Frederick III, German Emperor
Frederick III was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz", he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Although celebrated as a young man for his leadership and successes during the Second Schleswig, Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, he professed a hatred of warfare and was praised by friends and enemies alike for his humane conduct. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father King of Prussia, became the German Emperor. Upon Wilhelm's death at the age of ninety on 9 March 1888, the thrones passed to Frederick, who had by been German Crown Prince for seventeen years and Crown Prince of Prussia for twenty-seven years. Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died, aged fifty-six, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition. Frederick married Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The couple were well-matched. Frederick, in spite of his conservative militaristic family background, had developed liberal tendencies as a result of his ties with Britain and his studies at the University of Bonn; as the Crown Prince, he opposed the conservative Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in speaking out against Bismarck's policy of uniting Germany through force, in urging that the power of the Chancellorship be curbed. Liberals in both Germany and Britain hoped that as emperor, Frederick III would move to liberalize the German Empire. Frederick and Victoria were great admirers of Queen Victoria's husband, they planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, to reform what they saw as flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself. The office of Chancellor, responsible to the Emperor, would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers responsible to the Reichstag. Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. Frederick "described the Imperial Constitution as ingeniously contrived chaos."
The Crown Prince and Princess shared the outlook of the Progressive Party, Bismarck was haunted by the fear that should the old Emperor die—and he was now in his seventies—they would call on one of the Progressive leaders to become Chancellor. He sought to guard against such a turn by keeping the Crown Prince from a position of any influence and by using foul means as well as fair to make him unpopular. However, his illness prevented him from establishing policies and measures to achieve this, such moves as he was able to make were abandoned by his son and successor, Wilhelm II; the timing of Frederick's death and the length of his reign are important topics among historians. The premature demise of Frederick III is considered a potential turning point in German history. Frederick William was born in the New Palace at Potsdam in Prussia on 18 October 1831, he was a scion of the House of Hohenzollern, rulers of Prussia the most powerful of the German states. Frederick's father, Prince William, was a younger brother of King Frederick William IV and, having been raised in the military traditions of the Hohenzollerns, developed into a strict disciplinarian.
William fell in love with his cousin Elisa Radziwill, a princess of the Polish nobility, but his parents felt Elisa's rank was not suitable for the bride of a Prussian prince and forced a more suitable match. The woman selected to be his wife, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, had been raised in the more intellectual and artistic atmosphere of Weimar, which gave its citizens greater participation in politics and limited the powers of its rulers through a constitution; because of their differences, the couple did not have a happy marriage and, as a result, Frederick grew up in a troubled household, which left him with memories of a lonely childhood. He had one sister, eight years his junior and close to him. Frederick had a good relationship with his uncle, King Frederick William IV, called "the romantic on the throne". Frederick grew up during a tumultuous political period as the concept of liberalism in Germany, which evolved during the 1840s, was gaining widespread and enthusiastic support.
The liberals sought a unified Germany and were constitutional monarchists who desired a constitution to ensure equal protection under the law, the protection of property, the safeguarding of basic civil rights. Overall, the liberals desired; when Frederick was 17, these emergent nationalistic and liberal sentiments sparked a series of political uprisings across the German states and elsewhere in Europe. In Germany, their goal was to protect freedoms, such as the freedom of assembly and freedom of the press, to create a German parliament and constitution. Although the uprisings brought about no lasting changes, liberal sentiments remained an influential force in German politics throughout Frederick's life. Despite the value placed by the Hohenzollern family on a traditional military education, Augusta insisted that her son receive a classical education. Accordingly, Frederick was tutored in both military traditions and the liberal arts, his private tutor was a famous archaeologist. Frederick was a talented student good at foreign languages, becoming fluent in English and French, studying Lati
Pieternella "Nel" Fritz is a retired Dutch gymnast. She competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics in all artistic gymnastics events and finished in 14th place with the Dutch team, her best individual result was 68th place on the balance beam
Friedrich "Fritz" Kreisler was an Austrian-born violinist and composer. One of the most noted violin masters of his day, regarded as one of the greatest violinists of all time, he was known for his sweet tone and expressive phrasing. Like many great violinists of his generation, he produced a characteristic sound, recognizable as his own. Although it derived in many respects from the Franco-Belgian school, his style is nonetheless reminiscent of the gemütlich lifestyle of pre-war Vienna. Kreisler was born in the son of Anna and Samuel Kreisler, a doctor. Of Jewish heritage, he was however baptised at the age of 12, he studied at the Vienna Conservatory under Anton Bruckner, Jakob Dont and Joseph Hellmesberger Jr. and in Paris, where his teachers included Léo Delibes, Lambert Massart and Jules Massenet. While in Paris, he won the "Premier Grand Prix de Rome" gold medal at the age of 12, competing against 40 other players, all of whom were at least 20 years of age, he made his United States debut at the Steinway Hall in New York City on November 10, 1888, his first tour of the United States in 1888–1889 with Moriz Rosenthal.
He returned to Austria and applied for a position in the Vienna Philharmonic, but was turned down by the concertmaster Arnold Rosé. As a result, he left music to study medicine, he spent a brief time in the army before returning to the violin in 1899, when he gave a concert with the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Arthur Nikisch. It was a series of American tours from 1901 to 1903 that brought him real acclaim. In 1910, Kreisler gave the premiere of Sir Edward Elgar's Violin Concerto, a work commissioned by and dedicated to him, he served in the Austrian Army in World War I before being honourably discharged after he was wounded. He arrived in New York on November 24, 1914, spent the remainder of the war in America, he returned to Europe in 1924, living first in Berlin moving to France in 1938. Shortly thereafter, at the outbreak of World War II, he settled once again in the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1943, he lived there for the rest of his life, giving his last public concert in 1947, broadcasting performances for a few years after that.
On April 26, 1941, he was involved in a serious traffic accident. Struck by a truck while crossing a street in New York, he suffered a fractured skull and was in a coma for over a week. In his years, he suffered from not only some hearing loss but sight deterioration due to cataracts. Kreisler died of a heart condition aggravated by old age in New York City in 1962, he was interred in a private mausoleum in The Bronx, New York City. Kreisler wrote a number of pieces for the violin, including solos for encores, such as "Liebesleid" and "Liebesfreud"; some of Kreisler's compositions were pastiches ostensibly in the style of other composers. They were ascribed to earlier composers, such as Gaetano Pugnani, Giuseppe Tartini and Antonio Vivaldi, in 1935, Kreisler revealed that it was he who wrote the pieces; when critics complained, Kreisler replied that they had deemed the compositions worthy: "The name changes, the value remains", he said. He wrote operettas, including Apple Blossoms in 1919 and Sissy in 1932, a string quartet, cadenzas, including ones for Brahms's Violin Concerto, Paganini's D major Violin Concerto, Beethoven's Violin Concerto.
His cadenzas for the Beethoven concerto are the ones most played by violinists today. He wrote the music for the 1936 movie The King Steps Out directed by Josef von Sternberg, based on the early years of Empress Elisabeth of Austria. Kreisler performed and recorded his own version of the first movement of Paganini's D major Violin Concerto; the movement is rescored and in some places reharmonised, the orchestral introduction is rewritten in some places. The overall effect is of a late-nineteenth-century work. Kreisler owned several antique violins made by luthiers Antonio Stradivari, Pietro Guarneri, Giuseppe Guarneri, Carlo Bergonzi, most of which came to bear his name, he owned a Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume violin of 1860, which he used as his second violin, which he loaned to the young prodigy Josef Hassid. In 1952 he donated his Giuseppe Guarneri to the Library of Congress in Washington, D. C. where it remains in use for performances given in the library. On recordings, Kreisler's style resembles that of his younger contemporary Mischa Elman, with a tendency toward expansive tempi, a continuous and varied vibrato, expressive phrasing, a melodic approach to passage-work.
Kreisler makes considerable use of rubato. The two violinists' approaches are less similar in big works of the standard repertoire, such as Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto, than in smaller pieces. A trip to a Kreisler concert is recounted in Siegfried Sassoon's 1928 autobiographical novel Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man. See: List of compositions by Fritz Kreisler See also: "Musical Hoax" Kreisler's work has been reasonably well represented on both LP and CD reissues. Original masters were made on RCA Victor and HMV, his final recordings were made in 1950. Bach Concerto for Two Violins in D minor, BWV 1043, with Efrem Zimbalist, a string quartet. Rec. January 4, 1915. Rec. December 15, 1926. Rec. June 16, 1936. 3, with Sergei Rachmaninoff, pF. rec. March 22, 1928. June 17–19, 1936.
John F. Fritz was an American pioneer of iron and steel technology, referred to as the "Father of the U. S. Steel Industry". To celebrate his 80th birthday the John Fritz Medal was established in 1902, with Fritz himself being the first recipient. Fritz was born August 21, 1822 in Londonderry Township, Chester County, the eldest of seven children of George Fritz and Mary Meharg. and at the age of 16 he was apprenticed as a blacksmith. He progressed to become a mechanic, working for the Norristown Iron Company, in 1854 moved to the Cambria Iron Company, where he designed the first three-high rolling mill, a notable achievement. In 1860 he became General Superintendent and Chief Engineer of the Bethlehem Iron Works in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. While there he was responsible for installing a Bessemer Converter and various developments in the company, staying until 1892, when he was 70. Fritz was President of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, President of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Honorary Vice-President for life of the Iron and Steel Institute of London, member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Honorary member of the American Iron and Steel Institute, recipient of the Bessemer Gold Medal, the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal and the John Fritz Gold Medal of the United Engineering Societies.
He was awarded honorary degrees from Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University and the Stevens Institute of Technology. John Fritz, The Autobiography of John Fritz. Available online through Beyond Steel: An Archive of Lehigh Valley Industry and Culture. About John FritzLance Metz, John Fritz: His Role in the Development of the American Iron and Steel Industry and His Legacy to the Bethlehem Community. Finding Aid to The Autobiography of John Fritz, Holographic Manuscript, Special Collections, Linderman Library, Lehigh University
Clemens Fritz is a German retired footballer who played as a right-back and as a defensive midfielder. He is known for his 11-year spell at Werder Bremen. Having begun his career at Rot-Weiß Erfurt and Karlsruher SC, he joined Bayer Leverkusen in 2003, playing sparingly across his three seasons at the Bundesliga club. In 2006, he moved to Werder Bremen, winning the DFB-Pokal and helping them to the UEFA Cup final in 2009. Across all competitions, he has played over 300 matches for Bremen. In a two-year international career for Germany starting in 2006, he earned 22 caps and scored two goals, he was part of their team which finished as runners-up at UEFA Euro 2008. He announced his retirement at the end of the 2016–17 season. Born in Erfurt in East Germany, Fritz started his footballing career playing for hometown club Rot-Weiß Erfurt in the Regionalliga. In the summer of 2001, he joined 2. Bundesliga club Karlsruher scored five goals in 32 games; when he was signed by Bayer Leverkusen in 2003, he was loaned back to Karlsruhe to play first team football.
He became part of Leverkusen's first team in the 2003–04 season second half after showing his capabilities for their reserve team. Fritz played 14 more first team games for Leverkusen that season, gaining them a UEFA Champions League place. In 2004, he broke his leg during a pre-season game against Rot-Weiss Essen, ruling him out the entire season. In 2006, Fritz joined Werder Bremen on a free transfer signing a three-year contract, he announced his retirement at the end of the 2015–16 season on 14 January 2016, but signed a new one-year contract on 28 April 2016. On 4 March 2017, in a match against Darmstadt 98, he suffered an ankle injury and underwent surgery, which ruled him out for the rest of the 2016–17 season. On 8 May 2017, he announced the end of his playing career. Having played for the Germany U-18s and U-21s, Fritz debuted with the senior team on 7 October 2006, playing the entirety of a 2–0 friendly win over Georgia at the Ostseestadion in Rostock. On 2 June of the following year, he scored his first international goal, concluding a 6–0 rout of minnows San Marino in UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying in Nuremberg, eight minutes after entering as a substitute.
He added a second on 17 November, opening a 4–0 win over Cyprus in another qualifier in Hannover by heading in Lukas Podolski's cross after two minutes. Fritz was selected in the 23-man squad for the European Championship in Austria and Switzerland in 2008, he played in the first four of their six games. Scores and results table. Germany's goal tally first: Werder BremenBundesliga Runner-up: 2007–08 DFL-Ligapokal: 2006 DFB-Pokal: 2008–09, Runner-up: 2009–10 UEFA Cup: Runner-up: 2008–09 GermanyUEFA European Football Championship Runner-up: 2008 Clemens Fritz at WorldFootball.net Clemens Fritz at fussballdaten.de Clemens Fritz at National-Football-Teams.com Leverkusen who's who
William S. Hart
William Surrey Hart was an American silent film actor, screenwriter and producer. He is remembered as a foremost western star of the silent era who "imbued all of his characters with honor and integrity." During the late 1910s and early 1920s, he was one of the most popular movie stars ranking high among male actors in popularity contests held by movie fan magazines. Hart was born in New York, to Nicholas Hart and Rosanna Hart. William had two brothers, who died young, four sisters, his father was born in England, his mother was born in Ireland. He was a distant cousin of the western star Neal Hart, he began his acting career on stage in his 20s, in film when he was 49, which coincided with the beginning of film's transition from curiosity to commercial art form. Hart's stage debut came in 1888 as a member of a company headed by Daniel E. Bandmann; the following year he joined Lawrence Barrett's company in New York and spent several seasons with Mlle. Hortense Rhéa's traveling company, he toured and traveled extensively while trying to make a name for himself as an actor, for a time directed shows at the Asheville Opera House in North Carolina, around the year 1900.
He had some success as a Shakespearean actor on Broadway, working with Margaret Mather and other stars. His family had moved to Asheville but, after his youngest sister Lotta died of typhoid fever in 1901, they all left together for Brooklyn until William went back on tour. Hart went on to become one of the first great stars of the motion picture western. Fascinated by the Old West, he acquired Billy the Kid's "six shooters" and was a friend of legendary lawmen Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson, he entered films in 1914 where, after playing supporting roles in two short films, he achieved stardom as the lead in the feature The Bargain. Hart was interested in making realistic western films, his films are noted for their authentic costumes and props, as well as Hart's acting ability, honed on Shakespearean theater stages in the United States and England. Beginning in 1915, Hart starred in his own series of two-reel western short subjects for producer Thomas Ince, which were so popular that they were supplanted by a series of feature films.
Many of Hart's early films continued to play in theaters, for another decade. In 1915 and 1916 exhibitors voted him the biggest money making star in the United States. In 1917 Hart accepted a lucrative offer from Adolph Zukor to join Famous Players-Lasky, which merged into Paramount Pictures. In the films Hart began to ride a white pinto he called Fritz. Fritz was the forerunner of famous movie horses known by their own name, e.g. horses like Tom Mix's Tony, Roy Rogers's Trigger and Clayton Moore's Silver. In 1917, to signify "his patriotism and loyalty to Uncle Sam" he announced would "change the name of his favorite horse from Fritz to one more American." Hart was now making feature films and films like Square Deal Sanderson and The Toll Gate were popular with fans. Hart married young Hollywood actress Winifred Westover. Although their marriage was short-lived, they had one child, William S. Hart, Jr.. In 1921, Roscoe Arbuckle, a silent screen comedy actor, was charged with the rape and manslaughter of an aspiring actress named Virginia Rappe.
The case had many salacious aspects surrounding the sexual injuries found on the victim's body. Many of Arbuckle's fellow actors refused to give any comments to the press. However, Hart who had never met or worked with Arbuckle, made a number of damaging public statements in which he presumed the actor's guilt. Arbuckle wrote a premise for a film parodying Hart as a thief and wife beater, bought by Buster Keaton; the following year, Keaton co-wrote and starred in the 1922 comedy film The Frozen North. As a result, refused to speak to Keaton for many years. By the early 1920s, Hart's brand of gritty, rugged westerns with drab costumes and moralistic themes fell out of fashion; the public became attracted by a new kind of movie cowboy, epitomized by Tom Mix, who wore flashier costumes and was faster with the action. Paramount dropped Hart, who made one last bid for his kind of western, he produced Tumbleweeds with his own money, arranging to release it independently through United Artists. The film turned out well, with an epic land-rush sequence, but did only fair business at the box office.
Hart sued United Artists. The legal proceedings dragged on for years, the courts ruled in Hart's favor, in 1940. After Tumbleweeds, Hart retired to his Newhall, ranch home, "La Loma de los Vientos", designed by architect Arthur R. Kelly. In 1939 he appeared in a spoken prologue for a reissue of Tumbleweeds; the 74-year-old Hart, filmed on location at his Newhall ranch, reflects on the Old West and recalls his silent-movie days fondly. The speech turned out to be William S. Hart's farewell to the screen. Most prints and video versions of Tumbleweeds circulating today include Hart's speech. Hart died on June 23, 1946, in Newhall, California at the age of 81, he was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in New York. For his contribution to the motion picture industry, William S. Hart has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6363 Hollywood Blvd. In 1975, he was inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; as part of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, California, H
Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005. A conservative Democrat, he was the Governor of South Carolina and the 77th Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, he served alongside Republican Senator Strom Thurmond for 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in history. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living former U. S. Senator. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942 and joined a law practice in Charleston after attending the University of South Carolina School of Law. During World War II, he served as an artillery officer in campaigns in North Europe. After the war, Hollings successively won election to the South Carolina House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, as Governor, he was defeated by incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died in 1965, the following year Hollings won a special election to serve the remainder of Johnston's term.
Though the Republican Party became dominant in South Carolina after 1966, Hollings remained popular and continually won re-election, becoming one of the longest-serving Senators in U. S. history. Hollings sought the Democratic nomination in the 1984 presidential election but dropped out of the race after the New Hampshire primary, he was succeeded by Republican Jim DeMint. Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Wilhelmine Dorothea Meyer and Adolph Gevert Hollings, Sr, he was raised at 338 President St. in the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood from the age of 10 until he enrolled in college. Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942, he achieved an LL. B. in 1947 after 21 months at the University of South Carolina, joined a law practice in Charleston. Hollings was a member of the Pi Kappa Phi fraternity, he was married to Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings from August 21, 1971, until her death in October 2012. He had four children with his first wife, Martha Patricia Salley Hollings, whom he married on March 30, 1946.
He was a Lutheran. In addition and Patricia had two sons who died, he served as an officer in the U. S. Army's 353rd and 457th Artillery units from 1942 to 1945, during World War II, was awarded the Bronze Star for meritorious service in direct support of combat operations from December 13, 1944, to May 1, 1945, in France and Germany, he received the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with five Bronze Service Stars for participation in the Tunisia, Southern France, Rome-Arno, Central Europe Campaigns. He served three terms in the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1949 to 1954. After only one term, Hollings' colleagues elected him Speaker Pro Tempore in 1951 and 1953, he was subsequently elected Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina in 1954, Governor in 1958 at the age of 36. As governor of South Carolina from January 20, 1959, to January 15, 1963, Hollings worked to improve the state's educational system, helping to bring more industry and employment opportunities to the state.
His term in office saw the establishment of the state's technical education system and its educational television network. He called for and achieved significant increases in teachers' salaries, bringing them closer to the regional average. At the 1961 Governor's Conference on Business, Industry and Agriculture in Columbia, South Carolina, he declared, "Today, in our complex society, education is the cornerstone upon which economic development must be built—and prosperity assured."During Hollings' term as governor, the Confederate battle flag was flown above the South Carolina State House underneath the U. S. and state flags. The battle flag was placed over the dome in 1962 by a concurrent resolution of the state legislature during the commemoration of the Civil War centennial; the resolution failed to designate a time for its removal. In 2000 the state legislature voted to move the flag from above the state house to a Confederate soldiers' monument in front of the building, where it remained until 2015, when Republican governor Nikki Haley ordered it removed following the murders of nine black churchgoers by a Confederate sympathizer in the state earlier that year.
In his last address to the General Assembly on January 9, 1963, ahead of the peaceful admission to Clemson University of its first black student, Harvey Gantt, Hollings declared: "As we meet, South Carolina is running out of courts... this General Assembly must make clear South Carolina's choice, a government of laws rather than a government of men…This should be done with dignity. It should be done with law and order."Hollings oversaw the last executions in South Carolina before the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Georgia, which temporarily banned capital punishment. During his term, eight inmates were put to death by electric chair; the last was rapist Douglas Thorne, on April 20, 1962. He sought the Democratic nomination for a seat in the U. S. Senate in 1962 but lost to incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died on April 18, 1965. Hollings' successor as governor, Donald S. Russell, resigned in order to accept appointment to the Senate seat. In the summer of 1966, Hollings defeated Russell in the Democratic primary for the remaining two years of the term.
He narrowly won the special election on November 8, 1966, against the Democrat-turned-Republican Marshall Parker, was sworn in shortly thereafter. He gained seniority on other newly elected U. S. senators who would have to wait until January 1967 to take the oath of office. In 1967, he was one of eleven senators who voted against the n