A Jangada is a traditional fishing boat made of wood used in the northern region of Brazil. The construction of the jangada incorporates some improvements in neolithic handcraft - better materials were found and the physics of sailing was better observed through experimentation; the details are guarded by artisans. Its triangular sail makes use of some effects of fluid dynamics. Known as a "latin" sail, it allows one to sail against the wind, taking advantage of the pressure difference on the air that rises on its external face and its internal face; some big watercraft used the Latin sail, but in a limited manner, because its successful use was crucially dependent on the presence of the sailor, who must be aware of the wind movements: the pressure difference is manipulated whilst sailing against the wind. The same principles are used to keep a plane in the air, thanks to its wing geometry. In the jangada, there is a gracious curve parabolic on the upper part of the triangle, another one more extended and short, below.
This asymmetry is due to the deft manipulation of the mast, that turns - this time using the lever mechanic principle - around its axis. Its construction depends on the correct use of materials such as fluctuation woods, artisan tissues and ropes; the traditional Jangada doesn't have any metallic elements like nails. The jangada is made using 6 wooden logs rafted together in parallel: two in the center, 2 more on either side of those, 2 on the outside, called "bordos"; the 4 most central logs are united using hard wooden pegs, made of stronger wood than the logs. The "bordos" are bound to the "mimburas" using more wooden pegs, so they can be more elevated. On this basic platform, two wooden seats are installed, each one supported by 4 elegant wooden rods, locked on the "mimburas". On these rods, a piece of wood is fixed to make the seat; the most central seat supports the jangada's mast. The other seat called the "master seat", because the man who sits on it sails and steers the jangada with an oar.
The master's oar is fixed between one of the "mimburas" and one of the "meios". There is another opening between the two meios; this board acts as a centerboard, can be adjusted in height and angle. The "bolina" board reduces the sideways motion of the jangada. All of the traditional jangada's components are handmade, from the mast to the sail, the ropes to the sailing seat, fishing nets, fishing hooks and the boxes used to keep fish and belongings, its crew, on the traditional versions of the jangada, ranges from 3 to 5 people. This group works on a space of 5 to 7 meters, on average, a space of 1.4 to 1.7 meters on its smaller extension. Its dimensions are the results of a series of nautical limitations, including: the size of the available wood, the resistance of the joints and lashings, the necessary strength to move it over the waves, the size of the sail and the work the wind makes over them, the human force needed, so that just one man can operate it, it is ergonomically designed and administrated, when this artisan watercraft is examined through the eyes of modern designers.
The traditional fisherman always obeyed the known rules of the use of the tides, the wind rules, the currents and the seasonal effects on fishing. Due to these factors the incursions on the sea vary much in relation to the duration of the voyage, the course followed and the type of fish netted. A common voyage used to last three days to a week on the high seas, up to 120 km from the coast; this type of voyage is getting rarer as the jangada sailer now sails for more than three days and will sail no farther than 50 km out from the coast. At the same time groups of jangadas voyaging together are getting rarer. However, in many points along the coast Ceará, there are jangada races, being famous the one that occurs on the Mucuripe port, Fortaleza. Dozens of jangadas take part on popular competitions, in a single spectacle on the broad Brazilian coast; the jangada reached Brazil as a part of the rich exchange between India, Africa and Japan in the two first centuries of the Brazilian colonization by the Portuguese people.
It uses native Brazilian techniques for the cutting and processing of wood, the weaving of fibers into rope. It comes from the people involved with shipping other people, animals, knowledge, of course, the knowledge from the sailors of the Indian Ocean and the Mozambique coast, who used fishing boats similar to the Brazilian jangada; the word jangada brings this Asiatic origin. It comes from a word from Malayalam and South Asian languages. Today it appears that the jangadas only show up in the northern region of Brazil starting at Rio Grande do Norte and ending at Piauí for curious historic reasons, because we could have jangada sailors all over the Brazilian coast; this was due to the systematic elimination of all sailing craft that weren't controlled by the Portuguese, a law applied since the 17th century with the exploration of Minas Gerais (central-southern ar
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
A factory ship known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish or whales. Modern factory ships are automated and enlarged versions of the earlier whalers and their use for fishing has grown dramatically; some factory ships are equipped to serve as a mother ship. Contemporary factory ships have their origins in the early whalers; these vessels sailed into remote waters and processed the whale oil on board, discarding the carcass. Whalers converted the entire whale into usable products; the efficiency of these ships and the predation they carried out on whales contributed to the animals' steep decline. Contemporary factory ships are automated and enlarged versions of these earlier whalers, their use for fishing has grown dramatically. For a while, Russia and Korea operated huge fishing fleets centred on factory ships, though in recent times this use has been declining. On the other hand, the use of factory ships by the United States has increased.
Some factory ships can function as mother ships. The basic idea of a mother ship is that it can carry small fishing boats that return to the mother ship with their catch, but the idea extends to include factory trawlers supporting a fleet of smaller catching vessels that are not carried on board. They serve as the main ship in a fleet operating in waters a great distance from their home ports. Fish processing ships consist of various types, including freezer trawlers, longline factory vessels, purse seine freezer vessels, stern trawlers and squid jiggers. A factory stern trawler is a large stern trawler which has additional onboard processing facilities and can stay at sea for days or weeks at a time. A stern trawler hauls the catch up a stern ramp; these can be either demersal. A freezer trawler processes the catch on board to customers’ specifications, into frozen-at-sea fillet, block or head and gutted form. Factory freezer trawlers can run to 60 to 70 meters in length and go to sea for six weeks at a time with a crew of over 35 people.
They process fish into fillets within hours of being caught. Onboard fishmeal plants process the waste product; the world's largest freezing trawler by gross tonnage is the 144-metre-long Annelies Ilena ex Atlantic Dawn. In 2015, the Annelies Ilena was detained by the Irish Navy and the Sea Fisheries Protection Agency for breach of regulations; the owners were subsequently fined 105,000 Euros for illegally fishing in Irish waters. She is able to process 350 tonnes of fish a day, can carry 3,000 tons of fuel, store 7,000 tons of graded and frozen catch, she uses on board forklift trucks to aid discharging. These automated bottom longliners fish using hooks strung on long lines; the hooks are baited automatically and the lines are released fast. Many thousands of hooks are set each day, the retrieval and setting of these hooks is a continuous 24-hour-a-day operation; these ships go to sea for six weeks at a time. They contain factories for processing fish into fillets, which are frozen in packs, ready for market, within hours of being caught.
These vessels sometimes have fishmeal plants on board. A purse seiner is a fishing vessel which uses a traditional method of catching tuna and other school fish species. A large net is set in a circle around a school of fish while on the surface; the net is pursed, closing the bottom of the net pulling up the net until the fish are caught alongside the vessel. Most of these types of vessels transfer the fish into a tank filled with brine; this freezes large amounts of fish quickly. Trip lengths can vary from 20 to 70 days depending on the fishing; the fish is held in refrigerated brine tanks and unloads either directly to the canneries or is trans-shipped to carrier vessels to freight to the canneries, leaving the purse seine vessel close to the fishing grounds to continue fishing. Purse seiners longer than 70 metres are called super seiners. A factory squid jigger is a specialized ship that uses powerful lights to attract squid and "jigs" many thousands of hooked lures from hundreds of separate winches.
These predominantly Japanese and Korean factory vessels and their crews may fish the oceans continuously for two years, periodically transferring their catch at the fishing grounds to larger refrigerated vessels. Some barges are floating fish processing factories, which can be towed across navigable waters to receive catches from commercial fishing vessels; the barges contain living quarters for the factory workers. The 8,145-ton MV Nisshin Maru is the mothership of the Japanese whaling fleet and is the world's only remaining whaler factory ship; the ship is owned by Tokyo-based company Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd. and is contracted by the Japanese Institute of Cetacean Research. Commercial fish processing ships can affect birds, dolphins and sharks by their broad reach methods of catching fish. Purse seine ships, with nets up to two kilometres in circumference, can encircle whole shoals of pelagic fish, such as mackerel and tuna. A major international scientific study released in November 2006 in the journal Science found that about one-third of all fishing stocks worldwide have collapsed, that if current trends continue all fish stocks worldwide will collapse within fifty years.
The FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004 report estimates that in 2003, of the main fish stocks or groups of resourc
The coble is a type of open traditional fishing boat which developed on the North East coast of England. The southern-most examples occur around Hull; the distinctive shape of the boat — flat-bottomed and high-bowed — arose to cope with the particular conditions prevalent in this area. Flat bottoms allowed landing upon shallow, sandy beaches. However, fishermen required high bows to sail in the dangerous North Sea and in particular to launch into the surf and to land on the beaches; the design contains relics of Norse influence. A Scottish version of the coble, much shallower and beamier than the English type, serves for salmon-fishing off beaches near Arbroath and Montrose in Angus; these cobles have a less refined construction than their southern counterparts. Ghillies employ a smaller, better-built version for fly fishing on Scottish rivers. Local boat-builders constructed the clinker-built cobles locally as required, without the use of plans; the craftsmanship on many boats gave them a long working life.
They had a reputation as dangerous to sail for an inexperienced crew, but in the hands of experts could move both safely and speedily. Today, surviving cobles use diesel engines, removing the need for the distinctively shaped lug sail. In a further concession to comfort, a tarpaulin shelter covers the bow; the Northumberland coastal village of Newbiggin-by-the-Sea has a pub called "The Coble" named in tribute to these boats. A park, Coble Dene, in nearby North Shields is named after the vessel. Staithes Foyboat Scottish east coast fishery The Coble and Keelboat Society World of Boats at Eyemouth ~ Seahouses CobleExample of a Northumberland, Seahouses coble named "Boy's Own" - built for Robert Rutter in 1933. National Maritime Museum CornwallExample of Northumbrian coble "Sunshine" from ca 1880 Yacht Design DatabaseNMMC has an online database list of yacht designs mentioned in yachting magazines which includes several cobles Portsoy Organisation for Restoration and Training project to investigate and document the Scottish coble’s construction and video about the project Scottish National Dictionary definitions Salmon Net Fishing Association of Scotland regarding the "net and coble" method
The bowsprit of a sailing vessel is a spar extending forward from the vessel's prow. It provides an anchor point for the forestay, allowing the fore-mast to be stepped farther forward on the hull; the word bowsprit is thought to originate from the Middle Low German word bōchsprēt - bōch meaning bow and sprēt meaning pole. Early ocean-going vessels tended to tilt the bowsprit known in centuries past as a boltsprit, at a high angle, hung one or two square spritsails from yards. In the 17th century and early 18th century a vertical sprit topmast was added near the end of the bowsprit and another square sail added to it. Fore-and-aft sails known as jibs hung from the stays proved more useful for speed and manoeuvring, the basic bowsprit was lengthened with a jibboom and even further with a flying jibboom, resulting in bowsprits of tremendous length, up to 30 metres total. Many types of small pleasure and work vessels ship bowsprits short in length. Once popular on yachts large and small after the popularization of the Bermuda rig, they have fallen out of fashion.
On some modern racing yachts and dinghies, the bowsprit is retractable and used to fly an asymmetrical spinnaker. The bowsprit on a tall ship may be of considerable length and carry several forestays supporting the foremast. Headsails are stowed by tying onto the bowsprit when not in use. To minimise the risk of bowsprit and crew handling sail on it being buried in large waves, it is angled upwards from the horizontal; some hang. The bowsprit is formed by extending the keel tube about a metre beyond the leading edge of the wing. In 1879 a patent in England by F. W. Brearey was filed that taught bowsprit structure for flying machines. In the modern mid-1900s renaissance in hang gliding a Dial Soap TV commercial featured in 1973 a bowsprit cross-sparless hang glider. Other examples of bowsprit hang gliders were exampled in the gliders manufactured by Bautek in the 1980s
A felucca is a traditional wooden sailing boat used in protected waters of the Red Sea and eastern Mediterranean, in Egypt and Sudan, including Malta and Tunisia, in Iraq. Its rig consists of two lateen sails, they are able to board ten passengers and the crew consists of two or three people. Despite the availability of motorboats and ferries, feluccas are still in active use as a means of transport in Nile-adjacent cities like Aswan or Luxor, they are popular among tourists who can enjoy a quieter and calmer mood than motorboats have to offer. A large fleet of lateen-rigged feluccas thronged San Francisco's docks before and after the construction of the state-owned Fisherman's Wharf in 1884. Light and maneuverable, the feluccas were the mainstay of the fishing fleet of San Francisco Bay. John Muir said of them, "These workhorses featured a mast that angled, or raked, forward and a large triangular sail hanging down from a long, two-piece yard". Dhow Muscat, Joseph The Gilded Felucca and Maltese Boatbuilding Techniques.
Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, Malta. ISBN 99932-41-45-8 "Tides of change: Fisherman's Wharf, 1870 - 1930": by John Muir, an Associate Curator of Small Craft at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. Photographs from a felucca journey on the Nile
A topsail is a sail set above another sail. On a square rigged vessel, a topsail is a square sail rigged above the course sail and below the topgallant sail where carried. A full rigged ship has either single or double topsails on all masts, the single or lower topsail being the second sail above the deck and the upper topsail where so rigged being the third. Although described as a "square" sail, this term refers not to a sail's shape but to it and its yard being rigged square to the keel of the vessel rather than in line with it or "fore and aft"; the bottom edge of the topsail, like that of other square sails, is concave. Although topsails of a kind were used at least as early as Roman times, they first came into use in Europe some time in the 15th century. Small and carried only on main and fore masts, they increased in size and importance until by the middle of the 17th century and were the principal and largest sails of the ship, the first sails to be set and the last to be taken in, it was quite common for a ship to sail with jibs alone.
The larger topsails were dangerous to handle in strong winds. Sometime in the 1680s, reef-bands were introduced to tie up part of the sail, with topsails getting four of these, reefing the sails became a regular occupation of sailors. In the mid 19th century, topsails of merchant vessels were split into separate upper and lower topsails that could be managed separately and far more by smaller crews. Competing versions of the double topsail were invented by Robert Bennet Forbes and Captain Frederic Howes. Although Forbes strove to defend his rig, the Howe rig dominated. In the Forbes rig, both topsail yards are fixed vertically. In the Howe rig, the upper topsail yard slides on the topmast so it can be lowered in a few seconds to close reef the upper topsail. Howe had the foot of the upper topsail attached to the lower topsail yard. In 1865 the British clipper Ariel introduced a gap there. Forbes first tried his rig in the topsail schooner Midas in 1844; the clipper Climax built in 1853 under the supervision of Howes was the first ship with Howe rig.
Gaff topsails, like gaff rigs in general, may still be seen at Tall Ships gatherings. The gaff rig has been superseded by the Bermuda rig, which has no topsails. On a gaff-rigged sailing boat, topsails may take a few different forms: A jib-headed topsail is a triangular sail set between the gaff and the top of the mast or topmast. A gaff-rigged vessel might have a gaff topsail above all of its gaff sails. A yard topsail set on a yard. Early 19th-century topsail yards were set horizontally, but increased in angle until they became vertical extension of the topmast. A jack-yard topsail instead has its lower edge extended out beyond the end of the gaff with a short yard, called a "jack-yard". A jack-yard topsail may have the aforementioned vertical yard, although this makes for a large topsail. A cornish topsail is a triangular sail having its luff extended well above the masthead by being laced to a yard hoisted by a halyard rove through a sheave fitted diagonally in the mast; the heel of the yard fits about the gaff and is kept in place by a tackline called a timminoggy.
A square topsail is a square-rigged sail, carried above the foresail only, on gaff schooners. Schooners carrying square tops are referred to as "topsail schooners". A raffee is a square-rigged topsail, triangular in shape; the use of the topsail in Thames sailing barges is different. It is a fore and aft rig. In confined waters, the barge will sail under topsail and mizzen, taking advantage of the clear air above the lee of the buildings; the topsail was attached by hoops to the topmast, so could be struck, the release of one rope let it fall. The topsail a fore and aft sail; the jib topsail a staysail set between the bowsprit. On rigs having multiple jibs or staysails of which at least one is set high, such as many late 19th and 20th Century racing cutters, the uppermost of these, set flying or on a topmast stay, is called the jib topsail. Topsails in the form of an isosceles triangle set above the square mainsail were used in Roman navigation. BibliographyMarch, Edgar J. Spritsail barges of the Medway.
London: Percival Marshall. John Harland & Mark Myers, Seamanship in the Age of Sail.