David Randolph Scott is a retired test pilot and NASA astronaut, the seventh person to walk on the Moon. The commander of Apollo 15, Scott was selected as an astronaut as part of the third group in 1963. Scott flew three times in space, is the only living commander of an Apollo mission that landed on the Moon and one of four surviving Moon walkers. Before becoming an astronaut, Scott graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and joined the Air Force. After serving as a fighter pilot in Europe, he graduated from the Air Force Experimental Test Pilot School and Aerospace Research Pilot School. Scott retired from the Air Force in 1975 with the rank of colonel, more than 5,600 hours of logged flying time; as an astronaut, Scott made his first flight into space as pilot of the Gemini 8 mission, along with Neil Armstrong, in March 1966, spending just under eleven hours in low Earth orbit. Scott spent ten days in orbit in March 1969 as Command Module Pilot aboard Apollo 9, a mission that extensively tested the Apollo spacecraft, along with Commander James McDivitt and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart.
After backing up Apollo 12, Scott made his third and final flight into space as commander of the Apollo 15 mission, the fourth manned lunar landing and the first J mission. Scott and James Irwin remained on the Moon for three days. Following the return to Earth and his crewmates fell from favor with NASA after it was disclosed they had carried 400 unauthorized postal covers to the Moon. After serving as director of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California, Scott retired from the agency in 1977. Since he has worked on a number of space-related projects and served as consultant for several films about the space program, including Apollo 13. Scott was born June 1932, at Randolph Field near San Antonio, Texas, his father was Tom William Scott, a fighter pilot in the United States Army Air Corps who would rise to the rank of brigadier general. Scott lived his earliest years at Randolph Field, where his father was stationed, before moving to an air base in Indiana, in 1936 to Manila in the Philippines under U.
S. rule. Although there were servants to aid the family, the Scotts did not have much money, David remembered his father as a strict disciplinarian; the family returned to the United States in December 1939. By the time of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the family was living in San Antonio again; as it was felt that he needed more discipline than he would receive with his father gone for three years, David was sent to Texas Military Institute, spending his summers at Hermosa Beach in California with his father's college friend, David Shattuck, after whom he had been named. Determined to become a pilot like his father, David built many model airplanes and watched with fascination war films about flying. By the time of Tom Scott's return, David was old enough to be allowed to go up in a military aircraft with him, in David Scott's 2006 autobiography remembered it as "the most exciting thing I had experienced". David Scott was active in the Boy Scouts of America, achieving Life Scout. With Tom Scott assigned to March Air Force Base near Riverside, David attended Riverside Polytechnic High School, where he joined the swim team and set several state and local swim records.
Before he could finish there, Tom Scott was transferred to Washington, D. C. and after some discussion as to whether David should remain in California to graduate, David attended Western High School in Washington, graduating in June 1949. David Scott wanted an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, but lacked connections to secure one, he took a government civil service examination for competitive appointments and accepted a swimming scholarship to the University of Michigan where he was an honor student in the Engineering school. In the spring of 1950, he accepted an invitation to attend West Point. Scott still wanted to fly, wanted to be commissioned in the newly-established Air Force. Since the Air Force had as yet no academy, an interim arrangement had been made whereby a quarter of West Point and United States Naval Academy graduates could volunteer to be commissioned as Air Force officers. Earning a Bachelor of Science degree, Scott graduated 5th in his class of 633, was given his first choice of service, the Air Force.
Scott did six months primary pilot training at Marana Air Base in Arizona, beginning there in the late summer of 1954. He completed Undergraduate Pilot Training at Webb Air Force Base, Texas, in 1955 went through gunnery training at Laughlin Air Force Base and Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. From April 1956 to July 1960, Scott flew with the 32d Tactical Fighter Squadron at Soesterberg Air Base, flying F-86 Sabres and F-100 Super Sabres; the weather in Northern Europe was poor, Scott's piloting skills were tested. Once, he had to land his plane on a golf course after a flameout. On another, he made it to a Dutch base on the edge of the North Sea. Scott served in Europe during the Cold War and tensions were high between the U. S. and Soviet Union. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, his squadron was placed on highest alert for weeks, but was stood down without going into combat. Scott hoped to advance his career by becoming a test pilot, hoped to be trained at Edwards Air Force Base, home to Chuck Yeager, first man to break the sound barrier.
He was counseled that the best way to get into test pilot school was to gain a graduate degree in aeronautic
Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès, was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema. Méliès was well-known for the use of special effects, popularizing such techniques as substitution splices, multiple exposures, time-lapse photography and hand-painted colour, he was one of the first filmmakers to use storyboards. His films include A Trip to the Moon and The Impossible Voyage, both involving strange, surreal journeys somewhat in the style of Jules Verne, are considered among the most important early science fiction films, though their approach is closer to fantasy. Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès was born 8 December 1861 in Paris, son of Jean-Louis-Stanislas Méliès and his Dutch wife, Johannah-Catherine Schuering, his father had moved to Paris in 1843 as a journeyman shoemaker and began working at a boot factory, where he met Méliès' mother. Johannah-Catherine's father had been the official bootmaker of the Dutch court before a fire ruined his business.
She helped to educate Jean-Louis-Stanislas. The two married, founded a high-quality boot factory on the Boulevard Saint-Martin, had sons Henri and Gaston. Georges Méliès attended the Lycée Michelet from age seven until it was bombed during the Franco-Prussian War. In his memoirs, Méliès emphasised his formal, classical education, in contrast to accusations early in his career that most filmmakers had been "illiterates incapable of producing anything artistic." However, he acknowledged that his creative instincts outweighed intellectual ones: "The artistic passion was too strong for him, while he would ponder a French composition or Latin verse, his pen mechanically sketched portraits or caricatures of his professors or classmates, if not some fantasy palace or an original landscape that had the look of a theatre set." Disciplined by teachers for covering his notebooks and textbooks with drawings, young Georges began building cardboard puppet theatres at age ten and moved on to craft more sophisticated marionettes as a teenager.
Méliès graduated from the Lycée with a baccalauréat in 1880. After completing his education, Méliès joined his brothers in the family shoe business, where he learned how to sew. After three years of mandatory military service, his father sent him to London to work as a clerk for a family friend. While in London, he began to visit the Egyptian Hall, run by the London illusionist John Nevil Maskelyne, he developed a lifelong passion for stage magic. Méliès returned to Paris in 1885 with a new desire: to study painting at the École des Beaux-Arts, his father, refused to support him financially as an artist, so Georges settled with supervising the machinery at the family factory. That same year, he avoided his family's desire for him to marry his brother's sister-in-law and instead married Eugénie Génin, a family friend's daughter whose guardians had left her a sizable dowry. Together they had two children: Georgette, born in 1888, André, born in 1901. While working at the family factory, Méliès continued to cultivate his interest in stage magic, attending performances at the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, founded by the magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin.
He began taking magic lessons from Emile Voisin, who gave him the opportunity to perform his first public shows, at the Cabinet Fantastique of the Grévin Wax Museum and at the Galerie Vivienne. In 1888, Méliès' father retired, Georges Méliès sold his share of the family shoe business to his two brothers. With the money from the sale and from his wife's dowry, he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin. Although the theatre was "superb" and equipped with lights, trap doors, several automata, many of the available illusions and tricks were out of date, attendance to the theatre was low after Méliès' initial renovations. Over the next nine years, Méliès created over 30 new illusions that brought more comedy and melodramatic pageantry to performances, much like those Méliès had seen in London, attendance improved. One of his best-known illusions was the Recalcitrant Decapitated Man, in which a professor's head is cut off in the middle of a speech and continues talking until it is returned to his body.
When he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès inherited its chief mechanic Eugène Calmels and such performers as Jehanne D'Alcy, who would become his mistress and his second wife. While running the theatre, Méliès worked as a political cartoonist for the liberal newspaper La Griffe, edited by his cousin Adolphe Méliès; as owner of the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès began working more behind the scenes than on stage. He acted as director, writer and costume designer, as well as inventing many of the magical tricks. With the theatre's growing popularity, he brought in magicians including Buatier De Kolta and Raynaly to the theatre. Along with magic tricks, performances included fairy pantomimes, an automaton performance during intermissions, magic lantern shows, special effects such as snowfall and lightning. In 1895, Méliès was elected president of the Chambre Syndicale des Artistes Illusionistes. On 28 December 1895, Méliès attended a special private demonstration of the Lumière brothers' cinematograph, given for owners of Parisian houses of spectacle.
Méliès offered the Lumières 10,000₣ for one of their machines. (For the same reasons, they
Ed White (astronaut)
Edward Higgins White II, was an American aeronautical engineer, U. S. Air Force officer, test pilot, NASA astronaut. On June 3, 1965, he became the first American to walk in space. White died along with astronauts Virgil "Gus" Grissom and Roger B. Chaffee during prelaunch testing for the first manned Apollo mission at Cape Canaveral, he was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for his flight in Gemini 4 and was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor posthumously. White was born on November 14, 1930, in San Antonio, Texas, to parents Edward Higgins White Sr. who became a Major General in the U. S. Air Force, Mary Rosina White, he attended school in his hometown and became a member of the Boy Scouts of America, where he earned the rank of Second Class Scout. After graduation from high school in 1948, he was accepted to the United States Military Academy at West Point, where in 1952 he earned his Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Air Force.
He attended flight school, a course that takes just over a year. Following graduation from flight school in 1953, White was assigned to the 22nd Fighter Day Squadron at Bitburg Air Base, West Germany, he spent three and a half years in West Germany flying in F-86 Sabre and F-100 Super Sabre squadrons in the defense of NATO. After graduating from West Point, White competed for a spot on the U. S. Olympic team in the 400 meter hurdles race, he missed making the team by only 1/10 second. His hobbies included squash, swimming and photography. In 1958, White enrolled in the University of Michigan under Air Force sponsorship to study Aeronautical Engineering, where he received his Master of Science degree in 1959. Following graduation, White was selected to attend the U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School at California, he earned his credentials as a test pilot in 1959 and was assigned to the Aeronautical Systems Division at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. During his career, White would log more than 3,000 flight hours with the Air Force, including about 2,200 hours in jets, would attain the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
In 1953, White married Patricia Finegan. The Whites would have Edward White III and Bonnie Lynn White. White was a devout Methodist. White was one of nine men chosen as part of the second group of astronauts in 1962. Within an elite group, White was considered to be a high-flier by the management of NASA, he was chosen with Command Pilot James McDivitt. White became the first American to make a walk in space, on June 3, 1965, he found the experience so exhilarating that he was reluctant to terminate the EVA at the allotted time, had to be ordered back into the spacecraft. While he was outside, a spare thermal glove floated away through the open hatch of the spacecraft, becoming an early piece of space debris in low Earth orbit, until it burned up upon re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. There was a mechanical problem with the hatch mechanism, which made it difficult to open and to relatch, which added to the time constraint of the spacewalk, could have threatened the lives of both men if McDivitt had been unable to get the hatch latched, as they could not re-enter the atmosphere with an unsealed hatch.
I'm coming back in... and it's the saddest moment of my life. White's next assignment after Gemini 4 was as the backup for Gemini 7 Command Pilot Frank Borman, he was named the astronaut specialist for the flight control systems of the Apollo Command/Service Module. By the usual procedure of crew rotation in the Gemini program, White would have been in line for a second flight as the command pilot of Gemini 10 in July 1966, which would have made him the first of his group to fly twice. In March 1966 he was selected as senior pilot for the first manned Apollo flight, designated AS-204, along with Command Pilot Virgil "Gus" Grissom, who had flown in space on the Mercury 4 Liberty Bell 7 mission and as commander of the Gemini 3 Molly Brown mission, Pilot Roger Chaffee, who had yet to fly into space; the mission, which the men named Apollo 1 in June, was planned for late 1966, but delays in the spacecraft development pushed the launch into 1967. The launch of Apollo 1 was planned for February 21, 1967.
The crew entered the spacecraft on January 27, mounted atop its Saturn IB booster on Launch Pad 34 at Cape Kennedy, for a "plugs-out" test of the spacecraft, which included a rehearsal of the launch countdown procedure. Midway through the test, a fire broke out in the pure oxygen-filled cabin. White's job was to open the hatch cover in an emergency, which he tried to do. Removing the cover to open the hatch was impossible, because the plug door design required venting slightly greater-than-atmospheric pressure and pulling the cover into the cabin. Grissom was unable to reach the cabin vent control to his left; the intense heat raised the cabin pressure more, to the point where the cabin walls ruptured. The astronauts were killed by smoke inhalation; the fire's ignition source was determined to be a spark that jumped from a wire on the far left of the spacecraft, under Grissom's seat, but their deaths were attributed to a wide range of lethal hazards in the early Apollo Command Module design and workmanship and conditions of the test, including the pressurized 100% oxygen pre-launch atmosphere, many wiring and plumbing fl
Gemini 12 was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASA's Project Gemini. It was the 10th and final manned Gemini flight, the 18th manned American spaceflight, the 26th spaceflight of all time, including X-15 flights over 100 kilometers. Commanded by Gemini VII veteran James A. Lovell, the flight featured three periods of extravehicular activity by rookie Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, lasting a total of 5 hours and 30 minutes, it achieved the fifth rendezvous and fourth docking with an Agena target vehicle. Gemini XII marked a successful conclusion of the Gemini program, achieving the last of its goals by demonstrating that astronauts can work outside of spacecraft; this was instrumental in paving the way for the Apollo program to achieve its goal of landing a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s. Stuart A. Roosa Charles Conrad Jr. William A. Anders Mass: 3,762.1 kilograms Perigee: 160.8 kilometers Apogee: 270.6 kilometers Inclination: 28.87° Period: 88.87 min Docked: November 12, 1966 - 01:06:00 UTC Undocked: November 13, 1966 - 20:18:00 UTC Aldrin - EVA 1 - Start: November 12, 1966, 16:15:00 UTC End: November 12, 1966, 18:44:00 UTC Duration: 2 hours, 29 minutes Aldrin - EVA 2 Start: November 13, 1966, 15:34:00 UTC End: November 13, 1966, 17:40:00 UTC Duration: 2 hours, 06 minutes Aldrin - EVA 3 Start: November 14, 1966, 14:52:00 UTC End: November 14, 1966, 15:47:00 UTC Duration: 0 hours, 55 minutes Liftoff of the Atlas/Agena Target Vehicle occurred at 2:07:59 PM EST, of the Gemini/Titan spacecraft at 3:46:33 PM EST, on November 11.
All launch vehicle systems performed nominally during powered flight, but at staging there was a recurrence of the first stage oxidizer tank rupture first seen on Gemini 10's launch. On Gemini 12, the fuel tank appeared to have ruptured as a white cloud was seen emitting from the spent stage along with the orange nitrogen tetroxide. Another episode of "Green Man" occurred at SECO, referring to pitch gyrations caused by pressure buildup in the second stage protective skirt. At the completion of the previous Gemini flight, the program still had not demonstrated that an astronaut could work and efficiently outside the spacecraft. In preparation for Gemini XII new, improved restraints were added to the outside of the capsule, a new technique—underwater training—was introduced, which would become a staple of future space-walk simulation. Aldrin's two-hour, 20-minute tethered space-walk, during which he photographed star fields, retrieved a micrometeorite collector and did other chores, at last demonstrated the feasibility of extravehicular activity.
Two more stand-up EVAs went smoothly, as did the by-now routine rendezvous and docking with an Agena, done "manually" using the onboard computer and charts when a rendezvous radar failed. The climb to a higher orbit, was canceled because of a problem with the Agena booster. During orbital injection, the GATV engine experienced a drop in turbopump speed lasting about 2.5 seconds. After this, pump performance returned to normal. Telemetry data indicated erratic pump speeds. Ground controllers decided not to risk the planned orbital boost maneuver since the exact reason for the pump slowdown was unclear. Following Gemini 12's reentry and during the GATV's 63rd orbit, they attempted to fire the propulsion system, but a stuck fuel valve prevented engine start from occurring, it was suspected that a turbopump bearing failure caused the anomalous conditions during orbital injection, followed by heating and melting of pump components. The inability of ground controllers to start the engine during the 63rd orbit was due to melted or loose debris blocking the fuel valve and preventing its operation.
The telemetry data falsely reporting erratic pump speed was concluded to be debris being knocked around and affecting the data probes. Many documentaries afterward credit the spacewalk innovations, including the underwater training, to Aldrin himself. Gemini 12 was designed to perform rendezvous and docking with the Agena target vehicle, to conduct three extra-vehicular activity operations, to conduct a tethered stationkeeping exercise, to perform docked maneuvers using the Agena propulsion system to change orbit, demonstrate an automatic reentry; when Gemini 12 was being planned, one of the possibilities raised was the potential for the flight to be run in conjunction with the first Apollo mission, tentatively scheduled for the last quarter of 1966. By May 1966, delays in making Apollo ready for flight just by itself, the extra time needed to incorporate compatibility with the Gemini, made that impractical; this became moot when slippage in readiness of the Apollo spacecraft caused the last-quarter 1966 target date to be missed, the Apollo mission was rescheduled for February 21, 1967.
The 14 scientific experiments were frog egg growth under zero-g, synoptic terrain photography, synoptic weather photography, nuclear emulsions, airglow horizon photography, UV astronomical photography, dim sky photography. Two micrometeorite collection experiments, as well as three space phenomena photography experiments, were not completed; the capsule splashed down 4.8 kilometers from its target. The crew were taken aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp; the Gemini 12 mission was supported by the following U. S. Department of Defense resources. Postflight medical examination disclosed no unusual conditions in either astronaut. Both were exhausted and dehydrated due to problems with the spacecraft's water supply system forci
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard. It was the first manned flight of Project Mercury, the objective of, to put an astronaut into orbit around the Earth and return him safely. Shepard's mission was a 15-minute suborbital flight with the primary objective of demonstrating his ability to withstand the high g-forces of launch and atmospheric re-entry. Shepard named his space capsule Freedom 7, setting a precedent for the remaining six Mercury astronauts naming their spacecraft; the number 7 was included in all the manned Mercury spacecraft names to honor NASA's first group of seven astronauts. His spacecraft reached an altitude of 101.2 nautical miles and traveled a downrange distance of 263.1 nautical miles. It was the fourth Mercury flight launched with the Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, from Cape Canaveral, close to the Atlantic Ocean. During the flight, Shepard observed the Earth and tested the capsule's attitude control system, turning the capsule around to face its blunt heat shield forward for atmospheric re-entry.
He tested the retrorockets which would return missions from orbit, though the capsule did not have enough energy to remain in orbit. After re-entry, the capsule landed by parachute on the North Atlantic Ocean off the Bahamas. Shepard and the capsule were picked up by helicopter and brought to U. S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain; the mission was a technical success, though American pride in the accomplishment was dampened by the fact that just three weeks before, the Soviet Union had launched the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, who completed one orbit on Vostok 1. In 2017 the first National Astronaut Day was held on May 5 to pay tribute to this first flight; the Freedom 7 spacecraft, Mercury capsule #7, was delivered to Cape Canaveral on December 9, 1960. It had been expected that a mission could be launched soon after the spacecraft was available, but Capsule #7 turned out to require extensive development and testing work before it was deemed safe for flight. However, as it had been earmarked since the summer as the first manned spacecraft, the decision was taken to delay the mission until this particular capsule was ready, with a tentative launch date of March 6, rather than use an alternative capsule.
The booster intended for the flight, Redstone #3, had been delivered to the Cape in early December. The replacement, Redstone #7, did not arrive at the Cape until late March. In late 1960, there had been a growing number of concerns about the standards of the Redstone launch vehicle; as a result, the mission was two minutes longer than planned, the re-entry subjected the passenger to 14.7g rather than the planned figure of 12g. The splashdown point was sixty miles from the nearest recovery ship, it was over two and a half hours before a helicopter could recover the capsule and its passenger – by which time it had sunk; as a result, NASA was unwilling to launch the MR-3 mission without further development work. An additional testing flight was accordingly added to the schedule, MR-BD; this would launch on March 28, pushing the MR-3 flight back a month to April 25. The MR-BD flight was completely successful, ensuring that the manned MR-3 flight could proceed without further significant delay; the pilot for MR-3 had been chosen several months in advance, in early January, by the head of the program, Robert R. Gilruth.
He had selected Alan Shepard as the primary pilot, with Gus Grissom as his backups. The three names were announced to the press on February 22 without any indication as to which of the three was expected to fly the mission. Shepard's name was only announced publicly after the initial launch attempt had been canceled, as Gilruth wished to keep his options open in the event that last-minute personnel changes were required. Glenn served as Shepard's backup on launch day, with Grissom focusing on training for MR-4, the next suborbital mission; the initial launch attempt, on May 2, was canceled due to weather problems two hours and 20 minutes before the launch time, with Shepard waiting in a hangar suited and prepared. The flight was rescheduled for two days when it was delayed one more day due to inclement weather conditions, until 5 May, with an expected launch time of 7:20 am. EST; the countdown began at 8:30 p.m. the previous night, with Shepard waking up and eating a breakfast of steak and eggs with toast and orange juice.
He entered the spacecraft at 5:15 am. ET, just over two hours before the planned 7:20 launch time. At 7:05 am, the launch was held for an hour to let cloud cover clear – good visibility would be essential for photographs of the Earth – and fix a power supply unit; the count was resumed, after over two and a half hours of unplanned holds, continued with no further faults. All of the delays resulted in Shepard lying on his back in the capsule
Gemini 4 was the second manned space flight in NASA's Project Gemini, occurring in June 1965. It was the tenth manned American spaceflight. Astronauts James McDivitt and Ed White circled the Earth 66 times in four days, making it the first US flight to approach the five-day flight of the Soviet Vostok 5; the highlight of the mission was the first space walk by an American, during which White floated free outside the spacecraft, tethered to it, for 20 minutes. Both of these accomplishments helped the United States overcome the Soviet Union's early lead in the Space Race; the flight included the first attempt to make a space rendezvous as McDivitt attempted to maneuver his craft close to the Titan II upper stage which launched it into orbit, but this was not successful. The flight was the first American flight to perform many scientific experiments in space, including use of a sextant to investigate the use of celestial navigation for lunar flight in the Apollo program. Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom Roger B.
Chaffee Eugene Cernan Mass: 7,880 pounds Perigee: 89.5 nautical miles Apogee: 158.6 nautical miles Period: 88.94 min Inclination: 32.53° Perigee: 81 nautical miles Apogee: 125.7 nautical miles Ed White - EVA - June 3, 1965 Hatch opened: 19:34 UTC Start EVA: 19:46 UTC End EVA: 20:06 UTC Duration: 20 minutes Hatch closed: 20:10 UTC Gemini 4 would be the first multi-day space flight by the United States, designed to show that it was possible for humans to remain in space for extended lengths of time. The four-day, 66-orbit flight would approach but not break the five-day record set by the Soviet Vostok 5 in June 1963. Subsequent Gemini flights would be longer, to prove endurance exceeding the time required to fly to the Moon and back. A second objective was the first American extra-vehicular activity, known popularly as a "space walk"; the first space walk had been performed by Soviet Alexei Leonov on Voskhod 2 in March 1965. NASA moved up the spacewalk from the original schedule, to demonstrate that the US was gaining on the early lead taken by the Soviets in what was known as the Space Race.
As late as 11 days before the scheduled June 3 launch, newspapers were reporting that NASA was saying it "had not yet determined whether White would be the first American astronaut to expose himself to the elements of space," and that "A decision might not be made until a day or two before launching." A third objective was for Gemini 4 to attempt the first space rendezvous, flying in formation with the spent second stage of its Titan II launch vehicle. Launched from LC-19 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Gemini 4 was the first flight to be controlled by the new Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, which had to conduct three-shift operations due to the flight's long duration; the broadcast of the launch was itself historic. For the first time an international audience, from 12 European nations, could watch the lift-off on live television via the Early Bird satellite. Press interest, due to the satellite broadcast and the new center in Houston, proved to be so high that NASA had to lease buildings to accommodate the 1,100 print and broadcast journalists who requested accreditation.
Flight control shifted from Cape Kennedy to Houston as soon. At liftoff, two roll transients caused by misalignment of the Titan first stage engines occurred; the fuel top-off umbilical failed to detach and was pulled loose when the booster had climbed about 27 feet. A small oscillation in the pitch and yaw planes resulted from this. Performance of all launch vehicle systems was nearly nominal; some modifications had been made to the guidance program on Gemini 4's booster to produce a less lofted flight trajectory and a lower altitude at BECO than on Gemini 3, these were successful despite a still somewhat lofted flight path. BECO was affected at SECO at T +333 seconds; the spacecraft entered into an 87-by-153-nautical-mile orbit. On the first orbit, McDivitt attempted to rendezvous with the spent Titan second stage; this was unsuccessful for a number of reasons: NASA engineers had not yet worked out the idiosyncrasies of orbital mechanics involved in rendezvous, which are counter-intuitive. Thrusting the spacecraft toward the target changed its orbital altitude and velocity relative to the target.
When McDivitt tried this, he found himself moving away and downward, as the retrograde thrust lowered his orbit, increasing his speed. The stage was dumping its residual propellant, causing it to move around in various directions relative to the Gemini. There were only two running lights on the stage, which made it hard at times for McDivitt to determine its orientation. McDivitt concluded. There was no radar on board Gemini 4 to give a precise range to the target, so the astronauts had to rely on their visual depth perception to estimate the range, this differed for the two men. McDivitt estimated the distance at 400–500 feet, while White believed it was closer. At the worst point, McDivitt estimated it was about a half mile away, while White's estimate was three-quarters of a mile. McDivitt estimated he was able to get as close as 200 feet, but now White's estimate was between 850 and 1,000 feet. After expending half his thruster fuel, McDivitt gave up, in order to concentrate on the more import
Extravehicular activity is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere. The term most applies to a spacewalk made outside a craft orbiting Earth, but has applied to lunar surface exploration performed by six pairs of American astronauts in the Apollo program from 1969 to 1972. On each of the last three of these missions, astronauts performed deep-space EVAs on the return to Earth, to retrieve film canisters from the outside of the spacecraft. Astronauts used EVA in 1973 to repair launch damage to Skylab, the United States' first space station. A "Stand-up" EVA is when an astronaut does not leave a spacecraft, but is reliant on the spacesuit for environmental support, its name derives from the astronaut "standing up" in the open hatch to record or assist a spacewalking astronaut. EVAs may be untethered. Untethered spacewalks were only performed on three missions in 1984 using the Manned Maneuvering Unit, on a flight test in 1994 of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue, a safety device worn on tethered U.
S. EVAs; the Soviet Union/Russia, the United States, China have conducted EVAs. NASA planners invented the term extravehicular activity in the early 1960s for the Apollo program to land men on the Moon, because the astronauts would leave the spacecraft to collect lunar material samples and deploy scientific experiments. To support this, other Apollo objectives, the Gemini program was spun off to develop the capability for astronauts to work outside a two-man Earth orbiting spacecraft. However, the Soviet Union was fiercely competitive in holding the early lead it had gained in manned spaceflight, so the Soviet Communist Party, led by Nikita Khrushchev, ordered the conversion of its single-pilot Vostok capsule into a two- or three-person craft named Voskhod, in order to compete with Gemini and Apollo; the Soviets were able to launch two Voskhod capsules before U. S. was able to launch its first manned Gemini. The Voskhod's avionics required cooling by cabin air to prevent overheating, therefore an airlock was required for the spacewalking cosmonaut to exit and re-enter the cabin while it remained pressurized.
By contrast, the Gemini avionics did not require air cooling, allowing the spacewalking astronaut to exit and re-enter the depressurized cabin through an open hatch. Because of this, the American and Soviet space programs developed different definitions for the duration of an EVA; the Soviet definition begins when the outer airlock hatch is open and the cosmonaut is in vacuum. An American EVA began; the USA has changed its EVA definition since. The first EVA was performed on March 18, 1965, by Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, who spent 12 minutes outside the Voskhod 2 spacecraft. Carrying a white metal backpack containing 45 minutes worth of breathing and pressurization oxygen, Leonov had no means to control his motion other than pulling on his 15.35 m tether. After the flight, he claimed this was easy, but his space suit ballooned from its internal pressure against the vacuum of space, stiffening so much that he could not activate the shutter on his chest-mounted camera. At the end of his space walk, the suit stiffening caused a more serious problem: Leonov had to re-enter the capsule through the inflatable cloth airlock, 1.2 m in diameter and 2.5 m long.
He improperly got stuck sideways. He could not get back in without reducing the pressure in his suit, risking "the bends"; this added another 12 minutes to his time in vacuum, he was overheated by 1.8 °C from the exertion. It would be four years before the Soviets tried another EVA, they misrepresented to the press how difficult Leonov found it to work in weightlessness and concealed the problems encountered until after the end of the Cold War. The first American spacewalk was performed on June 3, 1965, by Ed White from the second manned Gemini flight, Gemini 4, for 21 minutes. White was tethered to the spacecraft, his oxygen was supplied through a 25-foot umbilical, which carried communications and biomedical instrumentation, he was the first to control his motion in space with a Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit, which worked well but only carried enough propellant for 20 seconds. White found his tether useful for limiting his distance from the spacecraft but difficult to use for moving around, contrary to Leonov's claim.
However, a defect in the capsule's hatch latching mechanism caused difficulties opening and closing the hatch, which delayed the start of the EVA and put White and his crewmate at risk of not getting back to Earth alive. No EVAs were planned on the next three Gemini flights; the next EVA was planned to be made by David Scott on Gemini 8, but that mission had to be aborted due to a critical spacecraft malfunction before the EVA could be conducted. Astronauts on the next three Gemini flights, performed several EVAs, but none was able to work for long periods outside the spacecraft without tiring and overheating. Cernan attempted but failed to test an Air Force Astronaut Maneuvering Unit which included a self-contained oxygen system. On November 13, 1966, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin became the first to work in space without tiring, on the Gemini 12 last flight. Aldrin worked outside the spacecraft for 2 hours and 6 minutes, in additio