Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value, his initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, to do so by the end of the 20th century. This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free, he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
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When users are unable to download the CD, they can request to have a copy sent to them, free of charge. In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD became available by mail. In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items; the majority of the DVDs, all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them; as of October 2010, the project has mailed 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download; as of August 2015, Project Gutenberg claimed over 57,000 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are works of literature from the Western cultural tradition.
In addition to literature such as novels, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files. Most releases are in English, but there are significant numbers in many other languages; as of April 2016, the non-English languages most represented are: Fren
Gospel meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four canonical gospels — Matthew, Mark and John — were written between AD 66 and 110, building on older sources and traditions, each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of Jesus and his divine role. All four are anonymous, it is certain that none were written by an eyewitness, they are the main source of information on the life of Jesus as searched for in the quest for the historical Jesus. Modern scholars are cautious of relying on them unquestioningly, but critical study attempts to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the authors. Many non-canonical gospels were written, all than the four, all, like them, advocating the particular theological views of their authors; the Gospel of Mark dates from c. AD 66–70, Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, John AD 90–110. Despite the traditional ascriptions all four are anonymous, none were written by eyewitnesses.
Like the rest of the New Testament, they were written in Greek. In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment within their own lifetimes, in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings; the stages of this process can be summarised as follows: Oral traditions — stories and sayings passed on as separate self-contained units, not in any order. Gospels formed by combining written collections and still-current oral tradition. Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas and not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke; the authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source and the L source.
Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content and language. The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source that circulated within the Johannine community expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. All four use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes; such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia is made up entirely of quotations from scripture. Matthew is full of quotations and allusions, although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive, their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint – they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew. The four gospels share a story in which the earthly career of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, an event of crucial redemptive significance, but are inconsistent in detail.
John and the three synoptics in particular present different pictures of Jesus' career. John has no baptism, no temptation, no transfiguration, lacks the Lord's Supper and stories of Jesus' ancestry and childhood. Jesus's career in the synoptics takes up a single year while in John it takes three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover; each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of his divine role. Mark never calls Jesus "God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth, makes no attempt to trace Jesus' ancestry back to King David or Adam. Crucially, Mark had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition.
Matthew reinterprets Mark, stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. The miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God, but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity. Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, eliminated some passages notably most of chapters 6 and 7, which he felt reflected poorly on the disciples and painted Jesus too much like a magician. John, t
The Bibliotheca Teubneriana, or Teubner editions of Greek and Latin texts, comprise the most thorough modern collection published of ancient Greco-Roman literature. The series, whose full name is the Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, consists of critical editions by leading scholars (now always with a full critical apparatus on each page, although during the nineteenth century there were editiones minores, published either without critical apparatuses or with abbreviated textual appendices, editiones maiores, published with a full apparatus. Teubneriana is an abbreviation used to denote a single volume of the series the whole collection. Today, the only comparable publishing ventures, producing authoritative scholarly reference editions of numerous ancient authors, are the Oxford Classical Texts and the Collection Budé. In 1811, Benedictus Gotthelf Teubner refounded in his own name a printing operation he had directed since 1806, the Weinedelsche Buchdruckerei, giving rise to the Leipzig publishing house of B.
G. Teubner; the volumes of the Bibliotheca Teubneriana began to appear in 1849. Although today Teubner editions are expensive, they were introduced to fill the need unmet, for low-priced but high-quality editions. Prior to the introduction of the Teubner series, accurate editions of antique authors could only be purchased by libraries and rich private scholars because of their expense. Students and other individuals of modest means had to rely on editions which were affordable but filled with errors. To satisfy the need for accurate and affordable editions Teubner introduced the Bibliotheca Teubneriana. In the 19th century, Teubner offered both affordable editiones maiores for scholars, low-priced editiones minores for students. Editiones minores were dropped from the series and Teubner began to offer only scholarly reference editions of ancient authors. During the period between the end of World War II and German reunification, the publishing house of B. G. Teubner split into two firms, Teubner KG BSB B. G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, in Leipzig in East Germany, Verlag B. G. Teubner / BG Teubner GmbH in Stuttgart in West Germany.
Both offered volumes in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana. After the fall of the Berlin wall and the reunification of Germany, B. G. Teubner was reunited and subsequently consolidated its headquarters at Wiesbaden. In late 1999, B. G. Teubner Verlag announced their intention to concentrate on technical publishing. All their Classical Studies titles, including the Biblotheca Teubneriana, were sold to K. G. Saur, a publisher based in Munich. Although new volumes began to appear with the imprint in aedibus K. G. Saur, the name of the series remained unchanged. In 2006, the publishing firm of Walter de Gruyter acquired K. G. Saur and their entire publishing range, including the Bibliotheca Teubneriana. Since January 2007, the Bibliotheca Teubneriana is being published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG; as of 1 May 2007, the new North American distributor of titles from the Bibliotheca Teubneriana is Walter de Gruyter, Inc. While the typography of the Greek Teubners has been subject to innovations over the years, an overview of the whole series shows a great deal of consistency.
The old-fashioned, cursive font used in most of the existing volumes is recognized by classicists and associated with Teubner. This type was in regular use for verse and prose texts. In older Teubners, several old-fashioned features of the type are still found which would be smoothed away, for example, omega with bent-in ends, medial sigma, not closed, phi with a bent stem. Teubner used an upright type, designed to match the original cursive type, in some editions. In the example shown, the cursive type is still used in the critical apparatus. In other editions, this upright font is used throughout. Beginning in the 1990s, the digital production of books has been marked by new digital fonts, sometimes based on Teubner's older traditions. In the 1990s, individual editions of Euripides' tragedies were digitally typeset in a font based on the original Teubner cursive. There have been recent innovations in upright type. One of these, which may be seen in Bernabé's edition of the Orphica, seems to be the current standard for new Teubners from K.
G. Saur; some Teubner Greek editions made a bold typographic departure from the tradition outlined above. E. J. Kenney considered this twentieth-century experiment to be a refreshing break from the Porsonian norm, emblematic of the best kind of modernist simplicity and directness: More there has been a welcome and long overdue return to the older and purer models; the pleasing modification of M. E. Pinder's "Griechische Antiqua" used by Teubner in some of their editions represents a lost opportunit
Isocrates, an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators. Among the most influential Greek rhetoricians of his time, Isocrates made many contributions to rhetoric and education through his teaching and written works. Greek rhetoric is traced to Corax of Syracuse, who first formulated a set of rhetorical rules in the fifth century BC, his pupil Tisias was influential in the development of the rhetoric of the courtroom, by some accounts was the teacher of Isocrates. Within two generations, rhetoric had become an important art, its growth driven by social and political changes such as democracy and courts of law. Isocrates received a first-rate education, he was influenced by his sophist teachers and Gorgias, was closely acquainted with Socrates. After the Peloponnesian War, his family lost its wealth, Isocrates was forced to earn a living, his professional career is said to have begun with logography: he was a hired courtroom speechwriter. Athenian citizens did not hire lawyers. Instead, they would hire people like Isocrates to write speeches for them.
Isocrates had a great talent for this. His weak voice motivated him to publish pamphlets and although he played no direct part in state affairs, his written speech influenced the public and provided significant insight into major political issues of the day. Around 392 BC he set up his own school of rhetoric, proved to be not only an influential teacher, but a shrewd businessman, his fees were unusually high, he accepted no more than nine pupils at a time. Many of them went on to be philosophers and historians; as a consequence, he amassed a considerable fortune. According to Pliny the Elder he could sell a single oration for twenty talents. According to George Norlin, Isocrates defined rhetoric as outward feeling and inward thought of not expression, but reason and imagination. Like most who studied rhetoric before and after him, Isocrates believed it was used to persuade ourselves and others, but used in directing public affairs. Isocrates described rhetoric as "that endowment of our human nature which raises us above mere animality and enables us to live the civilized life."
Isocrates unambiguously defined his approach in the treatise Against the Sophists. This polemic was written to explain and advertise the reasoning and educational principles behind his new school, he promoted broad-based education by speaking against two types of teachers: the Eristics, who disputed about theoretical and ethical matters, the Sophists, who taught political debate techniques. While Isocrates is viewed by many as being a rhetor and practicing rhetoric, he refers to his study as philosophia—which he claims as his own. Against the Sophists is Isocrates' first published work where he gives an account of philosophia, his principal method is to contrast his ways of teaching with Sophistry. While Isocrates does not go against the Sophist method of teaching as a whole, he emphasizes his disagreement with bad Sophistry practices. Isocrates' program of rhetorical education stressed the ability to use language to address practical problems, he referred to his teachings as more of a philosophy than a school of rhetoric.
He emphasized that students needed three things to learn: a natural aptitude, inborn, knowledge training granted by teachers and textbooks, applied practices designed by educators. He stressed civic education, training students to serve the state. Students would practice delivering speeches on various subjects, he considered natural ability and practice to be more important than rules or principles of rhetoric. Rather than delineating static rules, Isocrates kairos, his school lasted for over fifty years, in many ways establishing the core of liberal arts education as we know it today, including oratory, history, citizenship and morality. Prior to Isocrates, teaching consisted of first-generation Sophists, walking from town to town as itinerants, who taught any individuals interested in political occupations how to be effective in public speaking; some popular itinerants of the late 5th century BC include Protagoras. Around 392-390 BC, Isocrates founded his academy in Athens at the Lyceum, known as the first academy of rhetoric.
The foundation of this academy brought students to Athens to study. Prior to this, teachers travelled amongst cities giving lectures to anyone interested; the first students in Isocrates’ school were Athenians. However, after he published the Panegyrius in 380 BC, his reputation spread to many other parts of Greece. Following the founding of Isocrates’ academy, Plato founded his own academy as a rival school of philosophy. Isocrates encouraged his students to wander and observe public behavior in the city to learn through imitation, his students aimed to learn. Some of his students included Isaeus, Hypereides, Theopompus and Timotheus. Many of these students remained under the instruction of Isocrates for three to four years. Timotheus had such a great appreciation for Isocrates that he erected a statue at Eleusis and dedicated it to him; because of Plato's attacks on the sophists, Isocrates' school — having its roots, if not the entirety of its mission, in rhetoric, the domain of the sophists — came to be viewed as unethical and deceitful.
University of Dublin
The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin, Ireland. It is the degree awarding body for Trinity College Dublin, it was founded in 1592 when Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College as "the mother of a university", thereby making it Ireland's oldest operating university. It was modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and of Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the University of Dublin is one of the seven ancient universities of Ireland. It is a member of the Irish Universities Association, Universities Ireland, the Coimbra Group; the University of Dublin was modelled on the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge as a collegiate university, Trinity College being named by the Queen as the mater universitatis. The founding Charter conferred a general power on the College to make provision for university functions to be carried out.
So, for example, the Charter while naming the first Provost of the College, the first fellows and the first scholars, in addition named William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley to be the first Chancellor of the University. No other college has been established, Trinity remains the sole constituent college of the university; the project of establishing another college within the University was considered on at least two occasions, but the required finance or endowment was never available. The most recent authoritative statement of the position is in the Universities Act, 1997. In the section relating to interpretation it specifies that:- "3.— In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— "Trinity College” means the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin established by charter dated the 3rd day of March, 1592, shall be held to include the University of Dublin save where the context otherwise requires in accordance with the charters and letters patent relating to Trinity College.
Subsequently, in a remarkable High Court case of 1898, the Provost and Scholars of Trinity were the claimants and the Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin were among the defendants, the court held that Trinity College and the University of Dublin "are one body". The judge noted pointedly that "he advisers of Queen Victoria knew how to incorporate a University when they meant to do so" and that the letters patent dealt with "not the incorporation of the University of Dublin but of its Senate merely". Notwithstanding, the statutes of the university and the college grant the university separate corporate legal rights to own property, borrow money, employ staff, enable it to sue and be sued as occurred in the case referred to above. To date the other rights have not been exercised. Current Officers of the University are either unpaid and purely honorary, or have duties relating to the college for which they are paid, but by the College; some of the legal definitions and differences between college and university were discussed in the reform of the University and College in The Charters and Letters Patent Amendment Bill, which became law, but many of the College contributions to this were unclear or not comprehensive because it concerned an internal dispute within College as to outside interference and as misconduct by College Authorities in overseeing voting which led to a visitors enquiry which in turn found problems with the voting procedures and ordered a repeat ballot.
Further contributions on the relationship between College and University can be found in submissions to the Oireachtas on reform of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Irish Oireachtas, since the University elects members to that body), in particular the verbal submission of the Provost. Traditionally, sport clubs use the name "University", rather than "College"; the university is governed by the university senate, chaired by the chancellor or their pro-chancellor. While the Senate was formally constituted by the Letters Patent of 1857 as a body corporate under the name and title of "The Chancellor and Masters of the University of Dublin", it had existed since soon after the foundation of Trinity College being brought into being by the enabling powers contained in the founding Charter; the Letters Patent had the effect of converting a preexisting non-incorporated body relying on custom and precedent to establish its authority into a corporate body and explicitly established in law. The Letters Patent empowered the university senate by stating:- "It shall be and shall continue to be a body corporate with a common seal, shall have power under the said seal to do all such acts as may be lawful for it to do in conformity with the laws and statutes of the State and with the Charters and Statutes of the College."
The Letters Patent defined the composition of the Senate:- " It shall consist of the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellors, such Doctors and Masters of the University as s