An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from large gas bags filled with a gas that is less dense than the surrounding air. In early dirigibles, the gas used was hydrogen, due to its high lifting capacity. Helium gas has almost the same lifting capacity and is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, significant amounts were first discovered in the United States and for a while helium was only used for airships by the United States. Most airships built since the 1960s have used helium, though some have used hot air, the envelope of an airship may form a single gas bag, or may contain a number of internal gas-filled cells. An airship has engines and optionally payload accommodation, the main types of airship are non-rigid, semi-rigid, and rigid. Non-rigid airships, often called blimps, rely on internal pressure to maintain the shape of the airship, semi-rigid airships maintain the envelope shape by internal pressure, but have some form of supporting structure, such as a fixed keel, attached to it.
Rigid airships have a structural framework which maintains the shape and carries all structural loads. Rigid airships were first flown by Count Zeppelin and the vast majority of rigid airships built were manufactured by the firm he founded, as a result, rigid airships are called zeppelins. S. Navy helium-filled rigids, the USS Akron and USS Macon respectively, during the pioneer years of aeronautics, terms such as airship, air-ship, air ship and ship of the air meant any kind of navigable or dirigible flying machine. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to ships of the air, in the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as ships of the air or flying-ships. Nowadays the term airship is used only for powered, dirigible balloons, semirigid architecture is the more recent and the late appearance is caused by both advancements about deformable structures and exigiency of reducing weight and volume of the airships. They have a structure that ensure to keep the shape jointly with overpressure of the gas envelope.
An aerostat is an aircraft which remain aloft using buoyancy or static lift, Airships are a type of aerostat. The term aerostat has used to indicate a tethered or moored balloon as opposed to a free-floating balloon. A blimp is a non-rigid aerostat, in American usage it refers specifically to a non-rigid type of dirigible balloon or airship. In British usage it refers to any non-rigid aerostat, including balloons and other kite balloons, having a streamlined shape. The initials LZ, for Luftschiff Zeppelin, usually prefixed their crafts serial identifiers, streamlined Parsifal-shaped rigid airships are usually referred to as Zeppelin, because of the fame that this company has acquired due to the number of airships it produced
Alfred Keller was a general in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany during the Second World War who commanded the Luftflotte 1. His career in the Imperial German Armed Forces began in 1897, in September 1939, when the Second World War begun, the General Alfred Keller commanded the 4th Air Corps during the invasion of Poland, assuming this command on 13 October 1939. The following campaigns, during campaigns against Norway, the Netherlands, Keller was awarded the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross on 24 June 1940 as commander of the 4th Air Corps. Shortly afterwards, on 19 July 1940, he was promoted Generaloberst, on 19 August 1940, during the Battle of Britain, Alfred Keller was appointed as the commander of Luftflotte 1 and Air Force commander - East. Keller led this formation very energetically during the invasion of the Balkans Campaign, Keller remained with Luftflotte 1 until 12 June 1943, when he retired from active service at the age of 61, replaced by the 16 years younger Günther Korten. However he continued to perform important functions in NSFK and he was Korpsführer of the NSFK from June 26,1943, until the German surrender on May 8,1945.
Towards the end of the war Keller was the one for the antitank weapons department of the Luftwaffe. With the German capitulation on 8 May 1945, Keller became a British prisoner, in the 1950s he became one of the first presidents of the Association of Knights Cross Recipients. Knights Cross of the Iron Cross on 24 June 1940 as General der Flieger and commanding general of the IV
Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany)
The Ministry of Aviation, abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany. It is the name of the Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus building on the Wilhelmstrasse in central Berlin, Germany. As a result, early successes in aircraft development progressed slowly and erratically during World War II. The Ministry was formed in April 1933 from the Reich Commissariat for Aviation, in this early phase the Ministry was little more than Görings personal staff. One of its first actions was to control of all patents and companies of Hugo Junkers. These included all rights to the Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, defence Minister General Werner von Blomberg decided that the importance of aviation was such that it should no longer be subordinate to the German Army. In May 1933 he transferred the armys Department of Military Aviation and this is often considered the birth of the Luftwaffe. The Ministry was now larger, consisting of two large departments, the military Luftschutzamt and the civilian Allgemeines Luftamt.
Erhard Milch, the head of Deutsche Luft Hansa, was placed in direct control of the LA. In September 1933, a reorganization was undertaken to reduce duplication of effort between departments, the primary changes were to move the staffing and technical development organizations out of the LB, and make them full departments on their own. In 1934, a department was added, the Luftzeugmeister in charge of logistics. With the rapid growth of the Luftwaffe following the outbreak of World War II in 1939 and this period was marked by an increasing inability to deliver the new aircraft designs that were desperately needed, as well as continued shortages of aircraft and engines. In 1943 Albert Speer took over from Milch, and things immediately improved, the Ministry building was one of the few public edifices in central Berlin to survive the severe Allied bombings in 1944–45. On 5 May 1933 the German Air Ministry, with Hermann Göring as Reich Minister for Aviation was founded and this event came along with the introduction of a command flag that was produced in different sizes, ranging from 200 cm down to 30 cm.
The flag consisted of red material on which was placed in the centre of the obverse a wreath of silver coloured laurel leaves. In the centre of the leaves was a black eagle, suspended from the base of the wreath was a true-coloured representation of the Pour le Mérite. Extending from the left and right side of the wreath were a pair of stylised wings each consisting of four ascending feathers, in each of the four corners was set a black swastika. The flag was in use until the end of 1935, exact details about the reverse of this flag are not established
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall
The Iron Cross was a military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and in the German Empire and Nazi Germany. It was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, Louise was the first person to receive this decoration. The recommissioned Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, the Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. The design of the symbol was black with a white or silver outline. It was ultimately derived from the cross pattée occasionally used by the Teutonic Order from the 13th century, the black cross patty was used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to March/April 1918, when it was replaced by the Balkenkreuz. In 1956, it was re-introduced as the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the Black Cross is the emblem used by the Prussian Army, and by the army of Germany from 1871 to present.
It was designed on the occasion of the German Campaign of 1813, from this time, the Black Cross featured on the Prussian war flag alongside the Black Eagle. The design is due to neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, based on a sketch by Frederick William, the design is ultimately derivative of the black cross used by the Teutonic Order. This heraldic cross took various forms throughout the history, including a simple Latin cross. When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleons fall, an Iron Cross was inserted into her laurel wreath, making her into a Goddess of Victory. The Black Cross was used on the naval and war flags of the German Empire, the Black Cross was used as the symbol of the German Army until 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Balkenkreuz. The Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, the traditional design in black is used on armored vehicles and aircraft, while after German reunification, a new design in blue and silver was introduced for use in other contexts.
The ribbon for the 1813,1870 and 1914 Iron Cross was black with two white bands, the colors of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black, the ribbon color for the 1939 EKII was black/white/red/white/black. Since the Iron Cross was issued several different periods of German history. For example, an Iron Cross from World War I bears the year 1914, the reverse of the 1870,1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year 1813 appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration has the initials FW for King Frederick William III, the final version shows a swastika. There was the 1957 issue, a replacement medal for holders of the 1939 series which substituted an oak-leaf cluster for the banned swastika
Felixstowe Porte Baby
The Felixstowe Porte Baby was a British reconnaissance flying boat of the First World War, first flying in 1915. The Porte Baby was designed by John Cyril Porte RN at the air station, Felixstowe where the prototype was built, ten more were made by May, Harden. Between November 1915 and 1918 it was the largest flying boat built, the aircraft was an unequal-span, three-bay biplane of wood-and-fabric construction, the hull being mounted below the lower wing. The engines, normally three Rolls-Royce Eagles, were mounted between the wings, two in tractor configuration and the one in pusher. The two pilots were in a cockpit, the three gunners had open stations armed with machine guns. The production Porte Babies were used to fly patrols over the North Sea from Felixstowe, RNAS Killingholme, Houton Bay and Catfirth, the Porte Baby remained in service in October 1918. United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service Royal Air Force Data from The Felixstowe Flying-Boats, the Felixstowe Flying-Boats, Historic Military Aircraft No.11 Part 1.
The Felixstowe Flying-Boats, Historic Military Aircraft No.11 Part 2, the Felixstowe Flying-Boats, Historic Military Aircraft No.11 Part 3. British Aircraft Directory accessed 1 February 2007, photographs taken at Felixstowe and Lowerstoft on YouTube including Porte Baby aircraft at RNAS Felixstowe
The Marinefliegerkommando is the naval air arm of the German Navy. During the First World War, naval aviators were part of the Kaiserliche Marine, between the wars, naval aviation, the Seeflieger was absorbed by Goerings Luftwaffe in 1935. After the Second World War, it was not until West Germanys entry into NATO in the 1950s and the establishment of the Bundesmarine, the British were largely instrumental in creation of the Marineflieger, supplying training and aircraft. A number of Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm officers operated as part of the German Navy in the process, the first aircraft included Hawker Sea Hawks which were used by Marinefliegergeschwader 1 and 2 and Fairey Gannets. Until the new bases were ready, pilots were trained with the FAA in the UK, the Marinefliegerkommando had 2,100 personnel on active duty in 2012. As of 2017, it operates 55 aircraft, the Marinefliegerkommando previously operated the following aircraft, Panavia Tornado F-104 Starfighter Hawker Sea Hawk Fairey Gannet Luftschiffer http, //www. fly-navy. de/index2. html
The Hanseatic Cross was a decoration of the three Hanseatic city-states of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, who were members of the German Empire during World War I. Each republic established its own version of the cross, but the design, the Hanseatic Cross was jointly instituted by agreement of the senates of the three cities, with each senate ratifying the award on different days. The Lübeck version was established first, on August 21,1915, the Hamburg version followed on September 10 and the Bremen version on September 14. The cross was awarded for merit in war, and could be awarded to civilians as well as military personnel, when awarded for bravery or combat merit, it was the three cities equivalent of the Prussian Iron Cross. The Hanseatic Cross came in one class, a cross worn from a ribbon on the left chest. The cross was a silver cross pattée which bore the arms of the relevant city-state on the center medallion. The reverse was identical for all three versions and the medallion bore the phrase Für Verdienst im Kriege and the date 1914.
There were approximately 50,000 awards of the Hanseatic Cross of Hamburg, the Bremen Hanseatic Cross was awarded approximately 20,000 times. Lübeck was the smallest of the Hanseatic cities, and its Hanseatic Cross was awarded approximately 8-10,000 times, the roll for the Lübeck Hanseatic Cross have been transcribed by an international team of phaleristic researchers from Germany and the Netherlands. The complete roll was expected to be available by fall 2008/spring 2009, dr. Kurt-Gerhard Klietmann, Pour le Mérite und Tapferkeitsmedaille
Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England. It was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, in 2001 it had a population of around 40,000. Ramsgate’s main attraction is its coastline, and its industries are tourism. The town has one of the largest marinas on the English south coast, Ramsgate began as a fishing and farming hamlet. The Christian missionary St Augustine, sent by Pope Gregory the Great, the town is home to the Shrine of St Augustine. The earliest reference to the town is in the Kent Hundred Rolls of 1274-5, the names Ramisgate and Raunsgate appear in the parish of St. Laurence records circa 1290. These are all derived from late Anglo-Saxon ‘Hremmes’ from earlier ‘Hræfnes’ and ‘geat’, in 1357, the area became known as Ramesgate. Ramsgate was a member of the Confederation of Cinque Ports, under the Limb of Sandwich, the construction of Ramsgate Harbour began in 1749 and was completed in about 1850. The harbour has the distinction of being the only Royal Harbour in the United Kingdom, because of its proximity to mainland Europe, Ramsgate was a chief embarkation point both during the Napoleonic Wars and for the Dunkirk evacuation in 1940.
Etc. not forgetting its bracing climate. The streets of Ramsgate are well paved or macadamed and brilliantly lighted with gas. The architect A W Pugin and his sons lived in Ramsgate and built several important buildings there, including St Augustines Church, The Grange, St Augustines Abbey, the artist Vincent Van Gogh moved to Ramsgate in April 1876, at age 23. He boarded at 11 Spencer Square, which is identified by a blue plaque and he obtained work as a teacher at a local school in Royal Road, where he received his post. In one of his letters to his brother Theo, he described his surroundings, There’s a harbour full of all kinds of ships, and further out one sees the sea in its natural state, and that’s beautiful. In 1901, a tram service, one of the few inter-urban tramways in Britain, was introduced on the Isle of Thanet. The towns of Ramsgate and Broadstairs were linked by 11 miles of track, in 1915–1916, early aircraft began to use the open farmland at Manston as a site for emergency landings.
The location near the Kent coast gave Manston some advantages over the previously established aerodromes. During the First World War, Ramsgate was the target of bombing raids by Zeppelin airships, by 1917 the Royal Flying Corps was well established and taking an active part in the defence of Britain. As RAF Manston, the played a important role in the Second World War
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany