a B-side. His recording of "If You Wanna Be Happy" was an instrumental cover of a song by Jimmy Soul. After three months with Bardens' group, Green had the opportunity to fill in for Eric Clapton in John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers for three concerts. Soon after, when Clapton left the Bluesbreakers, Green became a full-time member of Mayall's band. Mike Vernon, a producer at Decca Records recalls Green's début with the Bluesbreakers: As the band walked in the studio I noticed an amplifier which I never saw before, so I said to John Mayall, "Where's Eric Clapton?"
Mayall answered, "He's not with us anymore, he left us a few weeks ago." I was in a shock of state but Mayall said, "Don't worry, we got someone better." I said, "hang on a second, this is ridiculous. You've got someone better? Than Eric Clapton?" John said, "He might not be better now, but you wait, in a couple of years he's going to be the best." He introduced me to Peter Green. Green made his recording debut with the Bluesbreakers in 1966 on the album A Hard Road, which featured two of his own compositions, "The Same Way" and "The Supernatural"; the latter was one of Green's first instrumentals. So proficient was he that his musician friends bestowed upon him the nickname "The Green God". In 1967, Green left the Bluesbreakers. Green's new band, with former Bluesbreaker, Mick Fleetwood on drums and Jeremy Spencer on guitar, was called "Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac featuring Jeremy Spencer". Bob Brunning was temporarily employed on bass guitar, as Green's first choice, Bluesbreakers' bassist John McVie, was not yet ready to join the band.
Within a month they played at the Windsor National Jazz and Blues Festival in August 1967 and were signed to Mike Vernon's Blue Horizon label. Their repertoire consisted of blues covers and originals written by Green, but some were written by slide guitarist Jeremy Spencer; the band's first single, "I Believe My Time Ain't Long" with "Rambling Pony" as a B-side, did not chart but their eponymous debut album made a significant impression, remaining in the British charts for over a year. By September 1967, John McVie had replaced Brunning. Although classic blues covers and blues-styled originals remained prominent in the band's repertoire through this period, Green blossomed as a songwriter and contributed many successful original compositions from 1968 onwards; the songs chosen for single release showed Green's style moving away from the group's blues roots into new musical territory. Their second studio album Mr. Wonderful was released in 1968 and continued the formula of the first album. In the same year they scored a hit with Green's "Black Magic Woman", followed by the guitar instrumental "Albatross", which reached number one in the British singles charts.
More hits written by Green followed, including "Oh Well", "Man of the World" and the ominous "The Green Manalishi". The double album Blues Jam in Chicago was recorded at the Chess Records Ter-Mar Studio in Chicago. There, under the joint supervision of Vernon and Marshall Chess, they recorded with some of their American blues heroes including Otis Spann, Big Walter Horton, Willie Dixon, J. T. Brown and Buddy Guy. In 1969, after signing to Immediate Records for one single the group signed with Warner Bros. Records' Reprise Records label and recorded their fourth studio album Then Play On, prominently featuring the group's new third guitarist, 18-year-old Danny Kirwan. Green had first seen Kirwan in 1967 playing with his blues trio Boilerhouse, with Trevor Stevens on bass and Dave Terrey on drums. Green was impressed with Kirwan's playing and used the band as a support act for Fleetwood Mac before recruiting Kirwan to his own band in 1968 at the suggestion of Mick Fleetwood. Spencer, made no contribution to Then Play On, owing to his reported refusal to play on any of Green's original material.
Beginning with "Ma
In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a recorded, commercially released song. Before the onset of rock'n' roll in the 1950s, songs were published and several records of a song might be brought out by singers of the day, each giving it their individual treatment. Cover versions could be released as an effort to revive the song's popularity among younger generations of listeners after the popularity of the original version has long since declined over the years. On occasion, a cover can become more popular than the original, such as Elvis Presley's version of Carl Perkins' original "Blue Suede Shoes", Santana's 1970 version of Peter Green's and Fleetwood Mac's 1968 "Black Magic Woman", Johnny Cash's version of Nine Inch Nails' "Hurt", Whitney Houston's versions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Always Love You" and of George Benson's "The Greatest Love of All", Glenn Medeiros's version of George Benson's "Nothing's Gonna Change My Love for You" or Jimi Hendrix's version of Bob Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower".
The Hendrix recording, released six months after Dylan's original, became a Top 10 single in the UK in 1968 and was ranked 48th in Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. Another famous example is the Beatles' cover of "Twist and Shout" by the Top Notes, their cover of the song, "Til There Was You", by Meredith Willson, among many others; the term "cover" goes back decades when cover version described a rival version of a tune recorded to compete with the released version. The Chicago Tribune described the term in 1952: "trade jargon meaning to record a tune that looks like a potential hit on someone else's label". Examples of records covered include Paul Williams' 1949 hit tune "The Hucklebuck" and Hank Williams' 1952 song "Jambalaya". Both had numerous hit versions. Before the mid-20th century, the notion of an original version of a popular tune would have seemed odd – the production of musical entertainment was seen as a live event if it was reproduced at home via a copy of the sheet music, learned by heart or captured on a gramophone record.
In fact, one of the principal objects of publishing sheet music was to have a composition performed by as many artists as possible. In previous generations, some artists made successful careers of presenting revivals or reworkings of once-popular tunes out of doing contemporary cover versions of current hits. Musicians now play what they call "cover versions" of songs as a tribute to the original performer or group. Using familiar material is an important method of learning music styles; until the mid-1960s most albums, or long playing records, contained a large number of evergreens or standards to present a fuller range of the artist's abilities and style. Artists might perform interpretations of a favorite artist's hit tunes for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song or collection of tunes. A cover band plays such "cover versions" exclusively. Today three broad types of entertainers depend on cover versions for their principal repertoire: Tribute acts or bands are performers who make a living by recreating the music of one particular artist or band.
Bands such as Björn Again, Led Zepagain, The Fab Four, Australian Pink Floyd Show, The Iron Maidens and Glory Days are dedicated to playing the music of ABBA, Led Zeppelin, The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Iron Maiden and Bruce Springsteen respectively. Some tribute acts salute the Who, many other classic rock acts. Many tribute acts target artists who remain popular but no longer perform, allowing an audience to experience the "next best thing" to the original act; the formation of tribute acts is proportional to the enduring popularity of the original act. Many tribute bands attempt to recreate another band's music as faithfully as possible, but some such bands introduce a twist. Dread Zeppelin performs reggae versions of the Zeppelin catalog and Beatallica creates heavy metal fusions of songs by the Beatles and Metallica. There are situations in which a member of a tribute band will go on to greater success, sometimes with the original act they tribute. One notable example is Tim "Ripper" Owens who, once the lead singer of Judas Priest tribute band British Steel, went on to join Judas Priest himself.
Cover acts or bands are entertainers who perform a broad variety of crowd-pleasing cover songs for audiences who enjoy the familiarity of hit songs. Such bands draw from current Top 40 hits and/or those of previous decades to provide nostalgic entertainment in bars, on cruise ships and at such events as weddings, family celebrations and corporate functions. Since the advent of inexpensive computers, some cover bands use a computerized catalog of songs, so that the singer can have the lyrics to a song displayed on a computer screen; the use of a screen for lyrics as a memory aid can increase the number of songs a singer can perform. Revivalist artists or bands are performers who are inspired by an entire genre of music and dedicate themselves to curating and recreating the genre and introducing it to younger audiences who have not experienced that music first hand. Unlike tribute bands and cover bands who rely on audiences seeking a nostalgic experience, revivalist bands seek new young audiences for whom the music is fresh and has no nostalgic value.
For example, Sha Na Na