Butzbach is a town in the Wetteraukreis district in Hessen, Germany. It is located 16 km south of Gießen and 35 km north of Frankfurt am Main. In 2007, the town hosted the 47th Hessentag state festival from 1 to 10 June; the "Landgrafenschloss", used by the United States Army until 1990, is now utilized by the city council. The so-called "Roman Way Housing" of the United States Army with more than 1000 apartments was returned to the German Government in October 2007 and since has been renovated and rented out to the public; the town's market place is enclosed by timber framing. The "Schrenzer" hill overlooks the town and the country north of Frankfurt, called Wetterau. Another much higher mountain nearby is the Hausberg. Butzbach consists of the boroughs Bodenrod, Ebersgöns, Fauerbach vor der Höhe, Hausen-Oes, Hoch-Weisel, Kirch-Göns, Maibach, Münster, Nieder-Weisel, Pohl-Göns and Wiesental. Collecchio, Italy – since 2012 Eilenburg, Germany – since 1990 Saint-Cyr-l'École, France – since 2008 Teplá, Czech Republic Linden, New Jersey Gabriel Biel late medieval theologian and longtime Propst of the Brothers of the Common Life in Butzbach Johann Jakob Griesbach professor for the New Testament in Jena since 1775 and is regarded as one of the fathers of the New Testament text critique.
Born in Oberkleen Friedrich Ludwig Weidig worked 22 years as teacher and rector of the school in Butzbach Lorenz Diefenbach librarian, Germanist and writer Friedrich Schwally German orientalist. Ernst Glaeser writer who used among others the pseudonyms Anton Ditschler, Erich Meschede, Alexander Ruppel Born in Nieder-Weisel, Peter Krick was a three-figure German champion in figure skating Dieter Enders is a German chemist and expert in the field of asymmetric synthesis Siegfried Zielinski, media scientist and university lecturer Ron Gardenhire, former Major League Baseball manager for the Minnesota Twins Official website Town museum website English description
The Vogelsbergkreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany. Neighbouring districts are Schwalm-Eder, Hersfeld-Rotenburg, Main-Kinzig, Gießen and Marburg-Biedenkopf; the district was created in 1972 by merging the former districts Lauterbach. The main feature of the district is the Vogelsberg, an extinct volcano, last active 7 million years ago. Official website Website of the district administration Touristic website
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
Wölfersheim is a municipality in the Wetteraukreis in Hessen, Germany. It is located 34 kilometers north of Frankfurt am Main; the municipality consists of 5 districts: Wölfersheim Södel Melbach Berstadt Wohnbach There was a small Jewish community in Wolfersheim since at least 1700. On Kristallnacht, the night of broken glass, the Jews of the town were brutally attacked by thugs, their legal documents were destroyed and some were sent to the concentration camps where they perished at the hands of the Nazis. The Jewish cemetery still stands today though there are no Jews left in the town
Christian Democratic Union of Germany
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian-democratic, liberal-conservative political party in Germany. It is the major catch-all party of the centre-right in German politics; the CDU forms the CDU/CSU grouping known as the Union, in the Bundestag with its Bavarian counterpart the Christian Social Union in Bavaria. The party is considered an effective successor of the Centre Party, although it has a broader base; the leader of the CDU is Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer. She is the successor of the former party leader Angela Merkel, the current Chancellor of Germany; the CDU is a member of the Centrist Democrat International, International Democrat Union and European People's Party. Following the collapse of the Nazi dictatorship at the end of World War II, the need for a new political order in Germany was paramount. Simultaneous yet unrelated meetings began occurring throughout Germany, each with the intention of planning a Christian-democratic party; the CDU was established in Berlin on 26 June 1945 and in Rheinland and Westfalen in September of the same year.
The founding members of the CDU consisted of former members of the Centre Party, the German Democratic Party, the German National People's Party and the German People's Party. Many of these individuals, including CDU-Berlin founder Andreas Hermes, were imprisoned for the involvement in the German Resistance during the Nazi dictatorship. In the Cold War years after World War II up to the 1960s, the CDU attracted conservative, anti-communist former Nazis and Nazi collaborators into its higher ranks. A prominent anti-Nazi member was theologian Eugen Gerstenmaier, who became Acting Chairman of the Foreign Board. One of the lessons learned from the failure of the Weimar Republic was that disunity among the democratic parties allowed for the rise of the Nazi Party, it was therefore crucial to create a unified party of Christian democrats—a Christian Democratic Union. The result of these meetings was the establishment of an interconfessional party influenced by the political tradition of liberal conservatism.
The CDU experienced considerable success gaining support from the time of its creation in Berlin on 26 June 1945 until its first convention on 21 October 1950, at which Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was named the first Chairman of the party. In the beginning, it was not clear which party would be favored by the victors of World War II, but by the end of the 1940s the governments of the United States and of Britain began to lean toward the CDU and away from the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the latter was more nationalist and sought German reunification at the expense of concessions to the Soviet Union, depicting Adenauer as an instrument of both the Americans and the Vatican. The Western powers appreciated the CDU's moderation, its economic flexibility and its value as an oppositional force to the communists which appealed to European voters at the time. Adenauer was trusted by the British; the party was split over issues of rearmament within the Western alliance and German unification as a neutral state.
Adenauer staunchly outmanoeuvred some of his opponents. He refused to consider the SPD as a party of the coalition until he felt sure that they shared his anti-communist position; the principled rejection of a reunification that would alienate Germany from the Western alliance made it harder to attract Protestant voters to the party as most refugees from the former German territories east of the Oder were of that faith as were the majority of the inhabitants of East Germany. The CDU was the dominant party for the first two decades following the establishment of West Germany in 1949. Adenauer remained the party's leader until 1963, at which point the former minister of economics Ludwig Erhard replaced him; as the Free Democratic Party withdrew from the governing coalition in 1966 due to disagreements over fiscal and economic policy, Erhard was forced to resign. A grand coalition with the SPD took over government under CDU Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger; the SPD gained popularity and succeeded in forming a social-liberal coalition with the FDP following the 1969 federal election, forcing the CDU out of power for the first time in their history.
The CDU continued its role as opposition until 1982, when the FDP's withdrawal from the coalition with the SPD allowed the CDU to regain power. CDU Chairman Helmut Kohl became the new Chancellor of West Germany and his CDU–FDP coalition was confirmed in the 1983 federal election. Public support for the coalition's work in the process of German reunification was reiterated in the 1990 federal election in which the CDU–FDP governing coalition experienced a clear victory. After the collapse of the East German government in 1989, Kohl—supported by the governments of the United States and reluctantly by those of France and the United Kingdom—called for German reunification. On 3 October 1990, the government of East Germany was abolished and its territory acceded to the scope of the Basic Law in place in West Germany; the East German CDU merged with its West German counterpart and elections were held for the reunified country. Although Kohl was re-elected, the party began losing much of its popularity because of an economic recession in the former GDR and increased taxes in the west.
The CDU was nonetheless able to win the 1994 federal election by a narrow margin due to an economic recovery. Kohl served as chairman until the party's electoral defeat in 1998, when he was su
Friedberg is a town and the capital of the Wetteraukreis district, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 16 miles north of Frankfurt am Main. In 1966, the town hosted the sixth Hessentag state festival, in 1979 the 19th; the town consists of 7 districts: Bruchenbrücken Friedberg Dorheim Ockstadt Bauernheim Fauerbach Ossenheim The old city was refounded by the Hohenstaufen dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, conveniently located at important trading routes. The city rivaled Frankfurt am Main economically, with an important annual trading fair, initial rapid expansion, though its economic fortunes soon dwindled. City tranquility was hampered by continuous rivalry between the two entities that made up Friedberg: The city and the castle of Friedberg that were politically independent from each other and in permanent competition quite maliciously, resulting in bitter rivalry that culminated once in the ransacking and destruction of the castle by angry citizens. In central Italy and Lombardy similar struggles between count and commune fueled the politics of Guelf and Ghibelline parties.
The city became a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire with a charter given in 1211. Under Napoleon, it was incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Friedberg sits atop a basalt plateau overlooking the Usa and has been populated at least since Roman times; the relics of a Mesolithic settlement have been found in a suburb of Friedberg. Castle Hill was the location of a Roman military camp, part of the limes or border fortifications and identical with the castellum in monte tauno, quoted in Roman records during the 1st century AD, though this is still under discussion. Ruins of the camp, as well as other Roman ruins, have been found and conserved, such as the remains of Roman public baths; the Roman settlement was abandoned during the retreat of the Romans on the Rhine frontier by 260 AD. The crown and ports atop the Adolfsturm was restored during the 1980s. Friedberg's old town quarter once housed a prosperous Jewish community, wiped out during World War II. Many of Friedberg's Jews fled to South Africa and the United States before the Holocaust, but all remaining Jews were shipped to Buchenwald.
The Judenbad contains a memorial to the fallen Jewish soldiers who fought for their fatherland during World War I. Today, only the medieval Jewish ceremonial bath, old synagogue arson memorial, memorial plaque at one of the city's secondary schools are reminders of this part of the city's past. Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, diamond mining entrepreneur and former owner of De Beers was born and raised in Friedberg. Friedberg was the home to the U. S. Army installation Ray Barracks. From 1956 to 2007, Ray Barracks was the home of 3rd Brigade 3rd Armored Division. Elvis Presley served in 1st Bn 32nd Armor, whose motor pool and tanks were used in filming Presley's "GI Blues"; the 1st Brigade 1st Armor Division was located here as well as in Germany. The 1st Brigade was located at Ray Barracks from 1992 to 2007 when the installation was closed permanently and was returned to the city of Friedberg; the base is notable as the duty station of Elvis Presley during his military stint in Europe, who lived in nearby Bad Nauheim.
Elvis Presley Platz is in the main shopping center of the town. Presley's battalion, redesignated the 4th Battalion, 67th Armor,"Bandits," would be commanded back-to-back by West Point classmates and future Army Generals Albert Bryant, Jr. and Martin Dempsey, who maintained their office above the "Elvis Aaron Presley Mess Hall," funded by Presley. Ray Barracks is further known for being the first duty station of former US Secretary of State and retired four-star General, Colin Powell, stationed there as a Second Lieutenant in 1958. Friedberg's main station is on the Main-Weser Railway and is the northern terminal of Frankfurt's S-Bahn line S6 and a stop for German Intercity trains and several regional railway lines. Friedberg is twinned with: Villiers-sur-Marne, France Magreglio, ItalyFriedberg was twinned with Bishop's Stortford in the United Kingdom but in 2011, the English town council controversially ended its 45-year-old relationship with the city, as well as Villiers-sur-Marne in France.
Erasmus Alberus, German humanist, religious reformer and friend of Martin Luther Siegfried Schmid, writer Oscar Hertwig and Richard Hertwig, zoologists Albert Windisch, German painter, Academy Professor and typographer was born in Friedberg. Sir Ernest Oppenheimer and gold mining entrepreneur and philanthropist, who controlled De Beers and founded the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa. Albert Stohr, bishop of Mainz Herfried Münkler, political scientist Mathias Herrmann, known from the ZDF Crime Scene Ein Fall für zwei René Pollesch, theater author and playwright Benjamin Herrmann, film producer Christof Leng, politician Dexter Langen, footballer Kamghe Gaba, sprinter Till Helmke, sprinter Kollegah, rapperContents Official website
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi