Strip District, Pittsburgh
The Strip District is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is a one-half square mile area of land northeast of the central business district bordered to the north by the Allegheny River and to the south by portions of the Hill District; the Strip District runs between 11th and 33rd Streets and includes three main thoroughfares — Smallman St. Penn Ave. and Liberty Ave. — as well as various side streets. In the early 19th century, the Strip District was home to many mills and factories as its location along the Allegheny River made for easy transportation of goods and shipping of raw materials, it was the home of the Fort Pitt Foundry, source of large cannons before and during the American Civil War, including a 20-inch bore Rodman Gun. Early industrial tenants of the Strip District included U. S. Steel, The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, The H. J. Heinz Company, famous ketchup and condiment manufacturer; the shipping infrastructure built around the manufacturing companies attracted other types of merchants to set up shop in the Strip.
By the early 20th century, the Strip District became a vibrant network of wholesalers—mostly fresh produce and poultry dealers. Soon, auction houses rose around the wholesale warehouses. Many restaurants and grocery stores opened to feed hungry shift workers at any hour of the day. By the 1920s, the Strip District was the economic center of Pittsburgh. By the mid-to-late 20th century, fewer of the Strip's products were being shipped by rail and boat, causing many produce sellers and wholesalers to leave the area for other space with easier access to highways, or where there was more land available for expansion. In the early 21st century, there are still several wholesalers and produce dealers in the Strip District, but some estimates say more than 80% of the produce industry left the area, preceded by the manufacturing plants and mills in the mid to late 20th century restructuring of industry. Today, many of the abandoned warehouses have been renovated as small specialty shops, restaurants and bars.
The historic St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, an 1891 landmark built in the ornate Polish Cathedral style, lies in the heart of the Strip District and served early generations of Polish immigrants. Since the late 20th century, the area has developed into a historic market district with many ethnic food purveyors, some art studios, antique dealers, unique boutiques, other businesses setting up shop where trains once delivered produce by the ton; the lack of weekday activity is in someways compensated by retail and leisure facilities which are used on weekends. In the summer months, there are open-air farmers' markets, a range of street vendors and facilities to enjoy open air drinks. Residential developers have begun to convert old factory and warehouse buildings into apartments and lofts. Examples include the Armstrong Cork Factory, Brake House Lofts, the Otto Milk Building. A mixed-use tower is planned for the Ayoob Fruit Warehouse site. More the area has attracted a number of technology companies and become a hotbed for autonomous vehicle and robotics technology.
The area is home to Uber's Advanced Technology Group, which leads the company's vehicular automation efforts, as well Argo AI and Aurora Innovation. Other technology companies with offices in the strip district include Apple, Robert Bosch GmbH, Target Corporation, Wombat Security, JazzHR, BossaNova Robotics; the Strip District has five land borders, including Downtown to the southwest, Crawford-Roberts, Bedford Dwellings and Polish Hill to the south, Lower Lawrenceville to the northeast. Across the Allegheny River, the Strip runs adjacent with the North Shore and Troy Hill with direct links to both neighborhoods via 16th Street and 31st Street Bridges, respectively. Wholey's Pittsburgh Public Market Enrico Biscotti Company Simcoach Games Heinz History Center Primanti Brothers Washington Post article Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Kadushin, Raphael. "15222: Come Hungry". National Geographic. Pp. 114–122. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
Shadyside is a neighborhood in the East End of Pittsburgh, United States. It has three zip codes and representation on Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 8. Shadyside is drawn from the name of a 19th-century Pennsylvania Railroad station in the area, named for its shady lanes. Another neighborhood institution is Shadyside Hospital, a member of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Chatham University is located just across the southern edge of the neighborhood in Squirrel Hill, along with Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, a part of Mellon Park. In April 2014, Niche rated Shadyside the best neighborhood in Pittsburgh for millennials. Shadyside is home to many upscale stores and boutiques, including Moda, Williams-Sonoma, White House Black Market. In Shadyside, businesses are located along three corridors: Walnut Street, Ellsworth Avenue, S. Highland Avenue. Given the compact nature of this historic residential neighborhood, the three business corridors are all within walking distance of one another.
On Walnut Street, there are more stores that belong to national chains, including Gap, Apple, J. Crew, UBS, Chico's, Victoria's Secret, Banana Republic and United Colors of Benetton. Pittsburgh's oldest jewelry store, the 4th generation Henne Jewelers, is here, as are local restaurants, including Up Modern Kitchen, Cappy's, Mario's, William Penn Tavern, Pamela's Diner and La Feria. Pamela's Diner has been serving breakfast since 1980. Pamela's gained publicity when Gail Klingensmith and Pamela Cohen, the two co-owners of Pamela's P&G Diners, made pancakes in 2009 for President Barack Obama, his wife Michelle Obama and 80 veterans for a Memorial Day breakfast; the Jam on Walnut is a summer concert series. The concerts are held on the last Saturday of each summer month on the corner of Bellefonte and Walnut Street. Proceeds from beer sales go to Cystic Fibrosis. Walnut Street hosts the Shadyside Arts Festival, a juried art show; this late summer/early fall street fair has been held on Walnut Street for so long that the event has been renamed "The Art Festival on Walnut Street."
Ellsworth Avenue tends to have smaller, locally owned businesses, including Eons, Gallerie Chiz, beauty salons such as Salon 5844, Capristo salon, Dante Salon and Mikel's. Ellsworth has a number of restaurants such as Bites and Brews, Fajita Grill, Soba. Ellsworth features two of Pittsburgh's gay and gay friendly bars, Spin and 5801. S. Highland Avenue features several upscale design and furniture stores, including Weiss House and Penhollows. Local restaurants and cafes include Birds on the Run, Kahuna, Muddy Waters, Mad Mex, Urban Tap, Noodle Head, Millie's Homemade Ice Cream, Adda Coffee and Tea House. On S. Highland is the entrance to East Liberty's Eastside retail complex, which features Whole Foods, Fine Wine and Good Spirits, Starbucks Coffee, Trek Bikes, Eva Szabo Spa, as well as local restaurants Dinette and Plum. Work began to replace the S. Highland bridge in March 2013. Construction shutdown both S. Highland Avenue and Ellsworth Avenue until October 2013. Since the 1920s, residential Shadyside has been home to a mix of affluent families, young professionals, musicians and apartment dwellers.
The residential areas of the neighborhood include Victorian mansions along with modern apartments and condominiums. The neighborhood has a compact layout. Public transportation is available via Port Authority bus system; the Shadyside school district consists of The Liberty School, a public school. The Liberty School is located in the Shadyside area of Pittsburgh, consists of grades pre-kindergarten to fifth; the school's colors are navy and white and its mascot is the soaring eagle. It was built in 1872, in 1911, the industrial arts portion of the school was built. From the years 1911 to 1934, the first and older building instilled primary instruction- such as the core subjects of learning- while the newer building offered woodworking, home economics, other courses. In 1934, the eldest building was torn down to further renovate the school. Therefore, the newest building was attached to the 1911 building, consisting of both classrooms and an auditorium. On in the 1990s, playgrounds were constructed on both sides of the buildings providing more recreation for the students.
Liberty is a "magnet school," which means it is a public school with specialized courses and therefore draws in a diverse group of students. Liberty's approximate student enrollment is 375 students per school year, with a student to teacher ratio of about 16:1; the percentage of males and females is equal, with 45% male and 55% female. The Winchester Thurston School is a private co-ed institution located in Shadyside, it has the city campus in Shadyside. The Ellis School is an independent school for girls ages three through grade twelve in Shadyside, Pennsylvania, it was established in 1916 by Sara Frazer Ellis. The Ellis School and the Winchester Thurston School are bo
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Bloomfield is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is located three miles from the downtown area. Bloomfield is sometimes referred to as Pittsburgh's Little Italy because it was settled by Italians from the Abruzzi region and has been a center of Italian–American population. Pittsburgh architectural historian, Franklin Toker, has said that Bloomfield "is a feast, as rich to the eyes as the homemade tortellini and cannoli in its shop windows are to the stomach." Neighborhood has as attracted young adults and college students as a "hip" neighborhood. Liberty Avenue is the neighborhood's main business thoroughfare; every year Bloomfield hosts Little Italy Days, a large festival celebrating the neighborhood's rich Italian history. Bloomfield is a plateau above the Allegheny River; this last boundary is somewhat disputed – many residents believe that Bloomfield abuts the neighborhood of Friendship at Gross Street. Here the provincial frame rowhouses give way to stand-alone brick Victorian homes, which were built larger on each street heading east.
The City of Pittsburgh, claims that Bloomfield extends east as far as Graham Street. The East Busway is set into Skunk Hollow, a ravine that separates Bloomfield from Polish Hill to the west, North Oakland to the southwest, Shadyside to the south; the neighborhoods are within sight of one another, are connected by the Bloomfield Bridge and the South Millvale Bridge, both of which span this gap. Bloomfield does not appear to have been an independent borough prior to its annexation by the City of Pittsburgh in 1868; the land here was stolen from the native Delaware tribe by Casper Taub, one of the area's earliest European settlers. Taub sold the land to his son-in-law John Conrad Winebiddle, whose descendants divided it into lots and sold it for development beginning around the time of the 1868 annexation; the community most was named for the abundant blooming flowers near the original town site. In the decades following 1868, Bloomfield was settled by German Catholic immigrants, who in 1886 built St. Joseph's Church.
Beginning around 1900, Italians from five towns in the Abruzzi region settled here, forming Immaculate Conception Parish in 1905. Descendants from both groups, with ethnic Italians outnumbering the Germans, still give the neighborhood its character today. In 2001 the national churches of St. Joseph's and Immaculate Conception were merged to form a single parish. Since the early 21st century, Bloomfield is one of the neighborhoods that has attracted young adults, including those described as creative and "hip." Pittsburgh's affordability and ethnic history, compared to some other cities, have resulted in new residents settling here. The business district is concentrated along Liberty Avenue, with a variety of businesses and services. In addition to the two churches and Western Pennsylvania Hospital, the street has many restaurants and bars, a supermarket and two Italian markets and hair salons and card shops, two barber shops, a cobbler, a vacuum repairman, more. A small park beside the Bloomfield Bridge holds public bocce courts, a playground, a softball field, a skateboarding area, a dek hockey rink.
Many restaurants serve Italian cuisine, although the neighborhood features a noted Polish restaurant. Two Thai and two Chinese restaurants are located on Liberty Avenue. Baltimore Colts' Hall of Fame quarterback, Pittsburgh native Johnny Unitas returned to this neighborhood to play. After being cut by the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1955, Unitas played one season for the semipro Bloomfield Rams on Dean's Field, located under the Bloomfield Bridge; the semipro league has long since folded, the Bloomfield Rams no longer exist. The former Dean's Field was renamed as Officer Paul J. Sciullo Memorial Field, after a policeman killed in duty, it is now part of a public recreational complex. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods The Bulletin, a monthly community newspaper serving Bloomfield Bloomfield Development Corporation Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map The Western Pennsylvania Hospital Bill Toland, "Watch out Portland, Pittsburgh's lookin' hip", Post-Gazette, 15 January 2012 "Inside Izzy's World", Post-Gazette, 31 May 2006 Bloomfield Dek Hockey
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America