National Library of Latvia
The National Library of Latvia is a national cultural institution under the supervision of the Latvian Ministry of Culture. The National Library of Latvia was formed in 1919 after the independent Republic of Latvia was proclaimed in 1918, the first supervisor of the Library was Jānis Misiņš, a librarian and the founder of the Latvian scientific bibliography. Today the Library plays an important role in the development of Latvias information society, providing Internet access to residents and supporting research and lifelong education. One of the cornerstones of the NLL, which characterizes every national library, is the formation of the collection of national literature, its eternal storage. The NLL is a centre of research and practical analyses of the activities of Latvian libraries. Since the very outset, its main concern has been the national bibliography, the massive union catalogue Ancient Prints in Latvian 1525 -1855, received Spīdola Prize in 2000 and was awarded The Beautiful Book of the Year 99.
The NLL includes several collections of posters, digitising collections at the NLL started in 1999. At present the Latvian National Digital Library Letonica, which was formed in 2006, holds digitized collections of newspapers, maps, sheet-music, in 2008 NLL launched two major digital projects. Periodika. lv is the NLLs collection of digitized historical periodicals in Latvian with the possibility to read full texts, Latvia has a tradition of Song and Dance Festivals organized every four years. The historical materials from the first Song Festival in 1864 till the Latgale Song Festival in 1940 can be explored in another collection of the National Library of Latvia. One of the architects is Gunārs Birkerts. It opened its doors to visitors in 2014, today the NLL building is a dominant landmark on the Riga cityscape. It is used for a variety of purposes and hosted a debate chaired by the BBCs Jonathan Dimbleby on 14 March 2016
Pietism was an influential movement within Lutheranism that combined Lutheran emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life. Although the movement was active exclusively within Lutheranism, it had a impact on Protestantism worldwide, particularly in North America. Pietism spread from Germany to Switzerland and the rest of German-speaking Europe and the Baltics, and it was further taken to North America, primarily by German and Scandinavian immigrants. The movement reached its zenith in the century, and declined through the 19th century. A substantial part of the Pietistic Protestants was formed by German Sectarians, Norwegian Lutherans, Swedish Lutherans, as the forerunners of the Pietists in the strict sense, certain voices had been heard bewailing the shortcomings of the Church and advocating a revival of practical and devout Christianity. The direct originator of the movement was Philipp Jakob Spener and he studied theology at Strasbourg, where the professors at the time were more inclined to practical Christianity than to theological disputation.
In 1675, Spener published his Pia desideria or Earnest Desire for a Reform of the True Evangelical Church and this was originally a pejorative term given to the adherents of the movement by its enemies as a form of ridicule, like that of Methodists somewhat in England. While large numbers of orthodox Lutheran theologians and pastors were deeply offended by Speners book, in 1686 Spener accepted an appointment to the court-chaplaincy at Dresden, which opened to him a wider though more difficult sphere of labor. In Leipzig, a society of young theologians was formed under his influence for the learned study, the theological chairs in the new university were filled in complete conformity with Speners proposals. Orthodox Lutherans rejected this viewpoint as a simplification, stressing the need for the church. Spener died in 1705, but the movement, guided by Francke and fertilized from Halle, spread through the whole of Middle, Spener stressed the necessity of a new birth and separation of Christians from the world.
Many Pietists maintained that the new birth always had to be preceded by agonies of repentance, the whole school shunned all common worldly amusements, such as dancing, the theatre, and public games. Some believe this led to a new form of justification by works and its ecclesiolae in ecclesia weakened the power and meaning of church organization. These Pietistic attitudes caused a counter-movement at the beginning of the 18th century, one leader was Valentin Ernst Löscher, a movement which cultivated religious feeling almost as an end itself. Yet some claim that Pietism contributed largely to the revival of Biblical studies in Germany and to making religion once more an affair of the heart and of life and it likewise gave a new emphasis to the role of the laity in the church. Then came a time when another intellectual power took possession of the minds of men, bonhoeffer denounced the basic aim of Pietism, to produce a desired piety in a person, as unbiblical. Pietism is considered the influence that led to the creation of the Evangelical Church of the Union in Prussia in 1817.
The King of Prussia ordered the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Prussia to unite and this union movement spread through many German lands in the 1800s
Johann Philipp Krieger
Johann Philipp Krieger was a German Baroque composer and organist. He was the brother of Johann Krieger. The Krieger brothers came from a Nuremberg family of rugmakers, Johann Philipp soon left Nuremberg for Copenhagen, where he spent some four or five years, studying organ playing with Johann Schröder, the royal organist, and composition with Kaspar Förster. During his stay, whenever it occurred, Johann Philipp was offered an invitation to become organist in Christiania and Doppelmayr differ on the details of Johann Philipps subsequent career. However, the dates are again unknown. Doppelmayr gives 1669–70 for the Bayreuth stay, while Mattheson confusingly reports that Johann Philipp was at Zeitz in 1670–71, and at Bayreuth in 1670–72. Research has shown that the records of Zeitz contain no mention of either brother. Johann Philipp was still employed in Bayreuth in 1673, when Margrave Christian Ernst left to fight in the Franco-Dutch War, following that, the composer was granted permission to travel to Italy without loss of salary.
He stayed in Venice, studying with Johann Rosenmüller and Giovanni Battista Volpe, and in Rome, in 1675 Johann Philipp went to Vienna, one of the most important musical capitals of Europe, where he played for Emperor Leopold I. The Emperor was a patron of the arts and a composer, upon hearing Kriegers performance, he was sufficiently impressed to ennoble him. Johann Philipp returned to Bayreuth, and shortly thereafter travelled to Frankfurt and he was offered job invitations in both cities, but either declined both, or held them for a very short time. On 2 November 1677 Johann Philipp was employed as court organist at Halle, duke August died in 1680 and was succeeded by his brother, Johann Adolf I, who moved the court to Weißenfels. Johann Philipp went with him as Kapellmeister, and this was his last position, he held it for 45 years, the courts musical establishment soon became one of Germany’s greatest. Two years after Johann Philipp moved to Weißenfels, his brother Johann moved to Zittau, Johann Philipp was a prolific composer and supplied the Weißenfels court with countless sacred and secular works, including some 2,000 cantatas, at least 18 operas, trio-sonatas, etc.
He had works by other composers performed at the court. He actively published his own music, a set of trio sonatas appeared in 1688, to be followed by another, a collection of music for wind instruments, numerous works were lost, for instance, of the 2,000 cantatas only 76 are extant. This is the case with his brothers music, hundreds of his compositions are listed in Johann Philipps catalogue and he was succeeded as Weißenfels Kapellmeister by his son, Johann Gotthilf, until 1736. This section lists collections of Kriegers music published during the composers lifetime, http, //www. hoasm. org/ Free scores by Johann Philipp Krieger in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores by Johann Philipp Krieger at the International Music Score Library Project
These were not found anywhere outside of Europe. In Europe, these instruments were sometimes augmented by bagpipes and pipe, after about 1500 in Germany, the alta developed into the kind of band that came to be known as Stadtpfeifer. Many English cities in the 1500s had town waits, as did rich individuals, in 1571, London ordered its waits to play “upon their instruments upon the turret at the Royal Exchange every Sunday and holiday toward the evening. ”. These may have been London’s first regularly scheduled public concerts, there is one surviving composition from the late-fifteenth or early sixteenth century actually titled Alta. It is a piece for three voices by F de la Torre, in the Spanish manuscript Cancionero de Palacio, and is assumed to be a typical example of the improvisatory style of this ensemble. It sets the popular basse danse tenor La Spagna in long notes with a contratenor in more or less note-against-note motion, similar cantus-firmus settings from this period, mostly in three parts and in improvisatory style, may be associated with these bands.
Examples include pieces found in MS Trent 87,5 such as Auxce bon youre, during the sixteenth century, cantus firmus settings gave way to other kind of dances, sometimes improvised and sometimes composed. Music in four parts had become a normal texture by the sixteenth century. Brown, Howard Mayer, and Keith Polk, Instrumental Music, c. 1300–c.1520, in Music as Concept and Practice in the Late Middle Ages, Players and Performance Practice, edited by Reinhard Strohm and Bonnie J. Blackburn, 97–162. The New Oxford History of Music, vol and New York, Oxford University Press. The Renaissance Slide Trumpet, Fact or Fiction, journal of the American Musicological Society 19, no. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, Instrumental Music in the Urban Centres of Renaissance Germany. The Trombone, the Slide Trumpet and the Ensemble Tradition of the Early Renaissance, german Instrumental Music of the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, in The Cambridge History of Musical Performance, edited by Colin Lawson and Robin Stowell, 335–52.
Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, das Alta-Ensemble und seine Instrumente von der Spätgotik bis zur Hochrenaissance. More about Renaissance Slide Trumpets, Fact or Fiction
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
Generally a cantor must be competent to choose and to conduct the vocals for the choir, to start any chant on demand, and to be able to identify and correct the missteps of singers placed under him. He may be accountable for the immediate rendering of the music, showing the course of the melody by movements of the hand. There are several titles for the psaltes, which depend on the recognition of his capabilities as a chanter, sometimes connected with an employment, the cantor or chanters sing the many hymns called for during the Divine Services and the Divine Liturgy. A chanter must be knowledgeable about the ecclesiastical modes as well as the structure of the services. At Constantinople the charge of a protopsaltes was prestigious and connected with Byzantine offices, in the tradition of the cathedral rite at Hagia Sophia, there was a distinction between the leader of the right choir and the leader of the left choir. In the Greek tradition, a chanter will often wear the exorason, in the Greek tradition, the chanters are stationed at a psalterion, a chanting podium positioned to the south and sometimes to the north side of the sanctuary.
In the Slavic tradition, the chanters are similarly positioned, before the Second Vatican Council, in the Roman Catholic Church a cantor was the leading singer of the choir, a bona fide clerical role. The medieval cantor of the papal Schola Cantorum was called Prior scholae or Primicerius, in medieval cathedrals, the cantor or precentor directed the music and chant, and was one of the ranking dignitaries of the chapter. During the 14th century in churches, the cantor began to delegate his instruction of the singers to a master of music. After the introduction of harmonized music, some duties naturally fell to the conductor or choirmaster, the cantor is a role that can be performed by a lay person. In parishes without a choir, the cantor serves to lead the responsorial singing with the congregation, the cantors locality in the church is most generally to the right of the choir, and directly to his left is his assistant, formerly called the succentor. A common custom for cantors was the bearing of the staff, which was the mark of his dignity and this custom still survives in some places.
In Protestant churches the role of the cantor can be lay or pastoral, johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann were among the famous musicians employed under this system. In cathedral churches in the Anglican communion, the precentor or head cantor is a member of the governing chapter and his stall is opposite the deans and the two sides of the divided choir are accordingly known as decani and cantoris. Anglican church music Contemporary Catholic liturgical music Gregorian chant Mass Moran, the Choir of the Hagia Sophia. Der byzantinische Chor, wie er sich in den Typika des 10. -12 and this article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. The Catholic Encyclopedia,1913 Cantor, Merriam-Webster Cantor Byzantine Music and Recordings of important Psaltes of the Constantinopolitan Patriarchate. John Koukouzeles Teretismos sung by Ensemble Romeiko in Historic Costumes, national Library of Athens, Romeiko Ensemble
Eilenburg is a town in Germany. It lies in the district of Nordsachsen in the Free State of Saxony, Eilenburg lies at the banks of the river Mulde at the southwestern edge of the Düben Heath wildlife park. The town is subdivided into three districts, Berg and Ost and six rural districts named Behlitz, Kospa, Wedelwitz. Neighbouring towns and cities are Leipzig, Bad Düben, Eilenburg Castle was first mentioned on 29 July 961 in a document by Otto I. as civitas Ilburg. The name has Slavic origin and means town with clay deposits, a settlement of tradespeople probably developed from the 11th century in the vicinity of the castle. In the 16th century Eilenburg was central to several events of the Protestant Reformation, even George, Duke of Saxony, called this town a nominated place. Martin Luther was in Eilenburg seven times and called it a blessed lard pit, the Thirty Years War left its mark on Eilenburg. The town was spared fighting, but it suffered from the catastrophic economic effects of the war.
From 1631 the town was involved in the war. In 1632 the body of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was laid out in the Red Deer Inn after he had killed in the Battle of Lützen. In 1639 Eilenburg was conquered by the troops of Georg von Derfflinger, in 1646 peace negotiations between Saxony and Sweden began in Eilenburg to extend the expiring Armistice of Kötzschenbroda. On 14 September 1648 the Treaty of Eilenburg was signed and meant the end of the Thirty Years War for Saxony, the slow onset of economic recovery came to a sudden end with the start of the Seven Years War. Virtually each male in Eilenburg had to serve in the armed forces, the city was occupied alternately by the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. In the following years Eilenburg turned into an impoverished and dirty old town, at the end of the 18th century the economy stagnated and Eilenburg became an even more insignificant town. In 1813 during the War of the Sixth Coalition shortly before the Battle of Leipzig, after Napoleons defeat, Saxony had to cede large territory to Prussia under the provisions of the Congress of Vienna.
Eilenburg was part of the Province of Saxony within the progressive Prussian state, thereby the transition of Eilenburg to an industrial city was advanced significantly. Because of the founding of textile factories, with its proximity to the Prussian capital Berlin. The ascent to an important industrial city came mainly from the nearby Kingdom of Saxony, Saxon industrialists settled in Eilenburg for having duty-free access to the Prussian market
Halle is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt. Halle is an economic and educational center in central-eastern Germany, the University of Halle-Wittenberg is the largest university in Saxony-Anhalt and one of the oldest universities in Germany, and a nurturing ground for the local startup ecosystem. Together with Leipzig, Halle is at the heart of the Central German Metropolitan Region, one of eastern Germanys other major cities, is only 35 kilometres away. Halles early history is connected with harvesting of salt, the name Halle reflects early Celtic settlement given that halen is the Brythonic word for salt. The name of the river Saale contains the Germanic root for salt, the Latin name Hala Saxonum was used. The town was first mentioned in AD806, according to historic documents, the city of Halle has been a member of the Hanseatic League at least since 1281. By the 1740s, Halle had established many orphanages as well as schools for the wealthy in the sober style Pietism encouraged and this Halle education was the first time the modern education system was established.
The Halle Pietists were combated poverty, the Battle of Halle was fought between French and Prussian forces on 17 October 1806. The fighting moved from the bridges on the citys west side, through the streets and market place. In 1815, Halle became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony, in Ammendorf, a large factory owned by Orgacid produced mustard gas. Near the end of World War II, there were two bombing raids carried out against the town, the first on 31 March 1945, the second a few days later. The first attack took place between the station and the citys centre, and the second bombing was in the southern district. It killed over 1,000 inhabitants and destroyed 3,600 buildings, among them, the Market Church, St. George Church, the Old Town Hall, the City Theatre, historic buildings on Bruederstrasse and on Grosse Steinstrasse, and the city cemetery. On 17 April 1945, American soldiers occupied Halle, and the red tower was set on fire by artillery, the Market Church and the Church of St. George received more hits.
However, the city was spared further damage because an aerial bombardment was canceled, in July, the Americans withdrew and the city was occupied by the Red Army. After World War II, Halle served as the capital of the administrative region of Saxony-Anhalt until 1952. As a part of East Germany, it functioned as the capital of the district of Halle. When Saxony-Anhalt was re-established as a Bundesland in 1990, not Halle, Halloren Chocolate Factory and visitors centre, Germanys oldest chocolate factory still in use
Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is an old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria. It was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world, subsequently it re-emerged as a secular and recital instrument in the Classical music tradition. Pipe organs use air moving through pipes to produce sounds, since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary widely in timbre and volume. The pipes are divided into ranks and controlled by the use of hand stops, although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics, some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters. Some organs are enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive and these instruments vary greatly in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, and are built in churches, concert halls, and homes.
Small organs are called positive or portative, increasingly hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible especially when the lowest of the pipes can be replaced, non-piped organs include the reed organ or harmonium, which like the accordion and harmonica use air to excite free reeds. Electronic organs or digital organs, notably the Hammond organ, generate electronically produced sound through one or more loudspeakers, mechanical organs include the barrel organ, water organ, and Orchestrion. These are controlled by means such as pinned barrels or book music. Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by a grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor. The pipe organ is the grandest musical instrument in size and scope, along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the Industrial Revolution.
Pipe organs range in size from a short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ typically has three or four keyboards with five each, and a two-and-a-half octave pedal board. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the King of instruments, some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes, and it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras, most organs in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia can be found in Christian churches. The introduction of organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century
Esther is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel. It is generally acknowledged to be the first English oratorio, Handel set a libretto after the Old Testament drama by Jean Racine. The work was composed in 1718, but was heavily revised into a full oratorio in 1732. Esther began in 1718 as a masque, or chamber drama, composed early in Handels English career and it was first composed and performed at Cannons, where the Duke of Chandos employed Handel from 1716 -1718 as resident composer writing for his patrons singers and small orchestra. Little is known about this first version of Esther, the Cannons version of Esther was in six scenes with no break and written for an ensemble of one soprano, an alto, two tenors and two basses. Like Acis and Galatea, Esther may have been staged or semi-staged, the author of the libretto is uncertain. Mordecai had discovered and prevented a conspiracy to assassinate the King, having rejected his previous wife, selected Esther as his spouse. The Prime Minister, became enraged when Mordecai refused to bow to him, the first version of Esther opens as Haman decides to order the extermination of all Jews throughout the Persian empire as retaliation for Mordecais insult to him.
The Jews, are celebrating Esthers accession as Queen of Persia, Esther asks Mordecai why he is displaying grief by being dressed in sackcloth and ashes and he tells her the King has followed his Prime Ministers advice to order the extermination of the Jews. He asks Esther to appeal to her husband to rescind the order and she decides to take this risk anyway and goes to see the King, who pardons her breach of protocol in approaching him without invitation and offers to grant any petition she asks. Esther only requests that the King and Haman will attend a banquet hosted by herself, at the dinner, Esther reminds the King that Mordecai had saved his life and reveals her Jewish origin. She tells the King that the order to exterminate the Jews is directed against Mordecai, Haman had prepared a gallows on which to hang Mordecai, but the King orders Haman himself to be executed there. The Jews give thanks to God for their deliverance, notable among the arias is Tune your harps with cheerful noise, with pizzicato string accompaniment, an actual harp is used in the orchestra in the following aria.
The work ends with a lengthy and grandiose choral movement, by 1731, Handel had spent more than ten years composing Italian operas for London and presenting seasons of his operas at London theatres. The work was popular and thus the form of the English oratorio was invented. Their large choruses and grandiose orchestral effects with trumpets and drums were very different from what London audiences had experienced in Handels Italian operas. Esther was very successful, Handel revived the work in many subsequent London seasons, there will be no action on the stage, but the house will be fitted up in a decent manner for the audience. Hant you been at the oratorio, but Handel was placed in a pulpit. by him sat Senesino, Strada and Turner Robinson in their own habits
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions, Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education, BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria. no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the operation for research. As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norways higher education, all their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines, since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries.
The target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries. BIBSYS is an administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS, BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply