The Seris are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca, Tiburón Island and San Esteban Island were part of their traditional territory, but some Seris lived in various places on the mainland. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained a relationship with both the sea and the land. It is one of the groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained its language and culture during the years after contact with Spanish. The Seri people are not related culturally or linguistically to other groups that have lived in the area, such as the Opata, Oodham, the Seri language is distinct from all others in the region and is considered a language isolate. Beside the Apache and Yaqui, the Seri are best known as fierce warriors for their resistance against subjugation by the Spanish. The name Seri is an exonym of uncertain origin and their name for themselves is Comcaac, Cmiique, phonetically ).
The Seri were formerly divided into six bands, Tahejöc comcaac or Tahéjöc comcáac, known as the Seris or Tiburones, who inhabited the coasts of Tiburón Island, and the coast of Mexico opposite it, north of the Xiica xnaai iicp coii. Xnaamotat or Xnaa motat, known as Upanguaymas or Guaymas, Xiica hast ano coii or Xica hast ano coii, hast ano ctam, hast ano cmaam ), who inhabited San Esteban Island and the southern coast of Tiburón Island. Three of the bands were further subdivided, relations between bands were not always friendly, and internal fights sometimes occurred. Some Bands were living on Baja California peninsula, they were called Hant Ihiini comcaac and it has been said that these groups spoke three distinct but mutually intelligible dialects. The second dialect was spoken by the Xnaamotat Band, but it is currently extinct, the third dialect is extinct and was spoken by the Xiica hast ano coii Band, it was described as sounding musical, as if speakers were singing instead of speaking.
Speakers sometimes make remarks regarding certain expressions being characteristic of particular Bands and these communication differences were thought to have kept the groups from having much social interaction with each other. The autoethnonym of the Seri people, was first recorded by United States Boundary Commissioner John Russell Bartlett, the word was included in the list of approximately 180 words that Bartlett archived in the Bureau of American Ethnology. He recorded the word as komkak, which reflected the pronunciation of the word at that time, other word lists, obtained by other people during the last half of the nineteenth century, confirm that pronunciation. The singular form, was first recorded by French explorer and he recorded the word as kmike, which must have reflected the pronunciation of the word at that time. The phonetic rule by which the consonant /m/ is pronounced as a velar approximant in this context may not have come about until sometime in the mid twentieth century.
A1940 documentary film, part of John Nesbitts Passing Parade series, recorded scenes from the life of the Seri on Tiburón Island and it uses film from the Harold Austin expedition, claiming that this was the first motion picture footage of the tribe
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry, people use leather to make various goods—including clothing, leather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a variety of types and styles. Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather, Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and it is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium, more exotic colors are possible when using chrome tanning. The chrome tanning method usually only takes a day to finish, and it is reported that chrome-tanned leather adds up to 80% of the global leather supply. Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins and other found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, leaves, fruits.
It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and it is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water, it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and dried it shrinks, in hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals—becoming rigid, and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has been used for book binding. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds and this is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the type of chrome-free leather, often seen in shoes for infants. Formaldehyde tanning is another aldehyde tanning method, brain-tanned leathers fall into this category, and are exceptionally water absorbent. Brain tanned leathers are made by a process that uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cattle.
They are known for their softness and washability. Chamois leather falls into the category of aldehyde tanning, and like brain tanning, produces a porous, chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to color it. Rose-tanned leather is a variation of oil tanning and brain tanning. Rose-tanned leather tanned leaves a powerful rose fragrance even years from when it is manufactured and it has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose otto and its labor-intensive tanning process
Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearers foot by straps going over the instep and, around the ankle. Sandals can have a heel, while the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry, the common understanding is that a sandal leaves most of the upper part of the foot exposed. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them comfort in warm weather, usually, people wear sandals in warmer climates or during warmer parts of the year in order to keep their feet cool and dry. The risk of developing athletes foot is lower than with enclosed shoes, and the wearing of sandals may be part of the treatment regimen for such an infection. The oldest known sandals were discovered in Fort Rock Cave in the U. S. state of Oregon, radiocarbon dating of the bark from which they were woven indicates an age of at least 10,000 years. The word sandal is of Greek origin, the sole of the latter was sometimes made much thicker than usual by the insertion of slices of cork, so as to add to the stature of the wearer.
The ancient Egyptians wore sandals made of palm-leaves and papyrus and they are sometimes observable on the feet of Egyptian statues and in reliefs, being carried by sandal-bearers. According to Herodotus, sandals of papyrus were a part of the required, a sandal may have a sole made from rubber, wood, tatami or rope. A sandal may or may not have a heel or heel strap, crochet sandals Fisherman sandal is a type of T-bar sandal originally for men and boys. The toes are enclosed by a number of leather bands interwoven with the central length-wise strap that lies along the instep, an adjustable cross strap or bar is fastened with a buckle. The heel may be enclosed or secured by a single strap joined to the cross strap. The style appears to have originated in France, a similar style is sometimes called gladiator sandal High-heeled sandal, a type of sandal with an elevated heel. They allow the wearer to have an open shoe while being less casual or more formal, depending on the style of the sandal. Hiking and trekking sandals are designed for hiking or trekking in hot and tropical climates, usually using robust rubber outsole, suitable for any terrain and these sandals are usually shaped to support the arched contour of the foot.
The straps are made of polyester or nylon webbing for quick drying after exposure to acid. Also suitable for other adventure sports and activities where quick drying and reduced perspiration is required. Ho Chi Minh sandals is one name for a homemade or cottage industry footwear, the cut from an old automobile tire. Made and worn in countries, they became wider known in the US as worn by the rural people of Indochina during the Vietnam War
Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin
The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Basin are Native Americans of the northern Great Basin, Snake River Plain, and upper Colorado River basin. There is very little precipitation in the Great Basin area which affects the lifestyles and cultures of the inhabitants, original inhabitants of the region may have arrived by 12,000 BCE. 9,000 BCE to 400 CE marks the Great Basin Desert Archaic Period, following by the time of the Fremont culture, Numic language-speakers, ancestors of todays Western Shoshone and both Northern and Southern Paiute peoples entered the region around the 14th century CE. The first Europeans to reach the area was the Spanish Dominguez-Escalante Expedition, Great Basin settlement was relatively free of non-Native settlers until the first Mormon settlers arrived in 1847. Within ten years, the first Indian reservation was established, in order to assimilate the native population, the Goshute Reservation was created in 1863. The attempted acculturation process included sending children to Indian schools and limiting the landbases and resources of the reservations, two Paiute prophets and Wovoka, introduced the Ghost Dance in a ceremony to commune with departed loved ones and bring renewal of buffalo herds and precontact lifeways.
The Ute Bear Dance emerged on the Great Basin, the Sun Dance and Peyote religion flourished in the Great Basin, as well. In 1930, the Ely Shoshone Reservation was established, followed by the Duckwater Indian Reservation in 1940, conditions for the Native American population of the Great Basin were erratic throughout the 20th century. Economic improvement emerged as a result of President Franklin Roosevelts Indian New Deal in the 1930s, while activism, the communities continue to struggle against chronic poverty and all of the resulting problems, substance abuse, and high suicide rates. Different ethnic groups of Great Basin tribes share certain common elements that distinguish them from surrounding groups. All but the Washoe traditionally speak Numic languages, and tribal groups, prior to the 20th century, Great Basin peoples were predominantly hunters and gatherers. Desert Archaic or more simply The Desert Culture refers to the culture of the Great Basin tribes and this culture is characterized by the need for mobility to take advantage of seasonally available food supplies.
Heavy items such as metates would be cached rather than carried from foraging area to foraging area, agriculture was not practiced within the Great Basin itself, although it was practiced in adjacent areas. Likewise, the Great Basin tribes had no permanent settlements, although winter villages might be revisited winter after winter by the group of families. In the summer, the largest group was usually the family due to the low density of food supplies. In the early period the Great Basin tribes were actively expanding to the north and east. These people, including the Bannock and Eastern Shoshone share traits with Plains Indians
For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Other civilizations were contemporary with the period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records, because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres, even while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era, many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices, while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives. Now, the study of pre-Columbian cultures is most often based on scientific.
Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait, genetic evidence found in Amerindians maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout North and South America, exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. Some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago, the chronology of migration models is currently divided into two general approaches. The first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurring no earlier than 14, 000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at an earlier date, possibly 50.
In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a date, probably no more than 2,000 years ago. The North American climate was unstable as the ice age receded and it finally stabilized by about 10,000 years ago, climatic conditions were very similar to todays. Within this timeframe, roughly pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified, the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The paleo-indians were hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family and these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon, Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools
Fur is used in reference to the hair of non-human mammals, particularly those with extensive body hair coverage that is generally soft and thick, as opposed to the stiffer bristles on most pigs. The term pelage – first known use in English c.1828 – is sometimes used to refer to the hair of an animal as a complete coat. Fur is used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed into leather with the still attached. The words fur or furry are used, more casually, to refer to hair-like growths or formations, particularly when the subject being referred to exhibits a dense coat of fine, soft hairs. If layered, rather than grown as a coat, it may consist of short down hairs, long guard hairs. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are called naked, as with the naked mole-rat, or hairless. An animal with commercially valuable fur is known within the fur industry as a furbearer and its principal function is thermoregulation, it maintains a layer of dry air next to the skin and repels water, thus providing thermal insulation.
Guard hair — the top consisting of longer, generally coarser. The distal ends of the guard hairs provide the externally visible layer of the coat of most mammals with well-developed fur and this layer of the coat displays the most marked pigmentation and gloss, including coat patterns adapted to display or camouflage. It is adapted to shedding water and blocking sunlight, protecting the undercoat and skin from external factors such as rain, many animals, such as domestic cats, erect their guard hairs as part of their threat display when agitated. Mammals with well-developed down and guard hairs usually have numbers of awn hairs. These begin their growth much as guard hairs do, but change their mode of growth and this portion of the hair is called awn. The rest of the growth is thin and wavy, much like down hair, in many species of mammals, the awn hairs comprise the bulk of the visible coat. Hair is one of the characteristics of mammals, however. These are often called naked or hairless, some mammals naturally have reduced amounts of fur.
Some semiaquatic or aquatic mammals such as cetaceans and hippopotamuses have evolved hairlessness, the naked mole-rat has evolved hairlessness, perhaps as an adaptation to their subterranean life-style. Two of the largest extant mammals, the elephant and the rhinoceros, are largely hairless. The hairless bat is mostly hairless but does have short bristly hairs around its neck, on its front toes, most hairless animals cannot go in the sun for long periods of time, or stay in the cold for too long
Guano is the accumulated excrement of seabirds, seals, or cave-dwelling bats. As a manure, guano is an effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen and potassium. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs, guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers. Seabird guano consists of nitrogen-rich ammonium oxalate and urate, phosphates, as well as some earth salts, the word guano originates from the Andean indigenous language Quechua, which refers to any form of dung used as an agricultural fertilizer. Archaeological evidence suggests that Andean people have collected guano from small islands, spanish colonial documents suggest that the rulers of the Inca Empire assigned great value to guano, restricted access to it, and punished any disturbance of the birds with death. The Guanay cormorant has historically been the most abundant and important producer of guano, other important guano producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian booby.
At that time, massive deposits of guano existed on some islands, in this context the United States passed the Guano Islands Act in 1856, which gave U. S. citizens discovering a source of guano on an unclaimed island exclusive rights to the deposits. Nine of these islands are still officially U. S. territories, control over guano played a central role in the Chincha Islands War between Spain and a Peruvian-Chilean alliance. Indentured workers from China played an important role in guano harvest, the first group of 79 Chinese workers arrived in Peru in 1849, by the time that trade ended a quarter of a century later, over 100,000 of their fellow countrymen had been imported. There is no evidence that enslaved Pacific Islanders participated in guano mining. Between 1847 and 1873, there was a significant increase in Peruvian guano exports, after 1870, the use of Peruvian guano as a fertilizer was eclipsed by saltpeter in the form of caliche extraction from the interior of the Atacama Desert, not far from the guano areas.
Since 1909, when the Peruvian government took over guano extraction for use by Peru farmers, South Africa independently developed its own guano industry based on sustained-yield production from marine birds during this period, as well. Both industries eventually collapsed due to pressure from overfishing, DNA testing has suggested that new potato varieties imported alongside Peruvian seabird guano in 1842 brought a virulent strain of potato blight that began the Irish Potato Famine. The ideal type of guano is found in dry climates. Post-depositional decomposition and ammonia volatilization of penguin guano plays an important role in the evolution of ornithogenic sediments in the cold, Bat guano is usually mined in caves and this mining is associated with a corresponding loss of troglobytic biota and diminishing of biodiversity. Guano deposits support a variety of cave-adapted invertebrates that rely on bat feces as their sole source of nutrition. The greatest damage caused by mining to caves with extant guano deposits is to the bat colonies themselves, bats are highly vulnerable to regular disturbance to their roosts.
Some species, such as Phyllonycteris aphylla, have low fat reserves, many species will drop pups when in panic, with subsequent death, leading to a steady reduction in population
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves
Today, it is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. It has become naturalized in regions, including the West Indies, parts of South America, the southern Mediterranean Basin, and parts of Africa, China, Thailand. Despite the common name American aloe, it is not closely related to plants in the genus Aloe, although it is called the century plant, it typically lives only 10 to 30 years. It has a spread around 6–10 ft with gray-green leaves of 3–5 ft long, each with a prickly margin and a heavy spike at the tip that can pierce deeply. Near the end of its life, the plant sends up a tall, branched stalk, laden with yellow blossoms and its common name derives from its semelparous nature of flowering only once at the end of its long life. The plant dies after flowering, but produces suckers or adventitious shoots from the base, a. americana was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1753 edition of Species Plantarum, with the binomial name that is still used today. A. americana is cultivated as a plant for the large dramatic form of mature plants - for modernist, drought tolerant.
It is often used in hot climates and where drought conditions occur, the plants can be evocative of 18th-19th-century Spanish colonial and Mexican provincial eras in the Southwestern United States and xeric Mexico. It is a landscape plant in beach gardens in Florida. Two subspecies and two varieties of A. americana are recognized by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, protamericana Gentry A. a. var. expansa Gentry A. a. var. If the flower stem is cut without flowering, a liquid called aguamiel gathers in the heart of the plant. This may be fermented to produce the drink called pulque, the leaves yield fibers, known as pita, which are suitable for making rope, matting, or coarse cloth, and are used for embroidery of leather in a technique known as piteado. Both pulque and maguey fiber were important to the economy of pre-Columbian Mexico, in the tequila-producing regions of Mexico, agaves are called mezcales. The high-alcohol product of agave distillation is called mezcal, A. americana is one of several agaves used for distillation, a mezcal called tequila is produced from Agave tequilana, commonly called blue agave.
The many different types of mezcal include some which may be flavored with the very pungent mezcal worm, in mezcal and tequila production, the sugars are extracted from the piñas by heating them in ovens, rather than by collecting aguamiel from the plants cut stalk. Thus, if one were to distill pulque, it would not be a form of mezcal, Agave nectar is marketed as a natural form of sugar with a low glycemic index that is due to its high fructose content. The plant figures in the coat of arms of Don Diego de Mendoza, el maguey y el pulque en los códices mexicanos. Mexico City, Fondo de Cultura Económica 1956, memoria sobre el maguey mexicano y sus diversos productos
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and they are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin and they aid in flight, thermal insulation, and waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in communication and protection, plumology is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers. Feathers are among the most complex integumentary appendages found in vertebrates and are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. There are two types of feather, vaned feathers which cover the exterior of the body. The pennaceous feathers are vaned feathers, called contour feathers, pennaceous feathers arise from tracts and cover the entire body.
In some passerines, filoplumes arise exposed beyond the contour feathers on the neck, the remiges, or flight feathers of the wing, and rectrices, the flight feathers of the tail are the most important feathers for flight. A typical vaned feather features a main shaft, called the rachis, fused to the rachis are a series of branches, or barbs, the barbs themselves are branched and form the barbules. These barbules have minute hooks called barbicels for cross-attachment, down feathers are fluffy because they lack barbicels, so the barbules float free of each other, allowing the down to trap air and provide excellent thermal insulation. At the base of the feather, the rachis expands to form the hollow tubular calamus which inserts into a follicle in the skin, the basal part of the calamus is without vanes. This part is embedded within the follicle and has an opening at the base. Hatchling birds of species have a special kind of natal down feathers which are pushed out when the normal feathers emerge.
Flight feathers are stiffened so as to work against the air in the downstroke, feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. They may be plucked to line the nest and provide insulation to the eggs, the individual feathers in the wings and tail play important roles in controlling flight. Some species have a crest of feathers on their heads, although feathers are light, a birds plumage weighs two or three times more than its skeleton, since many bones are hollow and contain air sacs. Color patterns serve as camouflage against predators for birds in their habitats, as with fish, the top and bottom colors may be different, in order to provide camouflage during flight. Striking differences in patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are particularly important in selection of mating pairs
Sierra Madre Oriental
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico. The northernmost are the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen which reach the border with the United States at the Rio Grande, north of the Rio Grande, the range continues northwestward into Texas and beyond as the Davis and Guadalupe Ranges. Mexicos Gulf Coastal Plain lies to the east of the range, the Mexican Plateau, which averages 1,100 metres in elevation, lies between the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental further west. The climate of the Sierra Madre Oriental is drier than the rainforest areas further south. The highest point is Cerro San Rafael, at 3,700 metres above sea level, is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuila and the second in Mexico in isolation. This long range of mountains is noted for its abundant biodiversity and large number of endemic species of plants and wildlife. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are found at elevations in the range.
Much of the wildlife can be found in the Sierra Madre Occidental, which runs parallel to these mountains along western Mexico. Pine-oak forests are dominated by species of pine, such as Pinus nelsonii, P. cembroides, P. pseudostrobus, and P. arizonica. Matorral is characterized by woody shrubs, small trees, montane chaparral is found above 1,700 m and is home to species in the genera Quercus, Yucca and Bauhinia. Piedmont scrub occurs below 2,000 m and is composed of plants 3 to 5 m in height such as Helietta parvifolia, birds of the forest include the Mexican chickadee, Montezuma quail, Stricklands woodpecker, zone-tailed hawk and several species of jay. Pine-oak forests in Coahuila are part of the route of monarch butterflies. Original habitats have been reduced by clearance for livestock grazing and logging over hundreds of years. Protected areas include the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park in Mexico, the El Cielo Biosphere in Tamaulipas preserves the northernmost tropical Veracruz moist forests in Mexico and extensive temperate cloud forests.
Mountain peaks of Mexico Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests
The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers. Their peoples have become members of recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement, often colocated with the Paiute. The name Shoshone comes from Sosoni, a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses, some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone Grass House People, based on their traditional homes made from soshoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning People, meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the Sosonees or snake Indians in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by approximately 1,000 people today and it belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming, the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho, and Goshute Reservation in Utah. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes, the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming.
By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains, after 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward. Some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700, as more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the half of the 19th century. The Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho, as more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, and attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, a large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers. This was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces, allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868.
They fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War, in 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of approximately 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War and it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States. In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett, known as Shoshone Mike, killed four ranchers in Washoe County, the settlers formed a posse and went out after the Native Americans. They caught up with the Bannock band on February 26,1911 and they lost one man of the posse, Ed Hogle. The posse captured three children and a woman, a rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, and three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study