Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Kelliher is a city in Beltrami County, United States. The population was 262 at the 2010 census. Highway 72 runs through Kelliher, it's 49 miles northeast of Bemidji. Kelliher was named for a businessman in the lumber industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.14 square miles, of which, 2.08 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 262 people, 122 households, 67 families residing in the city; the population density was 126.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 194 housing units at an average density of 93.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.7% White, 5.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 122 households of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.1% were non-families.
41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the city was 46.3 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 294 people, 121 households, 61 families residing in the city; the population density was 140.9 people per square mile. There were 140 housing units at an average density of 67.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.52% White, 6.12% Native American, 1.36% from two or more races. There were 121 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.8% were non-families. 47.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 29.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 19.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 26.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,625, the median income for a family was $33,958. Males had a median income of $30,313 versus $16,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,386. About 12.7% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 23.2% of those sixty five or over. City of Kelliher Kelliher Photo Gallery
Funkley is a city in Beltrami County, United States. The population was five at the 2010 census, making the city the least populous incorporated place in Minnesota, it shared that distinction with Tenney until the latter dissolved in 2011. Funkley was incorporated in 1904 at the site of a junction along the Minnesota and International Railway; the name comes from a county attorney. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.60 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 5 people, 5 households, 0 families residing in the city; the population density was 8.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12 housing units at an average density of 20.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.0% White and 20.0% from two or more races. There were 5 households. 100.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 1.00 and the average family size was 0.00. The median age in the city was 46.8 years. 0.0% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 20.0% male and 80.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 15 people, 6 households, 4 families residing in the city; the population density was 38.9 people per square mile. There were 12 housing units at an average density of 31.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 6 households, of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.7% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.60. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 13.3% from 45 to 64, 33.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 150.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,250, the median income for a family was $25,625. Males had a median income of $29,167 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,521. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line
Bemidji is a city in Beltrami County, in north west Minnesota, United States. According to the 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimates, the United States Census Bureau estimates the total population of Bemidji as of 2016 to be 14,664, making it the largest commercial center between Grand Forks, North Dakota and Duluth, Minnesota. Bemidji houses many Native American services, including the Indian Health Service; the city is the central hub of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, White Earth Indian Reservation and the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. Bemidji lies on the south west shore of Lake Bemidji, the northernmost lake feeding the Mississippi River and as such is deemed "The First City On The Mississippi." Bemidji is the self-proclaimed "curling capital" of the U. S. and alleged birthplace of Paul Bunyan. Its name derives from the Ojibwe Buh-mid-ji-ga-maug, meaning "a lake with crossing waters". On occasion, in Ojibwe, the city of Bemidji is called Wabigamaang, because part of the city is situated on the Lakes Bemidji/Irving narrows, located on the south end of Lake Bemidji, extends to the eastern shore of Lake Irving.
Some sources credit the name to Chief Bemidji, an Ojibwe chief. Bemidji Township was surveyed in 1874 and organized in 1896 twenty-four days after the village of Bemidji was chartered and is the oldest township in the county. In 1897, the county attorney declared the original Bemidji township organization illegal and the township reorganized June 26, 1897. Beltrami was created on February 1866, by an act of legislation. About 50 Leech Lake Indians lived along the south shore of the lake prior to the 1880s, they called the lake Bemidjigumaug, meaning “river or route flowing crosswise”. Freeman and Besty Doud claimed 160 acres west of and including, what is present Diamond Point, were Bemidji's first homesteaders; the Porter Nye family soon followed them. Art Lee created the story that the folkloric figure Paul Bunyan came from the Northwoods which led to the creation of the statues of Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox. Per Discover America, the Paul and Babe statues are "the second most photographed statues in America" surpassed only by Mount Rushmore.
The Statue of Paul Bunyan was commissioned by the Bemidji's Rotarians as another tourist attraction. It was unveiled January 15, 1937, to kick off a Winter Carnival that drew over ten thousand visitors. John Steidl's sawmill was located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, close to Carson's Trading Post. Remore Hotel and Carl Carlson's blacksmith shop were on the west side of the river. Bemidji was incorporated on May 20, 1896, by that time there were three publishing companies, Alber Kaiser, The Bemidji Pioneer, the Beltrami County News. William Bartleson's Stage and Express Service was created to carry mail between Bemidji and Park Rapids, he was advertised by Speelman's Eagle, owned by Clarence Speelman, along with other stores. By 1898, railroads came to Bemidji and brought more business. By 1900 the Village of Bemidji's population had grown to 2,000. Thomas Barlow Walker, John S. and Charles Pillsbury invested millions into timber in 1874, since beaver pelts were nearing depletion by the mid-1890s.
Walker owned Red River Lumber Company of Crookston that claimed half of Beltrami County's timber. He soon sold his timber claim to Thomas Shevlin and Frank Hixon. Logging was done in the winter. Crookston opened 13 logging camps, which provided homes for lumberjacks. Between 1907 and 1910 were years. Lumber production was Bemidji's major industry, but because of a fire that occurred on July 19, 1914, a sawmill burned down causing disaster for business, it was rebuilt. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Bemidji's business profited, providing food and services for the Civilian Conservation Corps and Youth Conservation Corps programs. However, during the war years lumber business stopped, but when men came back from war lumber business was booming, since many people needed homes. By the 1870s, timber cruisers were making forays into the great pine forests that surrounded Bemidji, they were seeking new timberlands for T. B. Walker, the Pillsburys, Henry Akeley, Charles Ruggles and Frederick Weyerhaeuser, the barons of the wood industry.
Today Bemidji stands as an important educational, governmental and medical center for north central Minnesota. The wood industry is still a significant part of the local economy with Georgia-Pacific and Northwood Panelboard all having waferboard plants in the local area, utilizing wood species that were once thought to be waste trees. Bemidji is near Chippewa National Forest, Itasca State Park, Lake Bemidji State Park, Big Bog State Recreation Area, state forest areas. Bemidji has 400 lakes within 25 miles, 500 mi of snowmobile trails and 99 mi of cross country ski trails. There is a Paul Bunyan State Trail that runs from Brainerd, MN, Lake Bemidji State Park; the trail can be used for walking, biking and cross-country skiing. There is a bike trail around Lake Bemidji, about 17 miles. There is an event every year where families and individuals bike around the lake with rest stops along the way. Art in the Park, hosted by Paul Bunyan Communications and Watermark Art Center is held every year in the Bemidji Library Park across from the Watermark Art Center.
Art in the Park has been a summer highlight for the residents of Bemidji since 1967. Art in the Park features over 100 artists, food vendors, live entertainment, they will sell anything from wood and ceramics and jew