Friuli Venezia Giulia is one of the 20 regions of Italy, one of five autonomous regions with special statute. The regional capital is Trieste; the name used to be hyphenated as Friuli-Venezia Giulia until 2001. The region is called Friûl Vignesie Julie in Friulian and Furlanija Julijska krajina in Slovene, two languages spoken in the region; the city of Venice is not despite the name. Friuli Venezia Giulia has an area of about 1.2 million inhabitants. A natural opening to the sea for many Central European countries, the region is traversed by the major transport routes between the east and west of southern Europe, it encompasses the historical-geographical region of Friuli and a small portion of the historical region of Venezia Giulia – known in English as the Julian March – each with its own distinct history and identity. In Roman times, modern Friuli Venezia Giulia was located within Regio X Venetia et Histria of Roman Italy; the traces of its Roman origin are visible over all the territory. In fact, the city of Aquileia, founded in 181 BC, served as capital of the region and rose to prominence in the Augustan period.
Starting from the Lombard settlements, the historical paths of Friuli and Venezia Giulia begin to diverge. In 568, Cividale del Friuli became the capital of the first Lombard dukedom in Italy. In 774, the Franks, favoured the growth of the church of Aquileia and established Cividale as a March. In 1077, Patriarchate of Aquileia was given temporal power by the Holy Roman Emperors and this power was extended temporarily to the east, but in the 12th century Gorizia had become independent and Trieste, along with other coastal towns, organized itself as a free city-state. In the 6th century, the Alpine Slavs, ancestors of present-day Slovenes, settled the eastern areas of the region, they settled in the easternmost mountainous areas of Friuli, known as the Friulian Slavia, as well as the Kras Plateau and the area north and south from Gorizia. In the 12th and 13th century, they moved closer to Trieste. Friuli became Venetian territory in 1420, while Trieste and Gorizia remained under the Austrian Empire.
Pordenone was a "corpus separatum", under Austrian influence until 1515, when it fell under the Venetian rule. With the peace treaty of Campoformido in 1797, Venetian domination came to an end and Friuli was ceded to Austria. After the period of domination by Napoleon, which affected Trieste and Gorizia, it again became part of the Austrian Empire and was included in the Lombard-Veneto Kingdom, while Gorizia was merged with the Illyrian Kingdom and Trieste, together with Istria, became part of the Austrian Coastal Region; the enlightened policy of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries encouraged an extraordinary economic flourishing, making Trieste the empire's port. The outcome of the war of independence brought Friuli alone into the Kingdom of Italy. After the First World War, in which this region was a main theatre of operations and suffered serious damage and loss of lives, the fates of these border lands were again united, although Venezia Giulia, in particular, was the subject of contradictions regarding the borders.
The Second World War led to the Anglo-American Administration in Trieste until the border was fixed with the Memorandum of London in 1954. When Trieste was taken back by Italy, the Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia could be established; the name of the region was spelled Friuli-Venezia Giulia until 2001, when, in connection with a modification of article nr. 116 of the Italian constitution, the official spelling Friuli Venezia Giulia was adopted. The term "Venezia Giulia" was coined by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli. Friuli Venezia Giulia is Italy's north-easternmost region, it is the fifth smallest region of the country. It borders Austria to Slovenia to the east. To the south it faces the Adriatic Sea and to the west its internal border is with the Veneto region; the region spans a wide variety of climates and landscapes from the mild Oceanic in the south to Alpine continental in the north. The total area is subdivided into a 42.5% mountainous-alpine terrain in the north, 19.3% is hilly to the south-east, while the remaining 38.2% comprises the central and coastal plains.
Morphologically the region can be subdivided into four main areas. The mountainous area in the north: this part of the region includes Carnia and the ending section of the Alps, of which the highest peaks exceed 2,700 m above sea level, its landscapes are characterised by vast pine forests and pastures, mountain lakes and numerous streams and small rivers descending from the mountains. The area is known for its tourist destinations during the winter season; the hilly area, situated to the south of the mountains and along the central section of the border with Slovenia. The main product of agriculture in this area is wine, whose quality the white, is known worldwide; the easternmost part of the hilly area is known as Slavia Friulana, as it is inhabited by ethnic Slovenes. The central plains are characterised by poor and permeable soil; the soil has been made fertile with an extensive irrigation system and through the adoption of modern intensive farming techniques. In this part of the region most of the agricultural activities are concentrated.
The coastal area can be further subdivided in two, western-eastern, subsections separated by the river Isonzo's e
Bill Troop is the principal author of "The Film Developing Cookbook", in print continuously since 1998, considered to be the standard contemporary work on black and white film processing and chemistry. As a chemist, he has designed products for Photographers' Formulary, Inc. including TF-4, the first alkaline fixer for black and white film and papers to be sold, TD-3, a film developer, reported to provide superior speed and dynamic range and lower grain in the category of low contrast film developers designed for high contrast films such as Kodak Technical Pan and similar. TF-4's use as a helpful adjunct to tanning developers was discussed in detail by Gordon Hutchings in "The Book of Pyro" Alkaline fixing for black and white silver halide films and printing papers was considered revolutionary when Troop introduced it. Though still controversial, it has since become a recognized technique in photographic processing as it offers reduced washing times, increased archival stability, reduced environmental impact.
Troop published the first formulas for alkaline fixers, several manufacturers now produce them. He has written for several computer magazines, including PC Magazine, MacWEEK, MacDirectory, his 1993 article "Silicon Valley IDE mirror card: safety in numbers" described the then-revolutionary first RAID product available for personal computers. The Wall Street Journal has described him as a "kitchen-appliance junkie" and he has written about kitchen technology for The Lady, he has designed several typefaces for Canada Type, including Busted, Didot Display, Didot Headline, Semplicità Pro. Earlier typefaces were released through the now-defunct foundry Precision Type, he was married to the writer Elspeth Barker from 2007 to 2013 and is reported to be working on a novel
Peter Krogh is an American photographer, public speaker and publisher. He is best known for his work in the field of digital asset management. Krogh attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he majored in American Studies, before developing a career as an editorial and commercial photographer. In 2006, his first book, The DAM Book - Digital Asset Management for Photographers, was published by O'Reilly Media, outlining a system for the creation of a unified digital photo archive using Adobe Bridge and iView Media Pro software, it outlined the use of metadata in photographic images and storage practices for digital photos. In 2009, the second edition of The DAM Book added the use of Adobe Photoshop Lightroom to the described workflow; these books have been translated into French and Spanish. He has served on the American Society of Media Photographers Board of Directors, as of 2014 is the Digital Standards and Practices Chair. Krogh has been a contributing editor to the Universal Photographic Digital Imaging Guidelines project, a joint effort by trade organizations worldwide to standardize digital photography practice.
In 2010, Krogh was a co-creator of dpBestflow.org. The project was funded by the US Library of Congress under an NDIIPP award to ASMP; the project was directed with Krogh serving as a principal author. In 2011, Krogh took over as project director. In 2011, Krogh worked as a principal on the Shutha.org project, which provided educational material to photographers and multimedia storytellers in the developing world to help them enter the global digital content marketplace. Krogh brought the Drupal framework created for dpBestflow.org to shutha.org to provide a content management framework. Krogh has led workshops for photographers worldwide; these include PhotoPlus East, Imaging USA, WPPI, Society for Photographic Education, Photoshop World, South by Southwest, the Palm Springs Photo Festival, The Photo Metadata Conference, IS&T Archiving 2010, CEPIC, Look3, FotoweekDC, Microsoft Pro Photo Summit, Santa Fe Workshops, PhotoFusion, Eddie Adams Workshop, Photofest Houston, as well as numerous appearances for photo associations ASMP, American Photography Association, NZIIP, AOP, AIPP.
In 2008 he led workshops in three cities in South Africa under the leadership of Africa Media Online. Krogh created Adobe Bridge scripts with Tom Nolan and published them under the company name DAM Useful Software. In 2013, he founded DAM Useful Publishing; the first product was the 2009 version of The DAM Book, delivered in electronic form. In September 2013, DAM Useful Publishing created its first new eBook, The DAM Book Guide to Multi-catalog Workflow with Lightroom 5; this was followed in December 2013 by The DAM Book Guide to Organizing Your Photos with Lightroom 5. In August 2014, Krogh took on the role of Product Architect at PhotoShelter, Inc to develop a cloud-based DAM service with enterprise-level permissions and access control. PhotoShelter Libris was launched at DAM Los Angeles 2014 in November 2014. In 2012, Krogh received the Individual Innovation Award from the United States Library of Congress's National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program. Krogh was named by Microsoft to be part of its Icons of Imaging Program designed to celebrate and showcase professional photographers who are recognized around the world as leaders in photography and digital imaging.