Lawrence Gene David is an American comedian, actor and television producer. He and Jerry Seinfeld created the television series Seinfeld, of which David was the head writer and executive producer from 1989 to 1997. David has subsequently gained further recognition for the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm, which he created, in which he stars as a semi-fictionalized version of himself. David's work won him a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1993. A stand-up comedian, David went into television comedy and starring in ABC's Fridays, as well as writing for Saturday Night Live, he has won two Primetime Emmy Awards, was voted by fellow comedians and comedy insiders as the 23rd greatest comedy star in a 2004 British poll to select "The Comedian's Comedian". David was born in Brooklyn, New York, his parents are Rose and Mortimer Julius "Morty" David, a men's clothing manufacturer, he has an older brother named Ken. David's family is Jewish, his father's side moved from Germany to the U.
S. during the 19th century, while David's mother was born in Ternopil Austrian Galicia, now in Ukraine. David graduated from Sheepshead Bay High School, from the University of Maryland, College Park, where he was a brother in Tau Epsilon Phi in the 1960s, with a bachelor's degree in history, it was while at college that David started developing his take on things and discovered that he could make people laugh by being himself. After college, David enlisted in the United States Army Reserve. While a stand-up comedian, Larry David worked as a store clerk, limousine driver, historian, he lived in Manhattan Plaza, a federally subsidized housing complex in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan, across the hall from Kenny Kramer, the inspiration for the Cosmo Kramer character in Seinfeld. David became a writer for and cast member of ABC's Fridays from 1980 to 1982, a writer for NBC's Saturday Night Live from 1984 to 1985. During his time at SNL, he was able to get only one sketch on the show, which aired at 12:50 AM, the last time slot on the show.
David quit his writing job at SNL in the first season, only to show up to work two days acting as though nothing had happened. That event inspired a second-season episode of Seinfeld entitled "The Revenge". David met his future Seinfeld stars during that early stage of his career: he worked with Michael Richards on Fridays and with Julia Louis-Dreyfus on SNL, he can be heard heckling Michael McKean when McKean hosted SNL in 1984, he can be seen in the sketch "The Run and Catch Like a Girl Olympics" when Howard Cosell hosted the season finale in 1985. In 1989 David teamed up with comedian Jerry Seinfeld to create a pilot for NBC called The Seinfeld Chronicles, which became the basis for Seinfeld, one of the most successful shows in history, reaching the top of TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest TV shows of all time. Entertainment Weekly ranked it the third-best TV show of all time. David made occasional uncredited appearances on the show, playing such roles as Frank Costanza's cape-wearing lawyer and the voice of George Steinbrenner.
He was the primary inspiration for the show's character George Costanza. David left Seinfeld on friendly terms after the seventh season but returned to write the series finale in 1998, two years later, he continued to provide the voice for the Steinbrenner character. David wrote 62 of the episodes of Seinfeld, including 1992's "The Contest", for which he won a Primetime Emmy Award and which TV Guide ranked the episode No. 1 on its list of "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time". Syndication of Seinfeld earned David an estimated $250 million in 1998 alone; this amount has been decreasing each year, but payments will continue until the full $1.7 billion from the original syndication deal has been paid. In 2008 David made $55 million from Seinfeld syndication, DVD sales, Curb Your Enthusiasm, he was nominated for an Emmy award 19 times for Seinfeld, winning twice – once for best comedy and once for writing. The HBO cable television channel aired David's 1-hour special, Larry David: Curb Your Enthusiasm, on October 17, 1999.
This was followed by Curb Your Enthusiasm, a television series on HBO that aired its first episode on October 15, 2000. The show revisits many of the themes of Seinfeld, is improvised from a story outline only several pages long that David writes; the actors improvise their dialogue based on the story outline and their own creativity. David has said that his character in the show, a fictionalized version of himself, is what he would be like in real life if he lacked social awareness and sensitivity; the character's numerous and frequent social faux pas, misunderstandings, ironic coincidences are the basis of much of the show's comedy and have led to the entry into the American pop culture lexicon of the expression "Larry David moment", meaning an inadvertently created awkward situation. The basis of the show is the events in David's life following the fortune he earned from the Seinfeld series. Alongside David is his wife Cheryl, his manager and best friend Jeff, Jeff's wife Susie. Celebrities, including comedians Bob Einstein, Wanda Sykes, Richard Lewis, appear on the show regularly.
Actors Ted Danson and Mary Steenburgen have had recurring roles as themselves. The show is critically acclaimed and has been nominated for 30 Primetime Emmy Awards, with one win, as well as one Golden Globe win. In the first six seasons, Julia Louis-Dreyfus and Jason Alex
Palestine Liberation Organization
The Palestine Liberation Organization is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974; the PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization until the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1993, the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, rejected "violence and terrorism". In response, Israel recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people. However, the PLO has employed violence in the years since 1993 during the 2000–2005 Second Intifada. On 29 October 2018, the Palestinian Central Council suspended the recognition of Israel and halted security and economic coordination in all its forms with it.
At its first summit meeting in Cairo in 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people. The Palestinian National Council convened in Jerusalem on 28 May 1964. Concluding this meeting the PLO was founded on 2 June 1964, its stated goal was the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle. The ideology of the PLO was formulated in the founding year 1964 in the Palestinian National Covenant; the document is a combative anti-Zionist statement dedicated to the "restoration of the Palestinian homeland". It has no reference to religion. In 1968, the Charter was replaced by a comprehensively revised version; until 1993, the only promoted option was armed struggle. From the signing of the Oslo Accords and diplomacy became the only official policy. In April 1996, a large number of articles, which were inconsistent with the Oslo Accords, were wholly or nullified. At the core of the PLO's ideology is the belief that Zionists had unjustly expelled the Palestinians from Palestine and established a Jewish state in place under the pretext of having historic and Jewish ties with Palestine.
The PLO demanded. This is expressed in the National Covenant: Article 2 of the Charter states that ″Palestine, with the boundaries it had during the British mandate, is an indivisible territorial unit″, meaning that there is no place for a Jewish state; this article was adapted in 1996 to meet the Oslo Accords. Article 20 states: ″The Balfour Declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, everything, based upon them, are deemed null and void. Claims of historical or religious ties of Jews with Palestine are incompatible with the facts of history and the true conception of what constitutes statehood. Judaism, being a religion, is not an independent nationality. Nor do Jews constitute a single nation with an identity of its own; this article was nullified in 1996. Article 3 reads: ″The Palestinian Arab people possess the legal right to their homeland and have the right to determine their destiny after achieving the liberation of their country in accordance with their wishes and of their own accord and will″.
The PLO has always labelled the Palestinian people as Arabs. This was a natural consequence of the fact, it has a tactical element, as to keep the backing of Arab states. Over the years, the Arab identity remained the stated nature of the Palestinian State, it is a reference to the ″Arab State″ envisioned in the UN Partition Plan. The PLO and its dominating faction Fatah are contrasted to more religious orientated factions like Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. All, represent a predominant Muslim population; the whole population of the Territories is Muslim, most of them Sunni. Only some 50,000 of the 4.6 million Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories are Palestinian Christian. The National Charter has no reference to religion. Under President Arafat, the Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority adopted the 2003 Amended Basic Law, which stipulates Islam as the sole official religion in Palestine and the principles of Islamic sharia as a principal source of legislation; the draft Constitution, which never materialized, contains the same provisions.
At the time, the Palestine Legislative Council, the unicameral legislature of the Palestinian Authority, elected by the Palestinian residents of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, did not include a single Hamas member. The draft Constitution was formulated by the ″Constitutional Committee″, appointed with the approval of the PLO; the PLO incorporates a range of secular ideologies of different Palestinian movements "committed to the struggle for Palestinian independence and liberation," hence the name of the organization. It formally is an umbrella organization that includes "numerous organizations of the resistance movement, political parties, popular organizations." From the beginning, the PLO was designed as a government in exile, with a parliament, the Palestine National Council, chosen by the Palestinian people, as the highest authority in the PLO, an executive government, elected by the PNC. In practice, the organization was rather a hierarchic one with a military-like character, needed for its function as liberation organization, the "liberation of Palestine".
Beside a Palestinian National Charter, which describes the ideology of the PLO, a constitution, named "Fundamental Law", was adopted, which dictates the inner structure of the organization and the r
Duncan "Dick" Ebersol is an American television executive and a senior adviser for NBC Universal Sports & Olympics. He had been the chairman of NBC Sports, producing large-scale television events such as the Olympic Games and National Football League broadcasts. Ebersol was born in Torrington, the son of Mary and Charles Roberts Ebersol, a former chairman of the American Cancer Society, he and Josiah Bunting III are half-brothers. In 1967, at the age of twenty, Ebersol began his long history with the Olympics when he temporarily dropped out of Yale University to join Roone Arledge and ABC Sports as television's first-ever Olympic researcher. In 1974, he joined NBC as Director of Weekend Late Night Programming. In 1975 Ebersol and Lorne Michaels developed Saturday Night Live. Named as Vice President of Late Night Programming at age 28, Ebersol became NBC's first vice president under the age of 30. After a brief departure, he returned to SNL in 1981 as executive producer and remained until 1985, spanning the Eddie Murphy and Billy Crystal eras.
In 1983, Ebersol formed No Sleep Productions, an independent production company that created Emmy Award-winning NBC shows Friday Night Videos and Later with Bob Costas. Together with Vince McMahon, Ebersol produced Saturday Night's Main Event; when Ebersol left SNL in 1985, he devoted his time to his production company until rejoining NBC in 1989. He served as senior vice president of NBC News. Ebersol became president of NBC Sports in 1989, was promoted to Chairman, NBC Sports & Olympics in June 1998, he served as executive producer for the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, his first Olympics since Munich in 1972 for ABC. Ebersol's early tenure at NBC Sports was highlighted by a string of sports-property acquisitions and renewals, including the NFL, NBA, Notre Dame football and MLB, through the formation of the joint-venture Baseball Network. During the 1995–96 television season, for the only time in history, the World Series, Super Bowl, NBA Finals and Summer Olympics were telecast by the same network.
It was following this run in 1996 that The Sporting News named Ebersol the "Most Powerful Person in Sports." By January 1998, NBC had become the home of four Super Bowls in six years. In 1993, he secured the rights to the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympics. In August 1995, he acquired the rights for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney and the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, it marked the first time. That same year, he spearheaded NBC Sports' acquisition of the exclusive media rights for the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics, the 2006 Winter Olympics; the agreements marked the first time that the same network had been awarded the rights to five consecutive Olympics. In 2003, Ebersol led NBC to acquire the exclusive U. S. media rights to the 2010 Winter Games and the 2012 Summer Olympics. In December 2003, Ebersol agreed to a nine-year contract to continue running NBC Sports & Olympics through 2012, he assumed the title as Chairman of NBC Universal Sports & Olympics in May 2004 when NBC and Universal merged.
Ebersol produced: the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 the Vancouver Olympic Winter Games in 2010 Super Bowl XLIII in February 2009 produced, at the time, the largest-single audience in U. S. television history with a record 152 million viewers. It is the second-most viewed program of all time; the Super Bowl milestone was made possible in 2005 when Ebersol spearheaded the effort to return the NFL to NBC by negotiating a six-year agreement that included moving the NFL primetime broadcast package from Monday night to Sunday night, flexible scheduling for the first time and Super Bowls in 2009 and 2012On May 19, 2011, Ebersol resigned from NBC Sports. The New York Times stated that he intended to stay at NBC through the end of June 2011, it was reported that Ebersol would return to NBC Sports in time for the beginning of the 2011 NFL season to serve in a senior adviser role. As of 2018, Ebersol serves on the Board of Directors of the Alliance of American Football, a professional American football league co-founded by his son Charlie and Bill Polian.
Ebersol has been in the top 10 honorees on The Sporting News' annual list of the 100 most powerful sports figures, including in 1996 when he was named the Most Powerful Person in Sports. In 1992, Ebersol was awarded the Olympic Order, an honor periodically bestowed by the International Olympic Committee to recognize remarkable contributions to the Olympic Movement. In 2005, Ebersol was inducted into both the U. S. Olympic Hall of Fame and the Broadcasting & Cable Hall of Fame. In 2008, NBC won the Peabody Award for its coverage of the Beijing Opening Ceremony along with Chinese film director Zhang Yimou, who served as the event's creative director. At the 2009 SportsBusiness Journal awards ceremony, Ebersol won Sports Executive of the Year and NBC Sports won Best in Sports Television. On April 27, 2009, the six "Commissioners of American Sport" – Roger Goodell, David Stern, Bud Selig, Gary Bettman, Tim Finchem and Brian France – were part of a presentation that concluded with Muhammad Ali awarding Ebersol the Emmy Award for Lifetime Achievement from the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.
In May 2010, Ebersol was the commencement speaker at Sacred Heart University for its graduating class of 2010. He was presented with a Doctor of Humane Letters by University President Anthony J. Cernera. Ebersol is the 2014 recipient of the Paul White Award, the highest award presented by the Radio Television Digital News Association. Ebersol was previou
Karen Jane Allen is an American film and stage actress. After making her film debut in Animal House, she became best known for her portrayal of Marion Ravenwood opposite Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark, a role she reprised for Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, she co-starred in Starman and Scrooged. Her stage work has included performances on Broadway. Allen was born in Naperville, Illinois, to Ruth Patricia, a university professor, Carroll Thompson Allen, an FBI agent, she is of English, Irish and Welsh descent. Her father's job forced the family to move often. "I grew up moving every year and so I was always the new kid in school and always in a way was deprived of really having any lasting friendships", Allen said in 1987. Although Allen says her father was much involved in the family, she felt that she and her two sisters grew up in a female-dominated household. After she graduated from DuVal High School, in Lanham, Maryland, at 17, she moved to New York City to study art and design at Fashion Institute of Technology for two years.
Allen ran a boutique on the University of Maryland campus and spent time traveling through South and Central Asia. She attended George Washington University and began to study and perform with the experimental company, The Washington Theatre Laboratory, in Washington, D. C. In 1974, Allen joined Company in Massachusetts. Three years she moved back to New York City and studied at the Lee Strasberg Theater Institute. Allen made her major film debut in National Lampoon's Animal House, her next two film appearances were in The Wanderers, in 1979, A Small Circle of Friends in 1980, where she played one of three radical college students during the 1960s. She appeared in the 1979 pilot episode of the long-running CBS series Knots Landing and played Annie Fairgate, the daughter of Don Murray's character Sid Fairgate and Sid's first wife Susan Philby, her career-changing role came with the blockbuster hit Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg, in which she played the feisty heroine Marion Ravenwood, love interest of Indiana Jones.
Allen won a Saturn Award for Best Actress for her performance. After a few minor films, including leading roles in the dramatic thriller Split Image, directed by Ted Kotcheff and the Paris-set romantic drama Until September, directed by Richard Marquand as well as other stage appearances, she co-starred with Jeff Bridges in the science fiction film Starman. Allen debuted on Broadway in the 1982 production The Monday After The Miracle. In 1983, she played the lead in the off-Broadway play Extremities, a physically demanding role about a woman who turns the tables on a would-be rapist who attacks her, she took breaks from movie roles to concentrate on stage acting. In 1988, Allen returned to the big screen as Bill Murray's long-lost love, Claire, in the Christmas comedy Scrooged. In 1990, she portrayed the doomed crew member Christa McAuliffe in the television movie Challenger, based on the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Subsequently, she appeared in Spike Lee's Malcolm X, in a small supporting role in The Perfect Storm and In the Bedroom.
She made guest appearances on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. She starred in the short-lived series The Road Home and portrayed Dr. Clare Burton in the video game Ripper. In 2014 she played the role of Betty Lowe in "Unfinished Business" the 13th episode of the 4th season of the CBS police procedural drama Blue Bloods. Allen reprised her best-known role as Marion Ravenwood for the 2008 sequel Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, in which she renews her relationship with Indiana Jones and reveals to him that they have a son named Henry Jones III, who named himself Mutt Williams, played by Shia LaBeouf. Allen starred in the American premiere of Jon Fosse's A Summer Day at the Cherry Lane Theater in New York City, which opened in October 2012. Allen has a long-standing relationship with the Berkshire Theater Group, it began in 1981, when she appeared in the play Two for the Seesaw at the Berkshire Theater Festival in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. She has appeared in summer production of the nearby Williamstown Theater Festival.
In August 2015, Allen directed Terrence McNally's Frankie and Johnny in the Clair de Lune for the Berkshire Theater Group. In 2016, Allen made her movie directing debut with A Tree. A Rock. A Cloud. based on the short story by Carson McCullers. It won the Best International Short at the Manchester Film Festival in March 2017. Allen played the lead role in 2017's A Year by the Sea, a film based on The New York Times bestselling memoir by Joan Anderson. In 1988, Allen married actor Kale Browne and had a son, Nicholas, in 1990; the couple divorced in 1998. Following the birth of her son, Allen accepted smaller roles in TV and films to concentrate on raising Nicholas. Nicholas went on to become a personal chef and win a Chopped competition on the Food Network, aired December 22, 2016, she developed an affinity for knitting, in 2003, started her own textile company, Karen Allen Fiber Arts, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. The company sells items. For her work in the textile arts, she was awarded an honorary master's degree from The Fashion Institute of Technology in 2009.
Allen teaches acting at Bard College at Simon's Rock, located in Great Barrington. She lives in Massachus
Mark Richard Hamill is an American actor, voice actor, writer. Hamill is known for playing Luke Skywalker in the Star Wars films, which won him the Saturn Award for Best Actor twice, he is known for his voice acting in animation and video games for his portrayal of the Joker, beginning with Batman: The Animated Series in 1992. Hamill was born in Oakland, California, to Virginia Suzanne and U. S. Navy Captain William Thomas Hamill, he is one of seven children, having two brothers and Patrick, four sisters, Jan and Kim. His father has English, Scottish and Welsh ancestry and his mother was of half Swedish and half English descent, his father's changes of station and attendant family moves led to the Hamill children changing schools often. In his elementary years, he went to Poe Middle School. At age 11, he moved to the 5900 block of Castleton Drive in San Diego, where he attended Hale Junior High School. During his first year at James Madison High School, his family moved to Virginia, Hamill attended Annandale High School.
By his junior year, his father was stationed in Japan, where Hamill attended and was a member of the Drama Club at Nile C. Kinnick High School, from which he graduated in 1969, he enrolled at Los Angeles City College, majoring in drama. Hamill has described his father as a staunch Roman Catholic, "Nixon Republican". Hamill's early career included a recurring role on the soap opera General Hospital, a starring role on the short-lived sitcom The Texas Wheelers, he portrayed the oldest son, David, in the pilot episode of Eight Is Enough, though the role was performed by Grant Goodeve. He had guest appearances on The Bill Cosby Show, The Partridge Family, Room 222 and One Day at a Time, he appeared in multiple television films such as The City, Sarah T. - Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic. Robert Englund was auditioning for a role in Apocalypse Now when he walked across the hall where auditions were taking place for George Lucas's Star Wars. After watching the auditions for a while, he realized that Hamill, his friend, would be perfect for the role of Luke Skywalker.
He suggested to Hamill. Released in May 1977, Star Wars was an enormous, unexpected success and had a huge effect on the film industry. Hamill appeared in the Star Wars Holiday Special in 1978 and starred in the successful sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. During the time between the first two films, Hamill was involved in a serious automobile accident, fracturing his nose and left cheekbone. False rumors spread. For both of the sequels, Hamill was honored with the Saturn Award for Best Actor given by the Academy of Science Fiction and Horror Films. Hamill reprised the role of Luke Skywalker for the radio dramatizations of both Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back. For the Return of the Jedi radio drama, the role was played by a different actor. Editions of Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces issued after the release of Star Wars in 1977 used the image of Hamill as Luke Skywalker on the cover. Hamill returned to the Star Wars universe in 2014, when he voiced the ancient Sith Lord Darth Bane, in the final episode of the animated series The Clone Wars.
He was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for his performance. With the acquisition of Lucasfilm by The Walt Disney Company, a Disney press release was announced that there would be more Star Wars films starting with Star Wars: The Force Awakens, released on December 18, 2015. Hamill appeared in Star Wars: The Force Awakens. Both Disney and Hamill were coy about whether Hamill would be a cast member of The Force Awakens. In September 2013, Englund and long-time friend of Hamill, said that Hamill was working out in the gym. Englund stated, "Mark now – they've got Mark in the gym because Mark's coming back as Luke Skywalker. They've got him doing his sit-ups." It was reported that both Hamill and Fisher had been assigned nutritionists and personal trainers to work with ahead of production. Hamill played Skywalker again in Star Wars: The Last Jedi, released on December 15, 2017. Hamill was critical of his own role in The Last Jedi, stating that he and director Rian Johnson had "a fundamental difference" on the characterization of Luke Skywalker.
Hamill is set to reprise his role as Skywalker in Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker. After the success of Star Wars, Hamill found that audiences identified him closely with the role of Luke Skywalker, after which he became a teen idol and appeared on teen magazine covers such as Tiger Beat and others, he attempted to avoid typecasting by appearing in the 1978 film Corvette Summer and the better-known 1980 World War II film The Big Red One. In 1980, he made a guest appearance on The Muppet Show, both as himself and as Luke Skywalker in The Stars of Star Wars. Other film appearances around this time include The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia in 1981 and Britannia Hospital in 1982. To further distance himself from his early blockbuster role, Hamill started acting on Broadway, starring in plays such as The Elephant Man in 1979, Amadeus in 1983, Harrigan'N Hart in 1985, Room Service in 1986 and The Nerd in 1987–88; when Amadeus was adapted to film in 1984, Hamill auditioned to reprise the role for the big screen but lost the part to Tom Hulce.
A studio executive told the producers of the film, "I don't want Luke Skywalker in this film". He made television
Valerie Anne Bertinelli is an American actress and television personality. She is known for her roles as Barbara Cooper Royer on the sitcom One Day at a Time, Gloria on the religious drama series Touched by an Angel and Melanie Moretti on the sitcom Hot in Cleveland. Since 2015, she has hosted the cooking shows Valerie's Home Cooking and Kids Baking Championship on Food Network. Bertinelli was born in Wilmington, Delaware to Nancy and Andrew Bertinelli, a General Motors executive, her father is of Italian descent and her mother is of English descent. She has three brothers: David and Drew, she had an elder brother, who died at 17 months from an accidental poisoning before she was born. Because of her father's career, the family moved. Over various periods, they lived in Delaware, she attended Granada Hills High School. She was raised Roman Catholic. Following her appearance in an episode of Apple's Way, Bertinelli was approached by producer Norman Lear to audition for the role of cooperative daughter Barbara Cooper in a new sitcom called One Day at a Time.
The show debuted in late 1975. She appeared in 208 of the 209 episodes before the show left the air on May 28, 1984. In the 2005 One Day at a Time Reunion Special, Bertinelli was reunited with fellow cast members Bonnie Franklin, Mackenzie Phillips and Pat Harrington, Jr. to watch memorable clips from the original show's nine seasons. They talked about actors who had left the show as well as Phillips' drug problem, which had wreaked havoc on the set and caused Phillips to be fired from the show. After the run of One Day at a Time, Bertinelli starred in several made-for-TV movies and miniseries, as well as making many guest appearances on various television shows. In the 1990s, she starred in two short-lived sitcoms: Sydney, as the title character, a private detective, Café Americain. In 2001, Bertinelli joined the cast of Touched by an Angel for the show's last two seasons. From 2010 to 2015, she starred in the TV Land sitcom Hot in Cleveland, alongside Betty White, Wendie Malick and Jane Leeves.
After a successful six-season run, the show's final episode aired on June 3, 2015. Bertinelli, who has struggled with her weight, lost a total of 50 lb as of March 2009, became a spokesperson for the Jenny Craig weight-loss program, she appeared in several Jenny Craig commercials. Although Bertinelli is compensated for her Jenny Craig appearances, she considers herself a health and weight-loss activist rather than a hired weight-loss spokesperson. In 2008 she released the autobiography Losing It: And Gaining My Life Back One Pound at a Time, which culminates in a description of her Jenny Craig experience. In 2009 she wrote a follow-up book Finding It: And Satisfying My Hunger for Life Without Opening the Fridge. In 2015, Bertinelli began hosting two shows, Valerie's Home Cooking and Kids Baking Championship with cake artist Duff Goldman on the Food Network; the kids show follows young children as they bake other desserts. On August 22, 2012, Bertinelli received the 2,476th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Bertinelli married Eddie Van Halen on April 11, 1981. They have Wolfgang; the couple separated in 2001 and divorced on December 20, 2007. In her autobiography, Bertinelli indicated the main reasons for her divorce were her husband's cocaine addiction and his refusal to quit smoking despite being diagnosed with oral cancer and losing one-third of his tongue in the treatment process. In May 2010, Bertinelli announced her engagement to financial planner Tom Vitale, with whom she had begun a relationship in 2004, they were married on January 1, 2011 in Malibu, with Bertinelli in a custom-made dress by designer David Meister. Both her ex-husband and her son, Wolfgang Van Halen, attended the wedding. Bertinelli ran in the April 2010 Boston Marathon to benefit the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, completing it in a time of 5:14:37. In 2014, she appeared on Who Do You Think You Are? and found she was related to King Edward I of England. Dye, David. Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914–1985.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. 1988, p. 18. Official website Valerie Bertinelli on IMDb Valerie Bertinelli at AllMovie
Masterpiece, magnum opus or chef-d’œuvre in modern use is a creation, given much critical praise one, considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, profundity, or workmanship. A "masterpiece" was a work of a high standard produced to obtain membership of a guild or academy in various areas of the visual arts and crafts; the form masterstik is recorded in English or Scots in a set of Aberdeen guild regulations dated to 1579, whereas "masterpiece" is first found in 1605 outside a guild context, in a Ben Jonson play. "Masterprize" was another early variant in English. In English, the term became used in a variety of contexts for an exceptionally good piece of creative work, was "in early use applied to man as the'masterpiece' of God or Nature"; the term masterpiece referred to a piece of work produced by an apprentice or journeyman aspiring to become a master craftsman in the old European guild system. His fitness to qualify for guild membership was judged by the masterpiece, if he was successful, the piece was retained by the guild.
Great care was therefore taken to produce a fine piece in whatever the craft was, whether confectionery, goldsmithing, leatherworking, or many other trades. In London, in the 17th century, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, for instance, required an apprentice to produce a masterpiece under their supervision at a "workhouse" in Goldsmiths' Hall; the workhouse had been set up as part of a tightening of standards after the company became concerned that the level of skill of goldsmithing was being diluted. The wardens of the company had complained in 1607 that the "true practise of the Art & Mystery of Goldsmithry is not only grown into great decays but dispersed into many parts, so as now few workmen are able to finish & perfect a piece of plate singularly with all the garnishings & parts thereof without the help of many & several hands...". The same goldsmithing organization still requires the production of a masterpiece but it is no longer produced under supervision. In Nuremberg, between 1531 and 1572, apprentices who wished to become master goldsmith were required to produce columbine cups, dice for a steel seal, gold rings set with precious stones before they could be admitted to the goldsmiths' guild.
If they failed to be admitted they could continue to work for other goldsmiths but not as a master themselves. In some guilds, apprentices were not allowed to marry. In its original meaning the term was restricted to tangible objects, but in some cases, where guilds covered the creators of intangible products, the same system was used; the best-known example today is Richard Wagner's opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, where much of the plot is concerned with the hero's composition and performance of a "masterpiece" song, to allow him to become a meistersinger in the Nuremberg guild. This follows the surviving rulebook of the guild; the practice of producing a masterpiece has continued in some modern academies of art, where the general term for such works is now reception piece. The Royal Academy in London uses the term "diploma work" and it has acquired a fine collection of diploma works received as a condition of membership. In modern use, a masterpiece is a creation in any area of the arts, given much critical praise one, considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, profundity, or workmanship.
For example, the novel David Copperfield is considered by many as a masterpiece written by author Charles Dickens. Artistic merit Classic Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Painting the Century: 101 Portrait Masterpieces 1900–2000 Virtual Collection of Masterpieces Western canon Masterpieces at the Louvre