Danish royal family
The Danish royal family is the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family except Queen Margrethe II hold the title of Prince/Princess of Denmark. Dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness; the Queen is styled Her Majesty. The Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, a branch of the Royal House of Oldenburg; the Queen's children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat, were given the concurrent title Count/Countess of Monpezat by royal decree on 30 April 2008. The Danish royal family enjoys remarkably high approval ratings in Denmark, ranging between 82% and 92%; the Danish royal family includes: The Queen The Crown Prince and Crown Princess Prince Christian Princess Isabella Prince Vincent Princess Josephine Prince Joachim and Princess Marie Prince Nikolai Prince Felix Prince Henrik Princess Athena The Dowager Princess of Sayn-Wittenstein-Berleburg The Queen of the Hellenes Most of the members of the deposed royal family of Greece hold the title of Prince or Princess of Greece and Denmark with the qualification of His or Her Highness, pursuant to the Royal Cabinet Order of 1974 and as agnatic descendants of George I of Greece, who, as the son of the future King Christian IX of Denmark, was a "Prince of Denmark" prior to his accession to the throne of Greece in 1863.
Until 1953 his dynastic male-line descendants remained in Denmark's order succession. However, no Danish act has revoked usage of the princely title for these descendants, neither for those living in 1953, nor for those born subsequently or who have since married into the dynasty. There are three members of the Greek royal family who are not known to bear the title of Prince/ss of Denmark with the qualification of His/Her Highness. Marina, consort of Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark Princess Alexandra, Mrs. Mirzayantz The Duchess of ApuliaThe following, consorts of royal monarchs today, were born with the titles of Prince/Princess of Greece and Denmark although they are not descended from King Constantine and Queen Anne-Marie: Queen Sofia of Spain The Duke of Edinburgh The royal family of Norway descends in the legitimate male line from Frederick VIII of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II's great-grandfather. Haakon VII of Norway, born Prince Carl of Denmark as Frederick VIII's younger son, like his uncle, George I of Greece, invited to reign over another nation.
As with the Greek branch's descendants, members of the Norwegian line no longer have succession rights to the Danish crown, but unlike the Greek dynasts they discontinued use of Danish royal titles upon ascending to the Norwegian throne in 1905. The Ducal Family of Schleswig-Holstein descends in the legitimate male line from Christian III of Denmark; as with the Greek branch's descendants, members of the Schleswig-Holstein line no longer have succession rights to the Danish crown, but unlike the Greek dynasts they discontinued use of Danish royal titles upon ascending their foreign throne in 1564. Danish princes who marry without consent of the Danish monarch lose their dynastic rights, including royal title; the ex-dynasts, not being members of the Danish royal family, are usually accorded the hereditary title "Count of Rosenborg". They, their wives, their legitimate male-line descendants are: Count Ingolf and Countess Sussie of Rosenborg Countess Josephine of Rosenborg Countess Camilla of Rosenborg Countess Feodora of Rosenborg Count Ulrik and Countess Judi of Rosenborg Count Philip of Rosenborg Countess Katharina of Rosenborg Countess Charlotte of Rosenborg Count Axel and Countess Jutta of Rosenborg Count Carl Johan of Rosenborg Count Alexander of Rosenborg Countess Julie of Rosenborg Countess Désirée of Rosenborg Count Birger and Countess Lynne of Rosenborg Countess Benedikte of Rosenborg Count Carl Johan and Countess Lisa Jeanne of Rosenborg Countess Caroline of Rosenborg Countess Josefine of Rosenborg Countess Désirée of Rosenborg Countess Karin of Rosenborg Count Valdemar of Rosenborg Count Nicolai of Rosenborg Countess M
Princess Thyra of Denmark
Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation:, was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover; as the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria. Thyra was the younger sister of Frederik VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, George I of Greece, Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia and an elder sister of Prince Valdemar of Denmark. Princess Thyra was born on 29 September 1853 at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen as the third daughter and fifth child of Prince Christian and Princess Louise of Denmark; as a child, she shared a bedroom with her elder sisters and Dagmar, was taught how to sew and knit her own clothes and socks. Her family had been obscure but happy until her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his childless distant cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne.
Just two months before Thyra's birth, the new Act of Succession had been passed and Prince Christian given the title of Prince of Denmark. In 1863, when Thyra was 10 years old, King Frederick VII died, her father succeeded to the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX. Earlier the same year, her brother Vilhelm had been elected King of Greece, her sister Alexandra had married Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. In 1866, her other sister Dagmar married the tsarevich of Alexander. Thyra was an attractive and gentle young woman, with dark hair and dark blue eyes, Queen Louise wanted her youngest daughter to make a good marriage as her elder daughters had. Thyra's first suitor was King Willem III of the Netherlands, but as he was thirty-six years older than she was, she rejected him. In her youth, Thyra had fallen in love with Vilhelm Frimann Marcher, a lieutenant in the cavalry, which resulted in a pregnancy, her brother George I of Greece suggested. She gave birth to a girl, Maria, on 8 November 1871 at Schloss Glücksburg, adopted by Rasmus and Anne Marie Jørgensen of Odense shortly after birth and renamed Kate.
Marcher killed himself on 4 January 1872 after a confrontation with the King. On 21 December/22 December 1878, she married Crown Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, at the chapel of Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Ernst Augustus was the eldest child and only son of King George V of Hanover and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernest Augustus had been born as a Crown Prince of Hanover, but in 1866 his father had been deprived of his throne, when the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia after siding with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War. Thanks to her marriage, Thyra became Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg, she was styled Crown Princess of Hanover. Her husband died on 14 November 1923. Thyra survived him by nine years and died in Gmunden, Upper Austria, on 26 February 1933; the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland had six children: 29 September 1853 – 21 December 1858: Her Highness Princess Thyra of Denmark 21 December 1858 – 22 December 1878: Her Royal Highness Princess Thyra of Denmark 22 December 1878 – 28 March 1919: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Hanover and Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale 28 March 1919 – 26 February 1933: Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Thyra of Hanover Spain: 814th Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa Royal House of Hannover Royal House of Denmark Princess Thyra at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace
Kingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers. It was internationally recognised by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire; this event marked the birth of the first independent Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century. The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, lasted until 1924. In 1924 the monarchy was abolished, the Second Hellenic Republic was established, after Greece's defeat by Turkey in the Asia Minor Campaign, it lasted until 1935. The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted from 1935 to 1973; the Kingdom was again dissolved in the aftermath of the seven-year military dictatorship, the Third Republic, the current Greek state, came to be, after a popular referendum. Most of Greece became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century; the Eastern Roman, the direct continuation to the ancient Roman Empire who ruled most of the Greek-speaking world for over 1100 years, had been fatally weakened since the sacking of Constantinople by the Latin Crusaders in 1204.
The Ottoman advance into Greece was preceded by a victory over the Serbs to its north. First, the Ottomans won at 1371 on the Maritsa River – where the Serb forces were led by the King Vukašin of Serbia, the father of Prince Marko and the co-ruler of the last emperor from the Serbian Nemanjic dynasty; this was followed by a draw in the 1389 Battle of Kosovo. With no further threat by the Serbs and the subsequent Byzantine civil wars, the Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453 and advanced southwards into Greece, capturing Athens in 1458; the Greeks held out in the Peloponnese until 1460, the Venetians and Genoese clung to some of the islands, but by 1500 most of the plains and islands of Greece were in Ottoman hands. The mountains of Greece were untouched, were a refuge for Greeks to flee foreign rule and engage in guerrilla warfare. Cyprus fell in 1571, the Venetians retained Crete until 1670; the Ionian Islands were only ruled by the Ottomans, remained under the rule of Venice. In the context of ardent desire for independence from Turkish occupation, with the explicit influence of similar secret societies elsewhere in Europe, three Greeks came together in 1814 in Odessa to decide the constitution for a secret organization in freemasonic fashion.
Its purpose was to unite all Greeks in an armed organization to overthrow Turkish rule. The three founders were Nikolaos Skoufas from the Arta province, Emmanuil Xanthos from Patmos and Athanasios Tsakalov from Ioannina. Soon after they initiated a fourth member, Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos from Andritsaina. Lots of revolts were planned across the Greek region and the first of them was launched on 6 March 1821, in the Danubian principalities, it was put down by the Ottomans, but the torch had been lit and by the end of the same month the Peloponnese was in open revolt. In 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Ottoman Empire. Following a protracted struggle, the autonomy of Greece was first recognized by the Great Powers in 1828. Count Ioannis Kapodistrias became Governor of Greece in 1827, but was assassinated in 1831. At the insistence of the Powers, the 1832 Treaty of London made Greece a monarchy. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the first candidate for the Greek throne. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria was chosen as its first King.
Otto arrived at Nafplion, in 1833 aboard a British warship. Otto's reign would prove troubled, but managed to last for 30 years before he and his wife, Queen Amalia, left the way they came, aboard a British warship. During the early years of his reign, a group of Bavarian Regents ruled in his name and made themselves unpopular by trying to impose German ideas of rigid hierarchical government on the Greeks, while keeping most significant state offices away from them, they laid the foundations of a Greek administration, justice system and education system. Otto was sincere in his desire to give Greece good government, but he suffered from two great handicaps, his Roman Catholic faith, the fact that his marriage to Queen Amalia remained childless. Furthermore, the new Kingdom tried to eliminate the traditional banditry, something that in many cases meant conflict with some old revolutionary fighters who continued to exercise this practice; the Bavarian Regents ruled until 1837, when at the insistence of Britain and France, they were recalled, Otto after that appointed Greek ministers, although Bavarian officials still ran most of the administration and the army.
But Greece still had no constitution. Greek discontent grew until a revolt broke out in Athens in September 1843. Otto agreed to grant a constitution, convened a National Assembly which met in November; the new constitution created a bicameral parliament, consisting of a Senate. Power passed into the hands of a group of politicians, most of whom had been commanders in the War of Independence against the Ottomans. Greek politics in the 19th century was dominated by the national question. Greeks dreamed of liberating them all and reconstituting a state embracing all the Greek lands, with Constantinople as its capital; this was called the Great Idea, it was sustained by cont
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (elder line)
Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was a line of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg, from 1622 to 1779. The line was founded by the partitioned-off duke Philip of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg; the line was named after Glücksburg Castle. Members of this line bore the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. However, they had limited powers in ruling their territory, since it was not an estate of the Realm, but a fief of the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp; the family gave up these rights altogether and continued as titular dukes. Some years after the death of the last duke, Frederick Henry William, the title went via King Frederick VI to Frederick William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, who founded the younger line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg in 1825
Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was the eighth of the ten children of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel. In 1863, Prince Julius was sent to Greece with his young nephew, Prince Vilhelm of Denmark, who had ascended to the throne of Greece as King of the Hellenes, as an advisor. Eighteen months the King returned from a walk to discover that, whilst he was out, Julius had invited seven ministers associated with the former, unpopular, King Otto to the Palace to discuss the removal of Count Sponneck, another of the King's advisors. Indignant at what he saw as an attempt at a palace putsch, the King ordered Julius to leave Greece within one week. Julius contracted a morganatic marriage with Elisabeth von Ziegesar, daughter of Wolf von Ziegesar, on 2 July 1883. After their marriage, she was styled Countess von Roest. 14 October 1824 – 6 July 1825: His Serene Highness Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 6 July 1825 – 19 December 1863: His Serene Highness Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 19 December 1863 – 1 June 1903: His Highness Prince Julius of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Königsberg is the name for a former German city, now Kaliningrad, Russia. A Sambian or Old Prussian city, it belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany until 1945. After being destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today; the literal meaning of Königsberg is'King’s Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was Kenigsbarg. Further names included Russian: Кёнигсберг, Королевец, tr. Kyonigsberg, Old Prussian: Kunnegsgarbs, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Polish: Królewiec and Yiddish: קעניגסבערג Kenigsberg. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia and East Prussia.
Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. A university city, home of the Albertina University, Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others. Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures; the city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in the Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg in 1547. Königsberg was the easternmost large city in Germany until World War II; the city was damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during the Battle of Königsberg in 1945.
Its German population was expelled, the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union. Russified as Kyonigsberg, it was renamed "Kaliningrad" in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin, it is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland. There has been some discussion of the territory's current legal status, although this is academic; the Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation. In the Final Settlement treaty of 1990, Germany renounced all claim to it, but without transferring its former title to any other party. Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian, or Old Prussian, fort known as Twangste, meaning Oak Forest, as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick, the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim. During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as Conigsberg.
This name meant "King’s Hill", honoring King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade. Northwest of this new Königsberg Castle arose an initial settlement known as Steindamm 4.5 miles from the Vistula Lagoon. The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in 1262–63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order; because the initial northwestern settlement was destroyed by the Prussians during the rebellion, rebuilding occurred in the southern valley between the castle hill and the Pregel River. This new settlement, received Culm rights in 1286. Löbenicht, a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich, received its own rights in 1300. Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof, which received town rights in 1327 and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.
Within the state of the Teutonic Order, Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order. The city was the seat of the Bishopric of Samland, one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate, William of Modena. Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral, a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof. Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in 1340 and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the chronicler Peter of Dusburg wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from 1324–1330. After the Teutonic Order's victory over pagan Lithuanians in the 1348 Battle of Strawen, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode established a Cistercian nunnery in the city. Aspiring students were educated in Königsberg before continuing on to higher education elsewhere, such as Prague or Leipzig.
Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. Livonian knights replaced the Prussian branch's garrison at Königsberg, allow
Gottorf Castle is a castle and estate in the city of Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is one of the most important secular buildings in Schleswig-Holstein, has been rebuilt and expanded several times in its over eight hundred years of history, changing from a medieval castle to a Renaissance fortress to a Baroque castle, it is the ancestral home of the Holstein-Gottorp branch of the House of Oldenburg, from which emerged in the 18th century, among other things, four Swedish kings and several Russian Tsars. It is situated on an island in about 40 km from the Baltic Sea, it was first settled as an estate in 1161 as the residence of Bishop Occo of Schleswig when his former residence was destroyed. The Danish Duke of Schleswig acquired it through a purchase in 1268, in 1340 it was transferred to the Count of Holstein at Rendsburg of the House of Schauenburg; the manor through maternal inheritance, became the possession of Christian I of Denmark, the first Danish monarch from the House of Oldenburg, in 1459.
Both the island and the structure were extended through the years, during the 16th century. Frederick I, younger son of Christian I, made it his primary residence. In 1544 the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were divided in three parts; this state became known as the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. The estate became a European cultural centre in the reign of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp; the castle was built by the famous Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger. After the ducal lineage of Gottorp were forced to move out in 1702, the palace, now occupied by the Danish, fell into disuse and disrepair in 1713 under the reign of Frederick IV of Denmark. Pieces of furniture and other interior were moved out of the palace, the structures were used both as Danish and Prussian barracks in the 19th century. During World War II, the estate was used as a displaced persons camp. Since 1947, the palace has been restored through a series of efforts; the restoration was considered complete in 1996.
The palace is now owned by a foundation of the State of Schleswig-Holstein and houses the State Art and Cultural History Museum and the State Archeological Museum. Globe of Gottorf Foundation for state museums for Schleswig-Holstein at Gottorf Palace The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea