Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg inherited the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck in 1816. He subsequently changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg in 1825 and founded a line that includes the Royal Houses of Denmark, Greece and the Commonwealth realms. Friedrich Wilhelm was born in Lindenau, East Prussia, to Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and Countess Friederike of Schlieben, he was the third and youngest child of the couple, the only son. In 1804, he was sent to Denmark, where he was an officer of the Danish army during the Napoleonic Wars. On 26 January 1810, Friedrich Wilhelm married Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel, a granddaughter of Frederik V of Denmark through her mother, Princess Louise of Denmark. Friedrich Wilhelm and Louise Caroline had ten children: Princess Luise Marie Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Princess Friederike Karoline Juliane of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.
Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Christian IX, King of Denmark. Princess Luise, Abbess of Itzehoe. Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Nikolaus of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. On 25 March 1816, Friedrich Wilhelm succeeded his father as Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. On 6 July 1825, he became Duke of Glücksburg and changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, after the elder Glücksburg line became extinct in 1779. Friedrich Wilhelm died on 17 February 1831 at Gottorp, his grandchildren include among others Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, George I of Greece, Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, Crown Princess Thyra of Hanover, Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.
4 January 1785 – 25 March 1816: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 25 March 1816 – 6 July 1825: His Serene Highness The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 6 July 1825 – 17 February 1831: His Serene Highness The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Marek, Miroslav. "A pedigree of the Oldenburg dynasty". Genealogy. EU
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck was a line of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg branch of the House of Oldenburg. It consisted of August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his male-line descendants. Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg, to which several present-day royal houses belong, is a branch of Schleswig-Holstein-Beck; the members of the line were titular dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, they were not ruling. The line is named after a manor in Ulenburg, Bishopric of Minden. August Philipp bought this manor from the Count of Oldenburg, he made it his residence. Family tree of the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck: August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Frederick William I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Frederick William II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Frederick William III, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Charles Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Karl Anton August, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, founder of the Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg line in 1825
Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
Peter August Friedrich, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck was a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. He was the fifth and youngest son of Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck and his wife Duchess Luise Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. Born in Königsberg, Brandenburg-Prussia, Peter August became Governor General of Reval, Governor of Estonia, a Field Marshal in the Russian Imperial Army, he died in Reval. He was only the titular duke, it had been inherited by his father's older brother, Duke August, nephew Frederick William I, was sold by the latter's widow to Peter August's older brother, Duke Frederick William II, in 1732. But he re-sold it in 1745 to Baroness Magdalena von Ledebur-Königsbrück. Thus, by the time that Peter August became the head of this cadet branch of the Danish royal dynasty, he was "Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck" in name only, he is the male line ancestor of Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway and Charles, Prince of Wales.
Peter August married Princess Sophie of Hesse-Philippsthal, the daughter of Philip, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal and his wife Countess Katharina Amalie of Solms-Laubach, at Rinteln on 5 September 1723. Sophie died on 8 May 1728 at age thirty-three. Peter August and Sophie had two sons and one daughter: Prince Karl of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Princess Ulrike Amelie Wilhelmine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, he married secondly Countess Natália Nikolaievna Golovine, granddaughter of Count Fyodor Golovin, daughter of Count Nicholas Fedorovich Golovin and his wife Sophie Nikitichna Pushkin, on 15 March 1742. The couple had one daughter: Prince Peter of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Prince Alexander of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. Princess Catherine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. 7 December 1697 – 21 February 1772: His Serene Highness The Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 21 February 1772 – 22 September 1774: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 22 September 1774 – 24 February 1775: His Serene Highness The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign city state, before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, north Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city.
Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis and Unilever; the city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016; the Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls.
It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes; the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn, 100 kilometres away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C. The coldest are December and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C. Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214; the Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a
Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten (1661–1728)
Alexander Burggraf und Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten was a Prussian field marshal and diplomat. Alexander zu Dohna was born at the Palace of Coppet near Geneva to Frederick, Burgrave of Dohna, Governor of the Principality of Orange, Sperentia née du Puy de Montbrun, he and his brother Christoper were educated by Pierre Bayle. Dohna joined the Prussian Army in 1679 and became an Amtshauptmann of Mohrungen and Liebstadt in East Prussia, he was promoted to an Oberst and Geheimer Rat on 31 December 1686 and served as an envoy of Friedrich III, elector of Brandenburg at the Polish Royal Court. In 1689/90 he fought against France in the Nine Years' War and was wounded in a battle at Bonn on 10 October 1689. Dohna became a major general on 9 October 1690 and Commander of an Infantry Regiment, named after him, he served again as a Prussian diplomat at the Royal Swedish court and became the governor of Pillau on 11 April 1692. In 1693 Dohna fought again against France and became responsible for the education of the Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm in 1695 until 1704.
In 1704 he came in conflict with Johann Kasimir Kolbe von Wartenberg and lost much of his influence at the Prussian Royal Court, but returned after Kolbe's dismissal. Dohna became the Chairman of the Royal Commission of Chamber- and Domain Affairs and the head of the District administration of Königsberg in 1712. Dohna was promoted to a General of the Infantry on 25 March 1713 and Generalfeldmarschall on 5 September 1713, he accompanied Frederick William I in the Siege of Stralsund. Dohna married Emilie Luise née Gräfin zu Dohna-Carwinden on 10 September 1684 and Johanna Sophie née Gräfin zu Dohna-Reichertswalde on 26 December 1725, he had 15 children with his first wife. Dohna was the first to add the name of his family estate Schlobitten to his name, he was the principal of the construction of Schlobitten Palace. He died in Königsberg
Frederick the Great
Frederick II ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule, he became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people and the rest of Germany. In his youth, Frederick was more interested in philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics and logistics. Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism, he modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble status to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, although he enacted oppressive measures against Polish Catholic subjects in West Prussia. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Frederick is buried at Sanssouci in Potsdam; because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through the German Empire's defeat in World War I; the Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Adolf Hitler, who idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour. Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
He was baptised with only one name and was not given any other names. The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy. With the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King in Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince; the new king wished for his daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who became Madame de Rocoulle, he wished that she educate his children. Frederick William I, popularly dubbed as the Soldier-King, had created a large and powerful army led by his famous "Potsdam Giants" managed his treasury finances and developed a strong, centralized government. However, he possessed a violent temper and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority; as Frederick grew, his preference for music and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William beating and humiliating him.
In contrast, Frederick's mother Sophia was polite and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714. Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. In spite of his father's desire that his education be religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry and Roman classics, French philosophy to supplement his official lessons. Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared. To avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Although Frederick was irreligious, he to some extent appeared to adopt this tenet of Calvinism; some scholars have speculated. In the mid-1720s, a double marriage was proposed. Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine with Amelia and Frederick, the children of her brother, King George II of Great Britain.
Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed the Prussian Minister of War, Field Marshal von Grumbkow, the Prussian ambassador in Lon