Wittenbergplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Wittenbergplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station on the U 1, the U 2, U 3 lines. The station is located on Wittenbergplatz square in Berlin's City West area, in the northwestern corner of Schöneberg neighbourhood, it is the only U-Bahn station in the city with five adjacent tracks on three platforms. The station building, erected in 1911–1913 according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander, is listed as an architectural monument. Wittenbergplatz is one of the oldest U-Bahn stations in Berlin, opened on 11 March 1902 with the first Stammstrecke line running under the eponymous square and adjacent Tauentzienstraße, today one of the major shopping streets in Berlin. A common underground station with two tracks on two side platforms, it was refurbished as an interchange from 1910 onwards; the new station serving three U-Bahn lines opened on 1 December 1912 with two island platforms and one side platform, serving five tracks at one below ground level and under a single roof. The remarkable entrance hall in the centre of Wittenbergplatz square, designed in an Art Nouveau style by Alfred Grenander, was finished in 1913.
The station building was badly damaged during the bombing of Berlin in World War II and reconstructed afterwards. Wittenbergplatz became one of the most frequented stations of the West Berlin urban traffic network, though after the building of the Berlin Wall the present-day U2 line to Nollendorfplatz was closed in 1972 and not re-opened until 1993. From 1980 to 1983 the station was renovated in line with the precepts of monument perception by architect Borchardt, he won the prize of the Ministry of Architecture in 1986. Platform No. 1 features a sign donated by the London Transport Executive in 1952 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Berlin U-Bahn. It features the station's name in the distinctive red-and-blue roundel used on the London Underground
The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Klosterstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
Klosterstraße is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the central Mitte district. The eponymous street is named after the Graues Kloster, a medieval Franciscan abbey, which housed the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster; the station opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander planned a station featuring three tracks serving a branch-off toward eastbound Große Frankfurter Straße, never built and in 1930 was replaced by the U5 line. Today the broad platform between the two tracks with its asymmetric row of pillars is evidence of the original intention; the well-preserved station received protected landmark status as early as 1975. It was extensively restored in its original style prior to Berlin's 750-year jubilee in 1987, including the installation of a historic A-I type car of the U4 line at the northern end of the platform. Media related to U-Bahnhof Klosterstraße at Wikimedia Commons
Berlin Potsdamer Platz station
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of
Märkisches Museum (Berlin U-Bahn)
Märkisches Museum is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the Mitte district. Since 1935 it has been named after the nearby Märkisches Museum, the municipal museum of the history of Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg; the station called Inselbrücke, opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander designed a vaulted hall deep beneath street level due to the adjacent Spree underpass leading to Klosterstrasse, it was renamed in 1935 to Märkisches Museum. There was a slight damage to the ceiling on 24 May 1944, it is one of only 2 Berlin U-Bahn stations with no central columns, the other being Platz der Luftbrücke. In 1987 and 1988, as part of events for the 750th anniversary of Berlin, the GDR government commissioned decorations for the station with the theme of "the history of Berlin". Artist Jo Doese constructed twelve mosaics depicting maps of the city of Berlin, from its beginnings as the twin towns of Berlin and Cölln in 1237 through to the modern city in 1987, with each mosaic being constructed from building materials that would have been used in the city at the time.
There are two copies of each of six maps on opposite walls of one set near each track. In between the maps are reliefs by artists Karl-Heinz Schäfer and Ulrich Jörke, each in a style appropriate to the time period of the adjacent map. Märkisches Museum is operated by the provider of most of Berlin's rapid transit. Situated on the U 2 line, trains from Märkisches Museum serve Pankow to the north, stopping at significant destinations such as Alexanderplatz, Ruhleben to the west, stopping at Potsdamer Platz, Kurfürstendamm and the Olympic Stadium
Berlin Alexanderplatz station
Berlin Alexanderplatz is a German railway station in the Mitte district of Berlin's city centre. It is one of the busiest transport hubs in the Berlin area; the station is named for the Alexanderplatz on which it is located, near the Fernsehturm and the World clock. Like other long-distance stations, Alexanderplatz is a shopping centre for selling merchandise to travelers. Due to its importance and central location, it is a site where tourists change. Alexanderplatz thereby became beside Nollendorfplatz station the second major hub of the Berlin U-Bahn network. Four Regional-Express and Regionalbahn lines as well as the S-Bahn rapid transit lines S 3, S 5, S 7, S 9 call at the overground station; the adjacent underground station is one of the largest on the Berlin U-Bahn network, with the lines U 2, U 5 and U 8 calling. The station is served by four tram lines, two of which run continuously, as well as five bus lines during the day, one of which runs continuously and three night bus lines. Alexanderplatz is connected through the two tunnel links, from U2 to U5 and U5 to U8.
Alexanderplatz station opened on 7 February 1882 on the Berlin Stadtbahn viaduct from Charlottenburg to Ostbahnhof. In 1926 the station hall spanning two platforms with four tracks was rebuilt in its present plain style. Damaged in World War II, train service at the station was resumed on 4 November 1945, while the reconstruction of the hall continued until 1951; the first U-Bahn station of the present U2 line designed by Alfred Grenander entered service on 1 July 1913. The platforms of the U8 and the U5 opened on 18 April 1930 and 21 December 1930 also built according to Grenander's conception, but in a distinct Modern style; the U2 station was renovated after the Alexanderplatz fire in 1972. The eastern entrances were destroyed on 15 March 1945; the U8 station was a ghost station during the division of Berlin from 13 August 1961 to 1 July 1990. The station master offices were built; the access at Dirksenstraße had to be made accessible again, just like the connecting stairs to the mall and to the platforms of Line E.
Other than that, the intercommunication staircase was built towards Line E so that it goes through the dimly lit platforms. Stainallee was renamed a few months after the closure of the stairs. In all cases, the metro stations had to be recognizable as such on the surface; the U-Bahn logo has been removed in recent years. This station had to undergo renovation works from 17 May to 30 June 1990 before the full reopening on 1 July 1990; the U2 station had undergone renovation work in January 2001 to March 2001. The U5 station underwent renovation works from February 2003 to September 2004, it is a U5 westbound terminus from 1930 to 2019, where it will be replaced by Berlin Hauptbahnhof. The station is served by the following service: Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Erkner – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam – Wannsee – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Lichtenberg – Ahrensfelde Berlin S-Bahn services S 9 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Schöneweide - Flughafen Schönefeld
Olympia-Stadion (Berlin U-Bahn)
Olympia-Stadion is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 line in the Westend district. It serves Berlin's Olympic Stadium, where football matches and other events are held; the station is located around 500 m from the S-Bahn station with a similar name, whose name - without hyphen - more reflects that of the Olympic Stadium. The station Stadion was opened on 8 June 1913, together with the Deutsches Stadion, predecessor of the Olympic Stadium. Due to World War I, the 1916 Summer Olympics, for which the building of the stadium was intended, were cancelled and regular train service at the Stadion station was not available until 1922. Subsequent to Berlin's successful application for the 1936 Summer Olympics, the renowned U-Bahn architect Alfred Grenander redesigned the building and the station was named Reichssportfeld. On 15 February 1944, it was directly hit by the air raids. From 1950 on, the station was called Olympia-Stadion; the building was extensively restored in preparation of the 2006 FIFA World Cup and received blue pillars and benches, according to the colours of the local Hertha BSC Berlin football club