The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft. It was released as Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market on November 15, 2001, in North America, followed by Australia and Japan in 2002, it is classified as a sixth generation console, competing with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Nintendo's GameCube. It was the first console produced by an American company since the Atari Jaguar ceased production in 1996. Announced in 2000, the Xbox was graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featuring a 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor, a processor that could be found on a standard PC, it was noted for its PC-like size and weight, was the first console to feature a built-in hard disk. In November 2002, Microsoft launched Xbox Live, a fee-based online gaming service that enabled subscribers to download new content and connect with other players through a broadband connection. Unlike online services from Sega and Sony, Xbox Live had support in the original console design through an integrated Ethernet port.
The service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a competitor in the sixth-generation of consoles. The popularity of blockbuster titles such as Bungie's Halo 2 contributed to the popularity of online console gaming, in particular first-person shooters. Despite this, being in second position by the sales numbers—ahead of Nintendo's GameCube and Sega's Dreamcast—sales of the Xbox were always well behind Sony's PlayStation 2. Xbox's successor and the next console in the series, the Xbox 360, was launched in November 2005 as part of the seventh generation; the Xbox was discontinued soon after, beginning with Japan, Microsoft's worst-performing market, in 2005. Other countries followed suit in 2006; the last Xbox game in Europe was Xiaolin Showdown, released in June 2007, the last game in North America was Madden NFL 09 from EA Sports, released in August 2008. Support for out-of-warranty Xbox consoles was discontinued on March 2, 2009. Support for Xbox Live on the console ended on April 15, 2010.
In 1998, four engineers from Microsoft's DirectX team, Kevin Bachus, Seamus Blackley, Ted Hase and DirectX team leader Otto Berkes, disassembled some Dell laptop computers to construct a prototype Microsoft Windows-based video game console. The team hoped to create a console using a standardized set of hardware to compete with Sony's upcoming PlayStation 2, luring game developers away from the Windows platform; the team approached Ed Fries, the leader of Microsoft's game publishing business at the time, pitched their "DirectX Box" console based on the DirectX graphics technology developed by Berkes's team. Fries decided to support the team's idea of creating a Windows DirectX based console. During development, the original DirectXbox name was shortened to Xbox. Microsoft's marketing department did not like the Xbox name, suggested many alternatives. During focus testing, the Xbox name was left on the list of possible names to demonstrate how unpopular the Xbox name would be with consumers. However, consumer testing revealed that Xbox was preferred by far over the other suggested names and "Xbox" became the official name of the product.
It was Microsoft's first video game console after collaborating with Sega to port Windows CE to the Dreamcast console. Microsoft delayed the console, first mentioned publicly in late 1999 during interviews with Microsoft's then-CEO Bill Gates. Gates stated: "we want Xbox to be the platform of choice for the best and most creative game developers in the world"; the Xbox was announced at the Game Developers Conference on March 10, 2000. Audiences were impressed by the console's technology. At the time of Gates's announcement, Sega's Dreamcast sales were diminishing and Sony's PlayStation 2 was just going on sale in Japan. Gates was in talks with Sega's late chairman Isao Okawa about the possibility of Xbox compatibility with Dreamcast games, but negotiations fell apart over whether or not the Dreamcast's SegaNet online service should be implemented; the Xbox was unveiled to the public by Gates and guest professional wrestler The Rock at CES 2001 in Las Vegas on January 3, 2001. Microsoft announced Xbox's release prices at E3 2001 in May.
Most Xbox launch titles were unveiled at E3, most notably Halo: Combat Evolved and Dead or Alive 3. Due to the immense popularity of gaming consoles in Japan, Microsoft delayed the release of the Xbox in Europe to focus on the Japanese video game market. Although delayed, the European release proved to be more successful than the launch of the Xbox in Japan; some of Microsoft's plans proved effective. In preparation for its launch, Microsoft acquired Bungie and used Halo: Combat Evolved as its launch title. At the time, GoldenEye 007 for the Nintendo 64 had been one of the few hit FPS games to appear on a console, as well as titles such as Perfect Dark and Medal of Honor. Halo: Combat Evolved proved a good application to drive the Xbox's sales. In 2002, Microsoft made the second place slot in consoles sold in North America; the Xbox Live service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a relevant competitor to other sixth-generation consoles. In 2002, the Independent Television Commission banned a television advertisement for the Xbox in the United Kingdom after complaints that it was "offensive, shocking and in bad taste".
It depicted a mother giving birth to a baby boy, fired like a projectile through a window aging as he flies through the air. The advertisement ends with an old man crash-landing into his own grave and the slogan, "Life is short. Play more." The Xbox's successor, the Xbox 360, was announced on May 12, 2005 on MTV. It was the first n
Frogger 3D is a video game for the Nintendo 3DS. It was released in North America on September 20, 2011, Japan on September 22, 2011, Europe on November 8, 2011; the player controls the main character by running and dodging past moving obstacles and enemies. Some of the places and environments that can be explored include the Hometown, New York, the Casino, the Military Island, the Far East, the Pseudo Dimension; the character can jump onto and control bigger frogs, making the player able to destroy several obstacles and light up dark areas. The game supports 4-player wireless multiplayer. Frogger 3D received mixed to negative reviews upon release. On Metacritic, the game holds a score of 54/100 based on 11 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Frogger 3D credits at MobyGames
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Platform games, or platformers, are a video game genre and subgenre of action game. In a platformer the player controlled character must jump and climb between suspended platforms while avoiding obstacles. Environments feature uneven terrain of varying height that must be traversed; the player has some control over the height and distance of jumps to avoid letting their character fall to their death or miss necessary jumps. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the jump button, but now there are other alternatives like swiping a touchscreen. Other acrobatic maneuvers may factor into the gameplay as well, such as swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, as in Ristar or Bionic Commando, or bouncing from springboards or trampolines, as in Alpha Waves; these mechanics in the context of other genres, are called platforming, a verbification of platform. Games where jumping is automated such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre. Platform games originated in the early 1980s, which were about climbing ladders as much as jumping, with 3D successors popularized in the mid-1990s.
The term describes games where jumping on platforms is an integral part of the gameplay and came into use after the genre had been established, no than 1983. The genre is combined with elements of other genres, such as the shooter elements in Contra, Beat'em up elements of Viewtiful Joe, adventure elements of Flashback, or role-playing game elements of Castlevania: Symphony of the Night. While associated with console gaming, there have been many important platform games released to video arcades, as well as for handheld game consoles and home computers. North America and Japan have played major parts in the genre's evolution. Platform themes range from cartoon-like games to science fantasy epics. At one point, platform games were the most popular genre of video game. At the peak of their popularity, it is estimated that between one-quarter and one-third of console games were platformers. No genre either before or since has been able to achieve a similar market share; as of 2006, the genre had become far less dominant, representing a two percentage market share as compared to fifteen percent in 1998, but is still commercially viable, with a number of games selling in the millions of units.
Since 2010, a variety of endless running platformers for mobile devices have brought renewed popularity to the genre. Platform games originated in the late 1970s - early 1980s. Most, but not all, early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field viewed in profile. Space Panic, a 1980 arcade release by Universal, is sometimes credited as being the first platform game, though the distinction is contentious. While the player had the ability to fall, there was no ability to jump, so the game does not satisfy most modern definitions of the genre. However, it influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games. A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the 1981 unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers. Another precursor to the genre from 1980 was Nichibutsu's Crazy Climber, which revolved around the concept of climbing vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.
Donkey Kong, an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July 1981, was the first game that allowed players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer. It introduced a modern icon of the genre, under the name Jumpman. Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision, a handheld version from Coleco in 1982; the game helped cement Nintendo's position as an important name in the video game industry internationally. The following year, Donkey Kong received a sequel, Donkey Kong Jr.. The third game in the series, Donkey Kong 3, was not a platformer, but it was succeeded by Mario Bros, a platform game that offered two-player simultaneous cooperative play; this title laid the groundwork for other popular two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble, which in turn influenced many of the single-screen platformers that would follow. Beginning in 1982, transitional games emerged that did not feature scrolling graphics, but had levels that spanned several connected screens.
Pitfall!, released for the Atari 2600, featured broad, horizontally extended levels. It was a breakthrough for the genre. Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens. Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. Wanted: Monty Mole won the first award for Best Platform game in 1984; that same year, Epyx released Impossible Mission, which further expanded on the exploration aspect and laid the groundwork for such games as Prince of Persia. The term platform game is somewhat ambiguous when referring to games that predate the widespread, international use of the term; the concept of a platform game as it was defined in its earliest days is somewhat different from how the term is used today. Following the release of Donkey Kong, a genre of similarly-styled games emerged characterized by a profile view of tiers connected by ladders; these included Kangaroo, Canyon Climber, Miner 2049er, Lode Runner, Jumpman.
The two most common gameplay goals were to get to the top of the screen or to collect all of a particular item, both of which are found in Donkey Kong. The North Ame
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Frogger: The Great Quest
Frogger: The Great Quest is a platform game released in 2001 by Konami for the PlayStation 2. It was ported to Microsoft Windows the following year and was dedicated in memory of its fallen voice actor, Steve Sheppard-Brodie, the voice of Lumpy the Toad, Count Blah the Vampire, The Magical General of Light and Industry, it is the first game in the series developed by Konami, the first since Hasbro Interactive released Frogger 2: Swampy's Revenge in 2000. It introduced a new look, it is the first to feature Frogger as a biped wearing clothes. The game was released for the Game Boy Advance with the title Frogger Advance: The Great Quest; the object of the game is to lead Frogger across the Third Kingdom, filled with evil creatures and insects in search of the Princess of his wishes. There are many user interactions in the game that gives hints and tips on how to complete each level. There are a set amount of coins and gems to collect in each level for a bonus score, special stones that will allow Frogger to use special abilities.
Frogger has a few different attacks, which consists of a melee attack, a ranged attack which he will spit green guck from his mouth. It features neat jumping physics. Upon pressing the jump button, if you press it again and hold it, Frogger will blow up his cheeks and glide to his destination, this is efficient for getting from a high ledge, lilly pad, etc. to a lower one. Frogger can swim in this game; the game is more of an adventure than a challenge, being aimed at children. Unlike most computer games, the PC port doesn't have options to change the resolution or overall graphic quality, thus making the world appear jagged and rough; the game is well known for lazy camera view. The game is sometimes compared to Rayman 2: The Great Escape and Rascal in terms of graphics and overall themes. Frogger hears a story of how a frog transformed into a prince after having been kissed by a princess; as such, Frogger begins to search for a princess of his own. He begins his adventure in the Rolling Rapids Creek.
Frogger makes his way to Bog Town, where he meets Bruiser the Bear, who informs Frogger of a river princess. After Frogger helps Bruiser out, Bruiser in exchange sends him to Slick Willy's Riverboat, where the river princess is said to be located. Frogger meets Slick Willy himself, who reveals that the River Princess is the name of his boat. Willy tells Frogger that he intends on eating him for lunch, causing Frogger to defend himself as the two engage in battle. Willy surrenders and decides to help Frogger instead. Phroi creates a path that allows Frogger to enter Mushroom Valley, where the latter finds three pieces of a broken key in order to unlock the door to Fairy Town. Once in Fairy Town, Phroi introduces Frogger to the other fairies and assigns him to complete five tasks in order to meet the fairy princess. For the first of these tasks, Frogger finds and collects five magic seeds in Fairy Town that he uses to grow plants in local soil patches. Following this, the fairies take Frogger to the gloomy Ancient Tree of Knowledge, where he must find and defeat the Dark One - Mr. D.
After doing so, Frogger returns to Fairy Town. For Frogger's fourth task, he enters a nearby lair home to Hiss the Cat Dragon, who presents him with a challenge. After completing the challenge, Hiss tells Frogger a riddle and allows him to return to Fairy Town once again. Frogger plays tag with the fairies, who introduce Frogger to Holly the Fairy Princess - but she is not the princess he is looking for. Holly teleports Frogger to the Dark Trail Ruins, so he can continue his journey north where the princess he is looking for can be found. After getting through the ruins with the help of a strange creature, Frogger defeats a rogue monster inhabiting the trail and enters Dr. Starkenstein's Castle. Dr. Starkenstein seems friendly and allows Frogger to explore his castle, though it is revealed that he is evil and intends on using Frogger's legs for his experiments; the doctor assigns one of his deadly inventions to kill Frogger, but the latter destroys the machines in the castle allowing him to escape and enter the neighboring Catacombs.
Frogger meets a benign vampire named Count Blah, who reveals himself to be the father of Princess Dar, a resident of the Catacombs. When Frogger finds and meets Dar, she tells him that she is not the princess he is looking for either. However, she does allow Frogger to escape the Catacombs and continue his journey on the upcoming Goblin Trail, with the hope of finding the real desired princess. After fighting numerous goblins and unlocking several doors, Frogger ends up in the Goblin Fort, the central home to the goblins. Frogger gets through the Fort and makes his way to Joy Castle, where the true princess herself is located. Frogger explores the castle, navigates its towers, finds his desired princess Joy being held custody by the Magical General of Light and Industry - the source of all evil in the kingdom. Frogger defeats the general, freeing Fairy Frog Mother and Joy, as he shares a kiss with the latter - transforming him into a prince; the game ends with his allies celebrating together.
Frogger is the main protagonist of the game. He hears a story of how a frog turned into a prince by being kissed by a princess, sets out on a qu
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti