Wiley Ramsey Wiggins is an American film actor. A native of Austin, Texas, he is the nephew of Lanny Wiggins, a member of Janis Joplin's early band, The Waller Creek Boys. At the age of 16, Wiggins starred in Confused, he starred in Linklater's Waking Life. He was involved in early 1990s cyberculture and wrote for such magazines as FringeWare Review, Mondo 2000, Boing Boing, his current weblog, "It's Not For Everyone", focuses on film, art and free culture. Dazed and Confused as Mitch Kramer Love and a.45 as Young Store Clerk Boys as John Phillips Plastic Utopia as Jogger Joe The Faculty as F‘%# Up #2 Waking Life as Main Character.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint." From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.
In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the Long Tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term "crowdsourcing", as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.
The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.
Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.
Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.
The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdraw
Robby Garner is an American natural language programmer and software developer. He won the 1999 Loebner Prize contests with the program called Albert One, he is listed in the 2001 Guinness Book of World Records as having written the "most human" computer program. A native of Cedartown, Robby attended Cedartown High School, he worked in his father's television repair shop and began programming for his family's business at age 15. He was commander of his AFJROTC squadron as a junior in high school, while attending joint-enrollment college classes at the local community college. Forming a software company called Robitron Software Research, Inc. in 1987 with his father, Robert J. Garner, his sister Pam, he worked as a software developer until 1997 when his father retired and the company was disbanded. One of the first web chatterbots, named Max Headcold, was written by Garner in 1995. Max served two purposes, to collect data about web chat behavior and to entertain customers of the FringeWare online bookstore.
This program was implemented as a Java package called JFRED, written by Paco Nathan based on the C++ FRED CGI program, his own influences from Stanford and various corporations. Garner and Nathan took part in the world's largest online Turing test in 1998, their JFRED program was perceived as human by 17% of the participants. A computational behaviorist after the term coined by Dr. Thomas Whalen in 1995, Garner's first attempts at simulating conversation involved collections of internet chat viewed as a sequence of stimuli and responses. Kevin Copple of Ellaz Systems has collaborated with Garner on several projects, including Copple's Ella, for which, Garner contributed voice recordings and music. Garner and Copple believe that intelligence may be built one facet at a time, rather than depending on some general purpose theory to emerge. Competing in six Loebner Prize contests, he used the competition as a way to test his prototypes on the judges each year. After winning the contest twice in 1998 and 1999 with his program called Albert One, he began collaborating with other software developers in a variety of conversational systems.
Garner created the Robitron Yahoo Group in 2002 as a forum and virtual watering hole for Loebner Prize contest participants and discussion of related topics. The multifaceted approach, presented at a colloquium on conversational systems in November 2005, involves multiple chat bots working under the control of a master control program. Using this technique, the strengths of various web agents may be united under the control of a Java applet or servlet; the control program categorizes delegates responses to other programs in a hierarchy. A spin-off of this technique is the Turing Hub, an automated Turing test featuring four of the top Loebner Prize contest competitors. Rollo Carpenter Richard Wallace JFred Chatterbots at SimonLaven.com
Jon Lebkowsky is a web consultant/developer and activist, the co-founder of FringeWare, Inc.. FringeWare, an early attempt at ecommerce and online community, published a popular "magalog" called FringeWare Review, a literary zine edited by Lebkowsky called Unshaved Truths. FringeWare's email list, called the FringeWare News Network, established an international following for the organization, which opened a store in Austin, Texas. Along with Nancy White, he co-hosts the ongoing Virtual Communities Conference, the Blog Conference, the public Inkwell Conference at the seminal online community, the WELL, his weblog can be reached at Weblogsky.com. He lives in Texas. Lebkowsky has a history of advocacy in support of a free and open Internet, was a co-founder of EFF-Austin, an organization formed to be a chapter of the national Electronic Frontier Foundation. EFF-Austin became a separate organization with Lebkowsky as President. Lebkowsky coined the phrase "Freedom to Connect," which became the name of an annual conference organized by David Isenberg, as an alternative to the term "network neutrality."
Lebkowsky joined the WELL in 1990, became a host or co-host of several forums on the conferencing system, including forums devoted to Factsheet Five, where he had a brief stint as book review editor, Mondo 2000, where he wrote several articles and formed friendships with editors RU Sirius and Jude Milhon. Through the WELL, he became associated with Howard Rheingold and Whole Earth Review, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, boing boing, where he was Associate Editor, he had early associations with staff at Wired Magazine and conducted a regular, weekly series of chats called Electronic Frontiers Forum at HotWired. He was a subdomain editor for the Millennium Whole Earth Catalog and, in 1996, became a community host at Howard Rheingold's Electric Minds, he has been interviewed about his pioneering work for the documentary Traceroute. In 1997, he joined Whole Foods Market as its "Internet guy," to evangelize internally for the Internet and help lead their web-based ecommerce efforts, which ended in 2000 with the collapse of the so-called "Internet bubble."
As Internet evangelist within the company, he advocated creation of online community at WholeFoods.com, was Interactive Community Director for the ecommerce site that launched in 1998 The community included WELL Engaged forums and regular realtime chats using the IRC-based Talk City system. When WholeFoods.com was replaced by the ambitious Whole People, Lebkowsky moved to Colorado and helped manage technology for the new enterprise until the company ended the project following the "dotcom bust." Lebkowsky turned to web development, formed Polycot Consulting with Jeff Kramer and Matt Sanders on September 12, 2001. He became an advocate of Open Source systems based on PHP, Ruby on Rails, he was an early influential social software advocate and one of the instigators of the Social Software Alliance. He was an early blogger at Weblogsky. With Clay Shirky, he created You're a blog about tags and folksonomy, he blogged at, managed technology for, Worldchanging, an influential website focused on the future of sustainability, inspired by the Viridian Design Movement.
He is a close friend of author Bruce Sterling, whom he has interviewed many times, he created and operated the web site for Sterling's Viridian Design Movement. Lebkowsky and Sterling have a world-readable "State of the World" conversation for two weeks every January on The WELL. Lebkowsky has written articles and essays, is a contributing writer and columnist at Worldchanging, one of the contributors to the book Worldchanging: A Guide to the 21st Century, he was co-editor of the book Extreme Democracy He led Austin's Wireless Future project for the IC² Institute in 2003–2004, was a prominent figure within the Central Texas Digital Convergence Initiative, Bootstrap Austin, ATX Equation, other local economic development projects. He has been an advisor to the SXSW Interactive conference for many years, he curated SXSWi tracks on wireless in 2004, digital convergence in 2006, journalism in 2011. He was a cofounder and an original board member of the Society for Participatory Medicine, manages the Society's social media presence.
He formed an Austin-based social web consultancy, Social Web Strategies, where he was principal from 2006 to 2009. He was instigator and principal of Plutopia Productions, a future-focused entertainment and production company, he has been involved in Austin sustainability projects, including Austin EcoNetwork, Austin Green Art, Austin 350, Solar Austin, the Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems. In 2009 he returned to web consulting and development, he writes and speaks about the Internet, digital culture, social technology. He has a web development and consulting company called Polycot Associates, a spinoff from Polycot Consulting. List of links to writings and interviews. Posts at Worldchanging.com "In Your Facebook" "The Serious Play in Saving the World" Lebkowsky, Jon. U.. Jen Scoville, ed. "Cyberculture Evolution". Austinchronicle.com. Retrieved 12 December 2013. Finley, Klint. "Participatory medicine with Jon Lebkowsky". Technoccult.net. Retrieved 12 December 2013. Combs, Brian. "Austin's Internet Pioneers - Jon Lebkowsky".
Briancombs.net. Retrieved 12 December 2013. Weblogsky Blog Polycot Team Listing EFF-Austin Wireless Future Digital Convergence Initiative Worldchanging Bio Political Networks AuthorViews video interview about Extreme Democracy From Zines to Zen: RU Sirius interviews Jon
Clayton Counts was an American musician and composer, a former DJ, one half of the experimental band Bull of Heaven. Counts was born with detached retinas in both his eyes. A series of surgeries at a young age complicated this, leaving him blind in his right eye, weakened in his left. Counts was located in Austin, Texas. In the 1990s, Counts became notorious with his prank phone calls to the Austin Community Access Center, in particular Alex Jones's show. An incident occurred - though with varying claims from both sides - in which Counts was involved in the assault of Jones in a parking lot with three other individuals; as a follow-up, it was claimed that Jones used FBI connections to label Counts a terrorist and claimed he possessed child pornography. Federal agents raided the FringeWare Review bookstore, headquarters of an early cyberculture magazine that Counts wrote articles for; the case was dropped. In 2000, Counts relocated to Chicago. Whilst there, he met Neil Keener, who would join Counts in the band Bull of Heaven.
In the 2000s, Counts worked as a DJ to afford a living. He worked at various clubs, including Lava, Whiskey Sky, Darkroom, the Allstate Arena, as well as performing at private functions. In July 2005, Counts was again involved in an incident - this time the alleged battery of a bouncer at the Lava club. Much like the Alex Jones incident in 2000, there are two sides to this story. Sarpalius claims that it was Counts who caused a scene, damaged the club's equipment. Counts discharged a can of mace at the bouncer's feet as a warning shot, though the stories of this differ from both sides. In the night, Counts was arrested, his equipment was lost for several days whilst it was in possession of another club-goer the night of the incident. Counts had been DJing at the Lava club for four years prior to Sarpalius becoming the new owner, this incident ending his shows there; the charges against Counts were dropped after a lengthy court case. In September 2006, Counts gained notoriety when he created a mash-up of The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds with The Beatles' Sgt.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, aptly titled Sgt. Petsound's Lonely Hearts Club Band and credited to the band The Beachles; the mash-up album was created in conjunction with the 40th anniversary of Pet Sounds, was favoured by various sites. This popularity reached EMI, who in turn issued Counts a cease and desist notice, demanded the IP addresses of everyone who downloaded it through his blog, attempted to sue him for upwards of $30 mil. However, upon deletion of the album, the case was dropped. In December, Counts' site announced his death, revealed to be a hoax. In 2008, Counts along with Neil Keener founded the band Bull of Heaven, their first piece, 001: Weed Problem, was released on January 30, 2008. Since the band has released more than 300 numbered pieces, a second set of 100 pieces numbered in Roman numerals, many pieces of notable length, as well as a variety of untitled tracks, sound puzzles, anti-music. On 21 January 2009, Counts was featured as the cover of the Denver Post's arts section, performing a solo piano composition.
In 2012, the band's site suffered some downtime, has been going through various issues since. In July, they announced. In 2013, the band announced that new material was nearing completion, have since added new pieces to their Facebook page and Internet Archive collection; as of 2014, the band are still releasing music with Counts giving an interview in February to Vice in the Netherlands and the band performing at the Lemp Neighborhood Arts Center in St. Louis; as The BeachlesSgt. Petsound's Lonely Hearts Club Band, 2006with Bull of HeavenSee Bull of Heaven discography for concise discography of Bull of Heaven. Trunculence, 2008 The Unscratchable Itch: A Tribute To Little Fyodor, 2013 ColoringBook Counts' official site Bull of Heaven official site Bull of Heaven collection at the Internet Archive Clayton Counts discography at Discogs.com
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society. Examples of subcultures include hippies and bikers; the concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subcultures differ from countercultures. While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English Dictionary defines a subculture as "a cultural group within a larger culture having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture." As early as 1950, David Riesman distinguished between a majority, "which passively accepted commercially provided styles and meanings, a'subculture' which sought a minority style... and interpreted it in accordance with subversive values". In his 1979 book Subculture: The Meaning of Style, Dick Hebdige argued that a subculture is a subversion to normalcy.
He wrote that subcultures can be perceived as negative due to their nature of criticism to the dominant societal standard. Hebdige argued that subcultures bring together like-minded individuals who feel neglected by societal standards and allow them to develop a sense of identity. In 1995, Sarah Thornton, drawing on Pierre Bourdieu, described "subcultural capital" as the cultural knowledge and commodities acquired by members of a subculture, raising their status and helping differentiate themselves from members of other groups. In 2007, Ken Gelder proposed to distinguish subcultures from countercultures based on the level of immersion in society. Gelder further proposed six key ways in which subcultures can be identified through their: negative relations to work. Sociologists Gary Alan Fine and Sherryl Kleinman argued that their 1979 research showed that a subculture is a group that serves to motivate a potential member to adopt the artifacts, behaviors and values characteristic of the group.
The evolution of subcultural studies has three main steps: The earliest subcultures studies came from the so-called Chicago School, who interpreted them as forms of deviance and delinquency. Starting with what they called Social Disorganization Theory, they claimed that subcultures emerged on one hand because of some population sectors’ lack of socialisation with the mainstream culture and, on the other, because of their adoption of alternative axiological and normative models; as Robert E. Park, Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth suggested, by means of selection and segregation processes, there thus appear in society natural areas or moral regions where deviant models concentrate and are re-inforced. Subcultures, are not only the result of alternative action strategies but of labelling processes on the basis of which, as Howard S. Becker explains, society defines them as outsiders; as Cohen clarifies, every subculture’s style, consisting of image and language becomes its recognition trait. And an individual’s progressive adoption of a subcultural model will furnish him/her with growing status within this context but it will in tandem, deprive him/her of status in the broader social context outside where a different model prevails.
In the work of John Clarke, Stuart Hall, Tony Jefferson and Brian Roberts of the Birmingham CCCS, subcultures are interpreted as forms of resistance. Society is seen as being divided into two fundamental classes, the working class and the middle class, each with its own class culture, middle-class culture being dominant. In the working class, subcultures grow out of the presence of specific interests and affiliations around which cultural models spring up, in conflict with both their parent culture and mainstream culture. Facing a weakening of class identity, subcultures are new forms of collective identification expressing what Cohen called symbolic resistance against the mainstream culture and developing imaginary solutions for structural problems; as Paul Willis and Dick Hebdige underline and resistance are expressed through the development of a distinctive style which, by a re-signification and ‘bricolage’ operation, use cultural industry goods to communicate and express one’s own conflict.
Yet the cultural industry is capable of re-absorbing the components of such a style and once again transforming them into goods. At the same time the mass media, while they participate in building subcultures by broadcasting their images weaken them by depriving them of their subversive content or by spreading a stigmatized image of them; the most recent interpretations see subcultures as forms of distinction. In an attempt to overcome the idea of subcultures as forms of deviance or resistance, they describe subcultures as collectivities which, on a cultural level, are sufficiently homogeneous internally and heterogeneous with respect to the outside world to be capable of developing, as Paul Hodkinson points out, co
Monochrom is an international art-technology-philosophy group, publishing house and film production company. Monochrom was founded in 1993, defines itself as "an unpeculiar mixture of proto-aesthetic fringe work, pop attitude, subcultural science and political activism", its main office is located at Museumsquartier/Vienna. The group's members are: Johannes Grenzfurthner, Evelyn Fürlinger, Harald Homolka-List, Anika Kronberger, Franz Ablinger, Frank Apunkt Schneider, Daniel Fabry, Günther Friesinger and Roland Gratzer; the group is known for working with different media and entertainment formats, although many projects are performative and have a strong focus on a critical and educational narrative. Johannes Grenzfurthner calls this "looking for the best weapon of mass distribution of an idea". Monochrom is left-wing and tries to encourage public debate, sometimes using subversive affirmation or over-affirmation as a tactic; the group popularized the concept of "context hacking". On the occasion of monochrom's 20th birthday in 2013, several Austrian high-profile media outlets paid tribute to the group's pioneering contributions within the field of contemporary art and discourse.
In the early 1990s, Johannes Grenzfurthner was an active member of several BBS message boards. He used his online connections to create a zine or alternative magazine that dealt with art and subversive cultures, was influenced by US magazines like Mondo 2000. Grenzfurthner's motivation was to react to the emerging conservativism in cyber-cultures of the early 1990s, to combine his political background in the Austrian punk and antifa movement with discussion of new technologies and the cultures they create. Franz Ablinger joined; the first issue was released in 1993. Over the years the publication featured many interviews and essays, for example by Bruce Sterling, HR Giger, Richard Kadrey, Arthur Kroker, Kathy Acker, Michael Marrak, DJ Spooky, Geert Lovink, Lars Gustafsson, Tony Serra, Friedrich Kittler, Jörg Buttgereit, Eric Drexler, Terry Pratchett, Jack Sargeant and Bob Black, in its specific experimental layout style. In 1995 the group decided to cover new artistic practices and started experimenting with different media: performances, computer games, puppet theater, short films, conferences, online activism.
In 1995 we decided. We knew that we wanted create viral information. So a quest for the best "Weapon of Mass Distribution" started, a search for the best transportation mode for a certain politics of philosophical ideas; this was the Cambrian Explosion of monochrom. We wanted to experiment, find new forms of telling our stories. But, to be clear, it was not about keeping the pace, of staying up-to-date, or staying "fresh"; the emergence of new media formats is interesting. But etching information into copper plates is just as exciting. We think that the perpetual return of'the new', to cite Walter Benjamin, is nothing to write home about - except for the slave-drivers in the fashion industry. We've never been interested in the new just in the accidental occurrence. In the moment where things don't tally, where productive confusion arises. All the other core team members joined between 1995 and 2006. Grenzfurthner is the group's artistic director, he defines monochrom's artistic and activist approach as'Context hacking' or'Urban Hacking'.
The group monochrom refers to its working method as »Context Hacking,« thus referencing the hacker culture, which propagates a creative and emancipatory approach to the technologies of the digital age, in this way turns against the continuation into the digital age of a centuries-old technological enslavement perpetrated through knowledge and hierarchies of experts.... Context hacking transfers the hackers' objectives and methods to the network of social relationships in which artistic production occurs, upon which it is dependent.... One of context hackers' central ambitions is to bring the factions of counterculture, which have veered off along diverging trajectories, back together again. From its foundation, the group defined itself as a movement, culture and "open field of experimentation". Monochrom supported and supports various artists, activists and communities with an online publishing platform, a print publishing service, organizes in-person meetings, radio shows, debate circles, online platforms.
It is fundamental for the group's core members to combine artistic and educational endeavors with community work. Some collaborations have been rather short-lived, some have been going for many years and decades, Michael Zeltner, Anouk Wipprecht, VSL Lindabrunn). Monochrom supports initiatives like the Radius Festival, Play:Vienna, the Buckminster Fuller Institute Austria, RE/Search, the Semantic Web Company and the Vienna hackerspace Metalab. For a couple of years, monochrom was running the DIY project "Hackbus" in cooperation with David "Daddy D" Dempsey Since 2007, monochrom is the European correspondent for Boing Boing Video. Monochrom offers a collaborative art resi