A snowman is an anthropomorphic snow sculpture built by children in regions with sufficient snowfall. In many places, typical snowmen consist of three large snowballs of different sizes with some additional accoutrements for facial and other features. Due to the sculptability of snow, there is a wide variety of other styles. Common accessories include branches for arms and a rudimentary smiley face, with a carrot used for a nose. Clothing, such as a hat or scarf, may be included. Low-cost and availability are the common issues, since snowmen are abandoned to the elements once completed. Snow becomes suitable for packing when it approaches its melting point and becomes moist and compact. Making a snowman of powdered snow is difficult since it will not stick to itself, if the temperature of packing snow drops, it will form an unusable denser form of powdered snow called crust. Thus, a good time to build a snowman may be the next warm afternoon directly following a snowfall with a sufficient amount of snow.
Using more compact snow allows for the construction of a large snowball by rolling it until it grows to the desired size. If the snowball reaches the bottom of the grass it may pick up traces of gravel or dirt. In North America, snowmen are built with three spheres representing the head and lower body. In the United Kingdom, two spheres are used, one sphere representing the body and one representing the head; the usual practice is to decorate and optionally dress the snowman. Sticks can be used for arms, a face is traditionally made with stones or coal for eyes and a carrot for a nose; some like to dress their snowmen in clothing such as a scarf or hat, while others prefer not to risk leaving supplies out doors where they could be stolen or become stuck under melting ice. There are variations to these standard forms; these other types range from snow columns to elaborate snow sculptures similar to ice sculptures. One book describes classic snowman attachments as a black felt top hat, red scarf, coal eye pieces, carrot nose, corn cob pipe.
Documentation of the first snowman is unclear. However, Bob Eckstein, author of The History of the Snowman documented snowmen from medieval times, by researching artistic depictions in European museums, art galleries, libraries; the earliest documentation he found was a marginal illustration from a 1380 book of hours, found in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague. The earliest known photograph of a snowman was taken in 1853 by Welsh photographer Mary Dillwyn, the original of, in the collections of the National Library of Wales. Snowmen are a popular theme for Christmas and winter decorations and in children's media. A famous snowman character is Frosty, the titular snowman in the popular children's song "Frosty the Snowman", magically brought to life by the old silk hat used on his head. In addition to numerous related music and other media for Frosty, snow-men feature as: Bouli, a French animated series about a snowman's adventures in a magical place. Der Schneemann, a 1943 animated short film created in Germany.
Doc McStuffins features a plush snowman named Chilly. Jack Frost, a 1996 horror movie in which a serial killer is transformed into a snowman. Jack Frost, a 1998 movie with Michael Keaton in which he wakes up as a snowman after a car accident. Oswald features a snowman named Johnny; the Snowman, British picture book by Raymond Briggs and animation directed by Dianne Jackson about a boy who builds a snowman that comes alive and takes him to the North Pole. Calvin and Hobbes, an American cartoon by Bill Watterson, contains many instances of Calvin building snowmen, many of which are deformed or otherwise abnormal used to poke fun at the art world. Hans Christian Andersen wrote The Snowman. Dennis Jürgensen's horror story "The Snowman", about a boy traumatized by being locked in a meat freezer. R. L. Stine's Goosebumps story titled "the Snowman" featured a monstrous snowman; the 2013 film Frozen features a living snowman named Olaf. The film score includes a song about building a snowman, titled "Do You Want to Build a Snowman?".
The TimeSplitters games feature a flying snowman as a playable character. The Kirby series of video games includes a large-eyebrowed snowman enemy named Chilly. Snowmen can be a theme for toys and decorations. One common time for snowman-themed decorations is during the winter holiday and Christmas season, where it is celebrated. One craft book suggested a plan making a small snowman doll out of white glove and other craft supplies. One book on snowmen, which included instructions on working with real snow mentions snowman-themed sweets and confections; some options for snowman-themed dessert items include ice cream and macaroons. In 2015, a man from the U. S. State of Wisconsin was noted for making a large snowman 22 feet tall and with a base 12 feet wide; the record for the world's largest snowman was set in 2008 in Maine. The snow-woman stood 122 feet 1 inch in height, was named in honor of Olympia Snowe, a U. S. Senator representing the state of Maine; the previous record was a snowman built in Bethel, Maine, in February 1999.
The snowman was named "Angus, King of the Mountain" in honor of the current governor of Maine, Angus King. It was 113 feet 7 inches tall and weighed over 9,000,000 pounds. A large snowman known as "Snowzilla" has been built each winter in Anchorage, Ala
Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Artificial cream is an imitation of whipped cream containing some non-dairy fats. Examples are Cool Elmlea. Artificial cream is made from vegetable oil, not butterfat, contains no butyric acid. However, most leading brands do contain dairy products and therefore are not suitable for vegans or people who avoid dairy because of dietary or religious reasons. Artificial cream contains sugar or other sweeteners. Artificial cream is sold as whipped, ready-to-serve topping in plastic tubs and aerosol containers and in the form of powders which must be whipped with a liquid before use. Artificial cream can be used as a topping on pies and sundaes or as an ingredient in recipes. Cool Whip, a brand of imitation whipped cream. Buttercream Kent County Council on Cream Cakes
A frog is any member of a diverse and carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is in tropical rainforests. There are accounting for over 85 % of extant amphibian species, they are one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Warty frog species tend to be called toads, but the distinction between frogs and toads is informal, not from taxonomy or evolutionary history. An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, no tail. Frogs have glandular skin, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic, their skin varies in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to show toxicity and ward off predators.
Adult frogs live on dry land. Frogs lay their eggs in water; the eggs hatch into aquatic larvae called tadpoles that have internal gills. They have specialized rasping mouth parts suitable for herbivorous, omnivorous or planktivorous diets; the life cycle is completed. A few species bypass the tadpole stage. Adult frogs have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frog skin has a rich microbiome, important to their health. Frogs are efficient at converting what they eat into body mass, they are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations in their breeding season, exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to survive.
Frogs are valued as food by humans and have many cultural roles in literature and religion. Frog populations have declined since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over 120 are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s; the number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to resolve them; the use of the common names "frog" and "toad" has no taxonomic justification. From a classification perspective, all members of the order Anura are frogs, but only members of the family Bufonidae are considered "true toads"; the use of the term "frog" in common names refers to species that are aquatic or semi-aquatic and have smooth, moist skins. There are numerous exceptions to this rule; the European fire-bellied toad has a warty skin and prefers a watery habitat whereas the Panamanian golden frog is in the toad family Bufonidae and has a smooth skin.
The origin of the order name Anura — and its original spelling Anoures — is the Ancient Greek "alpha privative" prefix ἀν- "without", οὐρά, meaning "animal tail". It refers to the tailless character of these amphibians; the origins of the word frog are debated. The word is first attested in Old English as frogga, but the usual Old English word for the frog was frosc, it is agreed that the word frog is somehow related to this. Old English frosc remained in dialectal use in English as frosh and frosk into the nineteenth century, is paralleled in other Germanic languages, with examples in the modern languages including German Frosch, Icelandic froskur, Dutch vors; these words allow us to reconstruct a Common Germanic ancestor *froskaz. The third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary finds that the etymology of *froskaz is uncertain, but agrees with arguments that it could plausibly derive from a Proto-Indo-European base along the lines of *preu = "jump". How Old English frosc gave rise to frogga is, uncertain, as the development does not involve a regular sound-change.
Instead, it seems that there was a trend in Old English to coin nicknames for animals ending in -g, with examples—themselves all of uncertain etymology—including dog, pig and wig. Frog appears to have been adapted from frosc as part of this trend. Meanwhile, the word toad, first attested as Old English tādige, is unique to English and is of uncertain etymology, it is the basis for the word tadpole, first attested as Middle English taddepol meaning'toad-head'. About 88% of amphibian species are classified in the order Anura; these include over 7,000 species in 56 families, of which the Craugastoridae, Hylidae and Bufonidae are the richest in species. The Anura include any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition; the characteristics of anuran adults include: 9 or fewer presacral vertebrae, the presence of a urostyle formed of fused vertebrae, no tail, a long and forward-sloping ilium, shorter fore limbs than hind limbs and ulna fused and fibula fused, elongated an
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Australian cuisine refers to the food and cooking practices of Australia and its inhabitants. As a modern nation of large-scale immigration, Australia has a unique blend of culinary contributions and adaptations from various cultures around the world, including Indigenous Australians, Asians and Pacific Islanders. Indigenous Australians have occupied Australia for some 65,000 years, during which they developed a unique hunter-gatherer diet, known as bush tucker, drawn from regional Australian flora and fauna. Australia became a collection of British colonies from 1788 to 1900, during which time culinary tastes were influenced by British and Irish migrants, with agricultural products such as beef cattle and wheat becoming staples in the local diet; the Australian gold rushes introduced more varied immigrants and cuisines Chinese, whilst Australia's post-war multicultural immigration program led to a large-scale diversification of local food under the influence of Mediterranean and East and South Asian Australians.
Australian cuisine in the 21st century reflects the influence of globalisation, with many fast-food restaurants and international trends becoming influential. Organic and biodynamic foods have become available alongside a revival of interest in bushfood. Australia has become famous for the high quality of its exports, with major agricultural industries including cattle and calves, wheat and nuts, milk and lambs, barley, canola; the country is well regarded for its locally-made wine and soft drinks. While fast food chains are abundant, Australia's metropolitan areas have famed haute cuisine and nouvelle cuisine establishments that offer both local and international foods. Restaurants whose product includes contemporary adaptations, interpretations or fusions of exotic influences are termed Modern Australian. Indigenous Australians have lived off the unique native flora and fauna of the Australian bush for over 60,000 years. In modern times, this collection of foods and customs has become known as bush tucker.
It is understood that up to 5,000 species of Australian flora and fauna were eaten by Indigenous Australians. Hunting of kangaroo and emu was common, with other foods consumed including bogong moths, witchetty grubs and snakes. Bush berries and honeys were used. Fish were caught using technologies such as spears and traps. Resource availability and dietary make-up varied from region to region and scientific theories of bush tucker plants being spread by hand have emerged. Food preparation techniques varied, however a common cooking technique was for the carcass to be thrown directly on a campfire to be roasted. Native food sources were used to supplement the colonists' diet following the arrival of the First Fleet in Botany Bay in 1788. Following the pre-colonial period, British colonisers began arriving with the First Fleet of ships at Sydney harbour in 1788; the diet consisted of "bread, salted meat, tea, with lashings of rum." The British found familiar game in Australia including swan, goose and fish, but the new settlers had difficulty adjusting to the prospect of native fauna as a staple diet.
After initial difficulties, Australian agriculture became a major global producer and supplied an abundance of fresh produce for the local market. Stock grazing are prevalent throughout the continent. Queensland and New South Wales became Australia's main beef cattle producers, while dairy cattle farming is found in the southern states, predominantly in Victoria. Wheat and other grain crops are spread evenly throughout the mainland states. Sugar cane is a major crop in Queensland and New South Wales. Fruit and vegetables are grown throughout Australia and wheat is a main component of the Australian diet. Today there are over 85,681 farm businesses in Australia, 99 percent of which are locally owned and operated. Barbecued meat is ubiquitous with Modern Australian cuisine, though it is estimated that more than 10% of Australians are now vegetarian. Billy tea is the drink prepared by the ill-fated swagman in the popular Australian folksong "Waltzing Matilda". Boiling water for tea over a camp fire and adding a gum leaf for flavouring remains an iconic traditional Australian method for preparing tea, a staple drink of the Australian colonial period.
The nation has a longstanding dairy industry and today produces a wide variety of cheeses, milk and butter products. Australians are high consumers of dairy products, consuming some 102.4 L of milk per person a year, 12.9 kg of cheese, 3.8 kg of butter and 7.1 kg of yoghurt products. The chocolate and malt powder Milo, developed by Thomas Mayne in Sydney in 1934 in response to the Great Depression, is mixed with milk to produce a popular beverage. In recent years, Milo has been exported and is commonly consumed in Southeast Asia becoming a major ingredient in some desserts produced in the region; the Australian wine Industry is the fifth largest exporter of wine around the world, with 760 million litres a year to a large international export market and contributes $5.5 billion per annum to the nation's economy. Australians consume over 530 million litres annually with a per capita consumption of about 30 litres – 50% white table wine, 35% red table wine. Wine is produced in every state, with more than 60 designated wine regions totalling 160,000 hectares.
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until