University of Bristol
The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1909, although like the University of the West of England and the University of Bath, it can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, founded as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers, its key predecessor institution, University College, had been in existence since 1876. Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Tyndalls Park area of the city; the university had a total income of £642.7 million in 2017/18, of which £164.0 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol; the University of Bristol is ranked 44th by the QS World University Rankings 2018, is ranked amongst the top 10 of UK universities by QS, THE, ARWU. A selective institution, it has an average of 6.4 to 13.1 applicants for each undergraduate place.
It was ranked 9th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. Current academics include 21 fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 13 fellows of the British Academy, 13 fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 44 fellows of the Royal Society; the university has been associated with 13 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy Hodgkin, Hans Albrecht Bethe, Max Delbrück, Gerhard Herzberg, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, Sir Paul Nurse, Harold Pinter, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio and most 2015 Economics Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton. Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the university's previous vice-chancellor, Eric Thomas, was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the university holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe.
The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College which became the engineering faculty of Bristol University. The university was preceded by Bristol Medical School and University College, founded in 1876, where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students; the university was able to apply for a royal charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families, who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. The Wills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and university; the royal charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the university in October 1909. Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor; the University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men. However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906. Since the founding of the university itself in 1909, it has grown and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England.
Bristol is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct", it is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909, this funding allowed the opening of a new medical school and an engineering school—two subjects that remain among the university's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Fry and Wills families £100,000 from Henry Overton Wills III, were provided to endow a University for Bristol and the West of England, provided that a royal charter could be obtained within two years. In December 1909, the King erected the University of Bristol. Henry Wills became Conwy Lloyd Morgan the first vice-chancellor.
Wills died in 1911 and in tribute his sons George and Harry built the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finishing in 1925. Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall; the Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building. In 1920, George Wills bought the Victoria Rooms and endowed them to the university as a Students' Union; the building now is a Grade II * listed building. At the point of foundation, the university was required to provide for the local community; this mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today. Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics.
An identifier is a name that identifies either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object, or physical substance. The abbreviation ID refers to identity, identification, or an identifier. An identifier may be a word, letter, symbol, or any combination of those; the words, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system or they may be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is referred to as a code or ID code. For instance the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry standard defines a code as system of valid symbols that substitute for longer values in contrast to identifiers without symbolic meaning. Identifiers that do not follow any encoding scheme are said to be arbitrary IDs; the unique identifier is an identifier that refers to only one instance—only one particular object in the universe. A part number is an identifier, but it is not a unique identifier—for that, a serial number is needed, to identify each instance of the part design.
Thus the identifier "Model T" identifies the class of automobiles. The concepts of name and identifier are denotatively equal, the terms are thus denotatively synonymous. For example, both "Jamie Zawinski" and "Netscape employee number 20" are identifiers for the same specific human being; this is an emic indistinction rather than an etic one. In metadata, an identifier is a language-independent label, sign or token that uniquely identifies an object within an identification scheme; the suffix identifier is used as a representation term when naming a data element. ID codes may inherently carry metadata along with them. For example, when you know that the food package in front of you has the identifier "2011-09-25T15:42Z-MFR5-P02-243-45", you not only have that data, you have the metadata that tells you that it was packaged on September 25, 2011, at 3:42pm UTC, manufactured by Licensed Vendor Number 5, at the Peoria, IL, USA plant, in Building 2, was the 243rd package off the line in that shift, was inspected by Inspector Number 45.
Arbitrary identifiers might lack metadata. For example, if a food package just says 100054678214, its ID may not tell anything except identity—no date, manufacturer name, production sequence rank, or inspector number. In some cases, arbitrary identifiers such as sequential serial numbers leak information. Opaque identifiers—identifiers designed to avoid leaking that small amount of information—include "really opaque pointers" and Version 4 UUIDs. In computer science, identifiers are lexical tokens. Identifiers are used extensively in all information processing systems. Identifying entities makes it possible to refer to them, essential for any kind of symbolic processing. In computer languages, identifiers are tokens; some of the kinds of entities an identifier might denote include variables, labels and packages. Which character sequences constitute identifiers depends on the lexical grammar of the language. A common rule is alphanumeric sequences, with underscore allowed, with the condition that it not begin with a digit – so foo, foo1, foo_bar, _foo are allowed, but 1foo is not – this is the definition used in earlier versions of C and C++, many other languages.
Versions of these languages, along with many other modern languages, support all Unicode characters in an identifier. However, a common restriction is not to permit whitespace characters and language operators. For example, forbidding + in identifiers due to its use as a binary operation means that a+b and a + b can be tokenized the same, while if it were allowed, a+b would be an identifier, not an addition. Whitespace in identifier is problematic, as if spaces are allowed in identifiers a clause such as if rainy day 1 is legal, with rainy day as an identifier, but tokenizing this requires the phrasal context of being in the condition of an if clause; some languages do allow spaces in identifiers, such as ALGOL 68 and some ALGOL variants – for example, the following is a valid statement: real half pi. Half pi. In ALGOL this was possible because keywords are syntactically differentiated, so there is no risk of collision or ambiguity, spaces are eliminated during the line reconstruction phase, the source was processed via scannerless parsing, so lexing could be context-sensitive
Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set having an equivalent in the other set; the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and are treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. Letter case is applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text; the choice of case is prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the upper case is reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lower case the more common variant in regular text. In some contexts, it is conventional to use one case only. For example, engineering design drawings are labelled in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than the lower case when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
In mathematics, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters representing "superior" objects. The terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word; these terms originated from the common layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the capital letters were stored in a separate shallow tray or "case", located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have few or short ascenders and descenders, or none at all. By virtue of their visual impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much came to be more referred to as uppercase letters. Minuscule refers to lower-case letters; the word is spelled miniscule, by association with the unrelated word miniature and the prefix mini-. This has traditionally been regarded as a spelling mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling.
Miniscule is still less however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters. The glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet: Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules have the same height. There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the typical size. B, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. In addition, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts, 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts. Languages that use the Latin, Greek, Armenian, Warang Citi and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian and Deseret. The Georgian alphabet has several variants, there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case. Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script or unicase; this includes most other non-alphabetic scripts. In scripts with a case distinction, lower case is used for the majority of text. Acronyms are written in all-caps, depending on various factors. Capitalisation is the writing of a word with its first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase. Capitalisation rules vary by language and are quite complex, but in most modern languages that have capitalisation, the first word of every sentence is capitalised, as are all proper nouns. Capitalisation in English, in terms of the general orthographic rules independent of context, is universally standardised for formal writing.
Capital letters are used as the first letter of a proper noun, or a proper adjective. The names of the days of the week and the names of the months are capitalised, as are the first-person pronoun "I" and the interjection "O". There are a few pairs of words of d