University of Wrocław
The University of Wrocław is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland. The University of Wrocław was founded in 1945. Following the territorial changes of Poland's borders, academics from the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów restored the university building damaged and split as a result of the Battle of Breslau. Nowadays it is one of the most prominent educational institutions in the region; the University is the largest in Lower Silesian Voivodeship with over 100,000 graduates since 1945 including some 1,900 researchers among whom many received the highest awards for their contribution to the development of scientific scholarship. The University of Wrocław is renowned for its high quality of teaching, placing 44th on the QS University Rankings: EECA 2016, is located in the same campus as the former University of Breslau, which produced 9 Nobel Prize winners; the oldest mention of a university in Wrocław comes from the foundation deed signed on July 20, 1505, by King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary for the Generale litterarum Gymnasium in Wrocław.
However, the new academic institution requested by the town council wasn't built because the King's deed was rejected by Pope Julius II for political reasons. The numerous wars and opposition from the Cracow Academy might have played a role; the first successful founding deed known as the Aurea bulla fundationis Universitatis Wratislaviensis was signed two centuries on October 1, 1702, by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of the House of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia. The predecessor facilities, which existed since 1638, were converted into Jesuit school, upon instigation of the Jesuits and with the support of the Silesian Oberamtsrat Johannes Adrian von Plencken, donated as a university in 1702 by Emperor Leopold I as a School of Philosophy and Catholic Theology with the designated name Leopoldina. On 15 November 1702, the university opened. Johannes Adrian von Plencken became chancellor of the University; as a Catholic institute in Protestant Breslau, the new university was an important instrument of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia.
After Silesia passed to Prussia, the university lost its ideological character but remained a religious institution for the education of Catholic clergy in Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the subsequent reorganisation of the Prussian state, the academy was merged on August 3, 1811, with the Protestant Viadrina University located in Frankfurt, re-established in Breslau as the Königliche Universität zu Breslau – Universitas litterarum Vratislaviensis. At first, the conjoint academy had five faculties: philosophy, law, Protestant theology, Catholic theology. Connected with the university were three theological seminars, a philological seminar, a seminar for German Philology, another seminar for Romanic and English philology, an historical seminar, a mathematical-physical one, a legal state seminar, a scientific seminar. From 1842, the University had a chair of Slavic Studies; the University had twelve different scientific institutes, six clinical centers, three collections.
An agricultural institute with ten teachers and forty-four students, comprising a chemical veterinary institute, a veterinary institute, a technological institute, was added to the university in 1881. In 1884, the university had 1,481 students in attendance, with a faculty numbering 131; the library in 1885 consisted of 400,000 works, including about 2,400 incunabula 250 Aldines, 2840 manuscripts. These volumes came from the libraries of the former universities of Frankfurt and Breslau and from disestablished monasteries, included the oriental collections of the Bibliotheca Habichtiana and the academic Leseinstitut. In addition, the university owned an observatory. In the late 19th century, numerous internationally renowned and notable scholars lectured at the University of Breslau, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Ferdinand Cohn, Gustav Kirchhoff among them. According to Polish professor of history Henryk Barycz in the academic year of 1813/1814 Polish youth constituted the majority of students at the University.
All students, including German and Jewish, established their own student fraternities. Polish student organizations included Concordia, a branch of the Sokol association. Many of the students came from areas of partitioned Poland; the Jewish students unions were the Student Union. Teutonia, a German Burschenschaft founded in 1817, was one of the oldest student fraternities in Germany, founded only two years after the Urburschenschaft; the Polish fraternities were all disbanded by the German professor Felix Dahn, in 1913 Prussian authorities established a numerus clausus law that limited the number of Jews from non-German Eastern Europe that could study in Germany to at most 900
Battle of Berlin
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major offensives of the European theatre of World War II. Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz; the first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici. When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin.
On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army took the entire city. Before the battle was over and several of his followers killed themselves; the city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets. Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army began the Vistula–Oder Offensive across the Narew River. On the fourth day, the Red Army broke out and started moving west, up to 30 to 40 km per day, taking East Prussia and Poznań, drawing up on a line 60 km east of Berlin along the Oder River; the newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, attempted a counter-attack, but this had failed by 24 February.
The Red Army drove on to Pomerania, clearing the right bank of the Oder River, thereby reaching into Silesia. In the south the Siege of Budapest raged. Three German divisions' attempts to relieve the encircled Hungarian capital city failed, Budapest fell to the Soviets on 13 February. Adolf Hitler insisted on a counter-attack to recapture the Drau-Danube triangle; the goal was to secure the oil region of Nagykanizsa and regain the Danube River for future operations, but the depleted German forces had been given an impossible task. By 16 March, the German Lake Balaton Offensive had failed, a counter-attack by the Red Army took back in 24 hours everything the Germans had taken ten days to gain. On 30 March, the Soviets entered Austria. Between June and September 1944, the Wehrmacht had lost more than a million men, it lacked the fuel and armaments needed to operate effectively. On 12 April 1945, who had earlier decided to remain in the city against the wishes of his advisers, heard the news that the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had died.
This raised false hopes in the Führerbunker that there might yet be a falling out among the Allies and that Berlin would be saved at the last moment, as had happened once before when Berlin was threatened. No plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation; the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force, General Eisenhower lost interest in the race to Berlin and saw no further need to suffer casualties by attacking a city that would be in the Soviet sphere of influence after the war, envisioning excessive friendly fire if both armies attempted to occupy the city at once. The major Western Allied contribution to the battle was the bombing of Berlin during 1945. During 1945 the United States Army Air Forces launched large daytime raids on Berlin and for 36 nights in succession, scores of RAF Mosquitos bombed the German capital, ending on the night of 20/21 April 1945 just before the Soviets entered the city; the Soviet offensive into central Germany, what became East Germany, had two objectives.
Stalin did not believe the Western Allies would hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone, so he began the offensive on a broad front and moved to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin; the two goals were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won unless Berlin were taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held useful post-war strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb programme. On 6 March, Hitler appointed Lieutenant General Helmuth Reymann commander of the Berlin Defence Area, replacing Lieutenant General Bruno Ritter von Hauenschild. On 20 March, General Gotthard Heinrici was appointed Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula replacing Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Heinrici was one of the best defensive tacticians in the German army, he started to lay defensive plans. Heinrici assessed that the main Soviet thrust would be made over the Oder River and along the main east-west Autobahn.
He decided not to try to defend the banks of the Oder with anything more than a light skirmishing screen. Instead, Heinrici arranged for engineers
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen published in 1867. Written in Danish—the common written language of Denmark and Norway in Ibsen's lifetime—it is one of the most performed Norwegian plays. Ibsen believed Per Gynt, the Norwegian fairy tale on which the play is loosely based, to be rooted in fact, several of the characters are modelled after Ibsen's own family, notably his parents Knud Ibsen and Marichen Altenburg, he was generally inspired by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen's collection of Norwegian fairy tales, published in 1845. Peer Gynt chronicles the journey of its titular character from the Norwegian mountains to the North African desert. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, "its origins are romantic, but the play anticipates the fragmentations of emerging modernism" and the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones." Peer Gynt has been described as the story of a life based on procrastination and avoidance.
The play was written in Italy and a first edition of 1,250 copies was published on 14 November 1867 by the Danish publisher Gyldendal in Copenhagen. Although the first edition swiftly sold out, a reprint of two thousand copies, which followed after only fourteen days, didn't sell out until seven years later. While Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson admired the play's "satire on Norwegian egotism and self-sufficiency" and described it as "magnificent", Hans Christian Andersen, Georg Brandes and Clemens Petersen all joined the widespread hostility, Petersen writing that the play was not poetry. Enraged by Petersen's criticisms in particular, Ibsen defended his work by arguing that it "is poetry; the conception of poetry in our country, in Norway, shall shape itself according to this book." Despite this defense of his poetic achievement in Peer Gynt, the play was his last to employ verse. Ibsen wrote Peer Gynt in deliberate disregard of the limitations that the conventional stagecraft of the 19th century imposed on drama.
Its forty scenes move uninhibitedly in time and space and between consciousness and the unconscious, blending folkloric fantasy and unsentimental realism. Raymond Williams compares Peer Gynt with August Strindberg's early drama Lucky Peter's Journey and argues that both explore a new kind of dramatic action, beyond the capacities of the theatre of the day. Peer Gynt was first performed in Christiania on 24 February 1876, with original music composed by Edvard Grieg that includes some of today's most recognized classical pieces, "In the Hall of the Mountain King" and "Morning Mood", it was published in German translation in 1881, in English in 1892, in French in 1896. The contemporary influence of the play continues into the twenty-first century. Peer Gynt was written in Danish, the common written language of Denmark and Norway since the Dano-Norwegian union and throughout Ibsen's lifetime; the language was referred to as Danish in Denmark and as Norwegian in Norway, although it was the same written language, is therefore called Dano-Norwegian.
Due to its basis in Norwegian folktales, the play uses a few Norwegianisms in its vocabulary and idiom, but is otherwise written in a language identical to standard Danish. Peer Gynt was published by the Danish publisher Gyldendal in Copenhagen and targeted at both the Danish and the Norwegian market in its original language. Peer Gynt is the son of the once regarded Jon Gynt. Jon Gynt spent all his money on feasting and living lavishly, had to leave his farm to become a wandering salesman, leaving his wife and son behind in debt. Åse, the mother, wished to raise her son to restore the lost fortune of his father, but Peer is soon to be considered useless. He is a poet and a braggart, not like the youngest son from Norwegian fairy tales, the "Ash Lad", with whom he shares some characteristics; as the play opens, Peer gives an account of a reindeer hunt that went awry, a famous theatrical scene known as "the Buckride". His mother scorns him for his vivid imagination, taunts him because he spoiled his chances with Ingrid, the daughter of the richest farmer.
Peer leaves for Ingrid's wedding, scheduled for the following day, because he may still get a chance with the bride. His mother follows to stop him from shaming himself completely. At the wedding, the other guests taunt and laugh at Peer the local blacksmith, who holds a grudge after an earlier brawl. In the same wedding, Peer meets a family of Haugean newcomers from another valley, he notices the elder daughter and asks her to dance. She refuses because her father would disapprove, because Peer's reputation has preceded him, she leaves, Peer starts drinking. When he hears the bride has locked herself in, he seizes the opportunity, runs away with her, spends the night with her in the mountains. Peer is banished for kidnapping Ingrid; as he wanders the mountains, his mother, Åse, Solveig's father search for him. Peer meets three amorous dairymaids, he becomes intoxicated with them and spends the next day alone suffering from a hangover. He runs head-first into a rock and swoons, the rest of the second act takes place in Peer's dreams.
He comes across a woman clad in green. Together they ride into the mountain hall, the troll king gives Peer the opport
The Love of a Queen (1923 film)
The Love of a Queen is a 1923 German silent historical drama film directed by Ludwig Wolff and starring Harry Liedtke, Henny Porten and Walter Janssen. It is based on the eighteenth century affair between the Danish Queen Caroline Matilda and the court physician Johann Friedrich Struensee; the film's sets were designed by the art director Heinrich Fritz Seyffert. Harry Liedtke as Johann Friedrich Struensee Henny Porten as Die Königin Walter Janssen as Der König Olga Limburg as Königin-Witwe Annemarie Mörike as Hofdame Friedrich Kayßler Hermann Vallentin Louis Ralph Adele Sandrock Erna Hauk Rudolf Biebrach Max Gülstorff Louis V. Arco The Dictator King in Shadow A Royal Affair Bock, Hans-Michael & Bergfelder, Tim; the Concise CineGraph. Encyclopedia of German Cinema. Berghahn Books, 2009; the Love of a Queen on IMDb
Otto Brahm was a German drama and literary critic, theatre manager and director. His productions were noted for being realistic, he was involved in the foundation of the progressive Die Freie Bühne company, of which he became president and producer. He edited the company's weekly magazine of the same name, but changed its name to Die neue Rundschau. Brahm managed the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, was responsible for modernising its output. From Heinz Herald's memoir of Max Reinhardt entitled Bildnis Eines Theater-Mannes, regarding the birth of modern theatre: In Germany, the explosion came in 1889, embodied by Otto Brahm, her place was the newly grounded vacant stage, her occasion is the premiere of a young unknown poet. His name was Gerhart Hauptmann, his play Before Sunrise. Opinions collapsed, as the representatives of a tradition-bound art calcified with the glowing, new style. A well-known Berlin doctor swung a little rude noose after the curtain had fallen. A battle raged, but soon it became clear as day that naturalism had triumphed here on the whole line.
The confirmation of this victory occurred when Brahm shortly afterwards took over the direction of the Deutsches Theater, which at that time was still considered to be the leader in Berlin and the Reich. But Otto Brahm could not fulfill the theoretical ideal of consistent naturalism because it was and is unfulfillable.... Art naturalistic art, is a choice, omission; the verdict, painted on Brahm’s stage, "art and nature are one only," could not be realized. Brahm saw this too soon, his house-poets, led by Ibsen and Hauptmann, supplied him with pieces that one could by no means call naturalistic. They used more naturalistic means, but they omitted and increased..... There was no longer no idealized decoration, no off-the-ground stage style; the Brahms theater was true, decent, manly. One did not pretend in Brahm’s theatre, one played as lifelike as possible. A great ensemble helped Otto Brahm with this effort; every time an elementary new stage personality appears, a keen actor seems to form itself around this center.
Here were the best Rittner, Hermann Muller and Else Lehmann: performers who met the Brahmian style of the naturalness, sober behavior. Through hotly controversial Hauptmann's first performances and many pieces of the naturalistic period and his cast rose to what they undoubtedly considered to be the pinnacle of their achievement: the peculiar and pompous cycle of Ibsen. Brahm was not a director; this position, unknown in our current sense, was more the role of a subaltern. Brahm sat in on the rehearsals in the dark auditorium and tried to bring his actors to where he wanted them by talking after rehearsing, he was a brilliant dramaturg. He was in close contact with his authors, selected the pieces for his playing schedule, occupied them and hired new ensemble members. A young actor of his theater, who had noticed him on a short visit to Salzburg and stayed with him for a decade, was called Max Reinhardt.” 12-14 Oskar Seidlin Jewish Encyclopedia
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
The Burning Heart (film)
The Burning Heart or Heart Aflame is a 1929 German silent drama film directed by Ludwig Berger and starring Mady Christians, Gustav Fröhlich and Friedrich Kayßler. Mady Christians as Dorothee Claudius Gustav Fröhlich as Georg Wittig Friedrich Kayßler as Dorothees Vater Frida Richard as Pflegemutter Wittig Ida Wüst as Isolde Fuchs, Konzertagentin Anton Pointner as Direktor des Odeon Hanna Waag as Inge Keller Anton Edthofer as Baron Rosa Valetti Lena Malena as Zazu Alexandra Schmitt Hubert von Meyerinck Karl Platen Elsa Wagner as Schiessbudenbesitzerin Prawer, S. S. Between Two Worlds: The Jewish Presence in German and Austrian Film, 1910–1933. Berghahn Books, 2005; the Burning Heart on IMDb