A mound is a heaped pile of earth, sand, rocks, or debris. Most mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial and commemorative purposes. In the archaeology of the United States and Canada, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork, intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word "tumulus" may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill if the hill is related to particular burial customs. While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds, including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as platform mounds, rounded cones, ridge or loaf-shaped mounds; some mounds took such as the outline of cosmologically significant animals.
These are known as effigy mounds. Some mounds, such as a few in Wisconsin, have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on them, or near them. While these mounds are not as famous as burial mounds, like their European analogs, Native American mounds have a variety of other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the Adena culture, used mounds preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other ritual and sacred acts, as well as for secular functions; the platform mounds of the Mississippian culture, for example, may have supported temples, the houses of chiefs, council houses, may have acted as a platform for public speaking. Other mounds would have been part of defensive walls to protect a certain area; the Hopewell culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments related to ceremonies. Mounds and related earthworks are the only significant monumental construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America. Mounds are given different names depending on, they can be located all across the world in spots such as Asia and the Americas.
"Mound builders" have more been associated with the mounds in the Americas. They all have different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals and can be seen from aerial views. Kankali Tila is a famous mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr. Fuhrer. Mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not in favor in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is preferred, each of these terms has its own article. Cairn Chambered cairn Effigy mound Kofun Platform mound Subglacial mound Tell Tumulus Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow Chambered long barrow Kurgan Long barrow Oval barrow List of burial mounds in the United States Fort Ancient Kofun period Kurgan hypothesis Mississippian Period Neolithic Europe Olmec La Venta San Jose Mogote Petroform Pyramid Prehistoric Britain Stupa Woodland Period Crystal River Archaeological State Park ZigguratAnimalsMound-building termites The dictionary definition of mound at Wiktionary "Mound".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. 1911
Saint-Émilion is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in south-western France. Saint-Émilion's history goes back to prehistoric times and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with fascinating Romanesque churches and ruins stretching all along steep and narrow streets; the Romans planted vineyards in. In the 4th century, the Latin poet Ausonius lauded the fruit of the bountiful vine; the town called Ascumbas, was renamed after the monk Émilion, a travelling confessor, who settled in a hermitage carved into the rock there in the 8th century. The monks who followed him started up the commercial wine production in the area. Saint-Émilion is located 35 km northeast between Libourne and Castillon-la-Bataille. Romanesque church Monolithic church, carved from a limestone cliff Saint-Émilion is one of the principal red wine areas of Bordeaux along with the Médoc and Pomerol; the region is much smaller than the adjoins Pomerol. As in Pomerol and the other appellations on the right bank of the Gironde, the primary grape varieties used are the Merlot and Cabernet Franc, with small amounts of Cabernet Sauvignon being used by some châteaux.
Saint Émilion wines were not included in the 1855 Bordeaux classification. The first formal classification in Saint-Émilion was made in 1955. Unlike the 1855 classification, it is revised. Since 2012, Saint-Emilion hosts a Jazz Festival at the end of July. Marguerite-Élie Guadet Cordeliers Cloister Bordeaux wine French wine Plan Bordeaux Bordeaux wine regions Classification of Saint-Émilion wine Communes of the Gironde department INSEE Official website Saint-Émilion tourist office website aerial photography of the Saint-Émilion and Aquitaine area Cash-strapped French wine town Saint Emilion sells off historical monument RFI English
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac referred to as Cardinal Richelieu, was a French clergyman and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a cardinal in 1622, King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624, he remained in office until his death in 1642. Cardinal de Richelieu was known by the title of the king's "Chief Minister" or "First Minister", he sought to crush domestic factions. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a centralized state, his chief foreign policy objective was to check the power of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty, to ensure French dominance in the Thirty Years' War that engulfed Europe. Although he was a cardinal, he did not hesitate to make alliances with Protestant rulers in an attempt to achieve his goals. While a powerful political figure, events like the Day of the Dupes show that in fact he much depended on the king's confidence to keep this power.
As alumnus of the University of Paris and headmaster of the College of Sorbonne, he renovated and extended the institution. Richelieu was famous for his patronage of the arts. Richelieu is known by the sobriquet l'Éminence rouge, from the red shade of a cardinal's clerical dress and the style "eminence" as a cardinal; as an advocate for Samuel de Champlain and of the retention of New France, he founded the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and saw the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye return Quebec City to French rule under Champlain, after the settlement had been taken by the Kirkes in 1629. This in part allowed the colony to develop into the heartland of Francophone culture in North America. Richelieu has been depicted in popular fiction most notably as a leading character in Alexandre Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers and its numerous film adaptations. Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons: he was delicate from childhood, suffered frequent bouts of ill-health throughout his life.
His family was somewhat prominent, belonging to the lesser nobility of Poitou: his father, François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, was a soldier and courtier who served as the Grand Provost of France, his mother, Susanne de La Porte, was the daughter of a famous jurist. When he was five years old, his father died fighting in the French Wars of Religion, leaving the family in debt. At the age of nine, young Richelieu was sent to the College of Navarre in Paris to study philosophy. Thereafter, he began to train for a military career, his private life seems to have been typical of a young officer of the era: in 1605, aged twenty, he was treated by Théodore de Mayerne for gonorrhea. Henry III had rewarded Richelieu's father for his participation in the Wars of Religion by granting his family the bishopric of Luçon; the family appropriated most of the revenues of the bishopric for private use. To protect the important source of revenue, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, the bishop of Luçon.
Alphonse, who had no desire to become a bishop, became instead a Carthusian monk. Thus, it became necessary, he threw himself into studying for his new post. In 1606 Henry IV nominated Richelieu to become Bishop of Luçon; as Richelieu had not yet reached the canonical minimum age, it was necessary that he journey to Rome for a special dispensation from the Pope. This secured, Richelieu was consecrated bishop in April 1607. Soon after he returned to his diocese in 1608, Richelieu was heralded as a reformer, he became the first bishop in France to implement the institutional reforms prescribed by the Council of Trent between 1545 and 1563. At about this time, Richelieu became a friend of François Leclerc du Tremblay, a Capuchin friar, who would become a close confidant; because of his closeness to Richelieu, the grey colour of his robes, Father Joseph was nicknamed l'Éminence grise. Richelieu used him as an agent during diplomatic negotiations. In 1614, the clergymen of Poitou asked Richelieu to be one of their representatives to the States-General.
There, he was a vigorous advocate of the Church, arguing that it should be exempt from taxes and that bishops should have more political power. He was the most prominent clergyman to support the adoption of the decrees of the Council of Trent throughout France. At the end of the assembly, the First Estate chose him to deliver the address enumerating its petitions and decisions. Soon after the dissolution of the Estates-General, Richelieu entered the service of King Louis XIII's wife, Anne of Austria, as her almoner. Richelieu advanced politically by faithfully serving the Queen-Mother's favourite, Concino Concini, the most powerful minister in the kingdom. In 1616, Richelieu was made Secretary of State, was given responsibility for foreign affairs. Like Concini, the Bishop was one of the closest advisors of Louis XIII
Fronsac is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. It is situated on the former Route nationale 618, the "Route of the Pyrenees". Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
A tidal bore simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current. Bores occur in few locations worldwide in areas with a large tidal range and where incoming tides are funneled into a shallow, narrowing river or lake via a broad bay; the funnel-like shape not only increases the tidal range, but it can decrease the duration of the flood tide, down to a point where the flood appears as a sudden increase in the water level. A tidal bore takes place during the flood tide and never during the ebb tide. A tidal bore may take on various forms, ranging from a single breaking wavefront with a roller – somewhat like a hydraulic jump – to undular bores, comprising a smooth wavefront followed by a train of secondary waves known as whelps. Large bores can be unsafe for shipping but present opportunities for river surfing. Two key features of a tidal bore are the intense turbulence and turbulent mixing generated during the bore propagation, as well as its rumbling noise.
The visual observations of tidal bores highlight the turbulent nature of the surging waters. The tidal bore induces a strong turbulent mixing in the estuarine zone, the effects may be felt along considerable distances; the velocity observations indicate a rapid deceleration of the flow associated with the passage of the bore as well as large velocity fluctuations. A tidal bore creates a powerful roar that combines the sounds caused by the turbulence in the bore front and whelps, entrained air bubbles in the bore roller, sediment erosion beneath the bore front and of the banks, scouring of shoals and bars, impacts on obstacles; the bore rumble is heard far away. The low-frequency sound is a characteristic feature of the advancing roller in which the air bubbles entrapped in the large-scale eddies are acoustically active and play the dominant role in the rumble-sound generation; the word bore derives through Old English from the Old Norse word bára, meaning "wave" or "swell." The tidal bores may be dangerous.
Many bores have had a sinister reputation: the River Seine, the Petitcodiac River, the Colorado River, to name a few. In China, despite warning signs erected along the banks of the Qiantang River, a number of fatalities occur each year by people who take too much risk with the bore; the tidal bores affect the shipping and navigation in the estuarine zone, for example, in Papua New Guinea and India. On the other hand, tidal bore-affected estuaries are rich feeding zones and breeding grounds of several forms of wildlife; the estuarine zones are the spawning and breeding grounds of several native fish species, while the aeration induced by the tidal bore contributes to the abundant growth of many species of fish and shrimps. The tidal bores provide opportunity for recreational inland surfing. Scientific studies have been carried out at the River Dee in Wales in the United Kingdom, the Garonne and Sélune in France, the Daly River in Australia; the force of the tidal bore flow poses a challenge to scientific measurements, as evidenced by a number of field work incidents in the River Dee, Rio Mearim, Daly River, Sélune River.
Rivers and bays that have been known to exhibit bores include those listed below. Ganges–Brahmaputra and Bangladesh Indus River, Pakistan Sittaung River, Burma Qiantang River, which has the world's largest bore, up to 9 m high, traveling at up to 40 km/h Batang Lupar or Lupar River, near Sri Aman, Malaysia; the tidal bore is locally known as benak. Batang Sadong or Sadong River, Malaysia. Bono, Kampar River, at Meranti Bay, Indonesia; the phenomenon is feared by the locals to sink ships. It is reported to break up to 130 km inland, but up to 40 km with 6 m height. Ready to develop as internationally tourist destinations Styx River, Queensland Daly River, Northern Territory River Shannon, up the Shannon Estuary to Limerick, Ireland: 21 September 2013 River Dee and England River Mersey; the second highest tidal bore after the Severn bore, up to 1.7 meters high. The bore tends to form around the Manchester Ship Canal; the Severn bore on the River Severn and England, up to 2 meters high The Trent Aegir on the River Trent, England, up to 1.5 meters high.
Other tributaries of the Humber Estuary. River Parrett River Welland The Arnside Bore on the River Kent River Great Ouse River Ouse, Yorkshire. Like the Trent bore, this is known as "the Aegir". River Eden River Esk River Nith River Lune, Lancashire River Ribble, Lancashire River Yealm, Devon River Leven, Cumbria Durme, Flanders The phenomenon is named un mascaret in French, but some other local names are preferred. Seine had a significant bore until the 1960s, locally named la barre. Since it has been eliminated by dredging and river training. Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel including Couesnon, Sélune, Sée Arguenon Baie de la Frênaye Vire Sienne Vilaine, locally named le mascarin Dordogne Garonne Fly River Turama River The Turnagain arm of Cook Inlet, Alaska. Up to 2 meters and 20 km/h; the Colorado River had a tidal bore up to 6 feet, that extended 47 miles up river. The Savannah River up to 10 miles inland. Small tidal bores, only a few inches in height, have been observed advancing up tidal bayous on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Most rivers draining into the upper Bay of Fundy be
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
In architecture, a folly is a building constructed for decoration, but suggesting through its appearance some other purpose, or of such extravagant appearance that it transcends the range of garden ornaments associated with the class of buildings to which it belongs. Eighteenth-century English landscape gardening and French landscape gardening featured mock Roman temples, symbolising classical virtues. Other 18th-century garden follies represented Chinese temples, Egyptian pyramids, ruined abbeys, or Tatar tents, to represent different continents or historical eras. Sometimes they represented rustic villages and cottages to symbolise rural virtues. Many follies during times of famine, such as the Irish potato famine, were built as a form of poor relief, to provide employment for peasants and unemployed artisans. In English, the term began as "a popular name for any costly structure considered to have shown folly in the builder", the OED's definition, were named after the individual who commissioned or designed the project.
The connotations of silliness or madness in this definition is in accord with the general meaning of the French word "folie". This sense included conventional, buildings that were thought unduly large or expensive, such as Beckford's Folly, an expensive early Gothic Revival country house that collapsed under the weight of its tower in 1825, 12 years after completion; as a general term, "folly" is applied to a small building that appears to have no practical purpose or the purpose of which appears less important than its striking and unusual design, but the term is subjective, so a precise definition is not possible. The concept of the folly is subjective and it has been suggested that the definition of a folly "lies in the eyes of the beholder". Typical characteristics include: They have no purpose other than as an ornament, they have some of the appearance of a building constructed for a particular purpose, such as a castle or tower, but this appearance is a sham. If they have a purpose, it may be disguised.
They are parts of buildings. Thus they are distinguished from other garden ornaments such as sculpture, they are purpose-built. Follies are deliberately built as ornaments, they are eccentric in design or construction. This is not necessary. There is an element of fakery in their construction; the canonical example of this is the sham ruin: a folly which pretends to be the remains of an old building but, in fact constructed in that state. They were commissioned for pleasure. Follies began as decorative accents on the great estates of the late 16th century and early 17th century but they flourished in the two centuries which followed. Many estates had ruins of Roman villas; however few follies are without a practical purpose. Apart from their decorative aspect, many had a use, lost such as hunting towers. Follies are misunderstood structures, according to The Folly Fellowship, a charity that exists to celebrate the history and splendour of these neglected buildings. Follies were an important feature of the English garden and French landscape garden in the 18th century, such as Stowe and Stourhead in England and Ermenonville and the gardens of Versailles in France.
They were in the form of Roman temples, ruined Gothic abbeys, or Egyptian pyramids. Painshill Park in Surrey contained a full set, with a large Gothic tower and various other Gothic buildings, a Roman temple, a hermit's retreat with resident hermit, a Turkish tent, a shell-encrusted water grotto and other features. In France they sometimes took the form of romantic farmhouses and cottages, as in Marie Antoinette's Hameau de la Reine at Versailles. Sometimes they were copied from landscape paintings by painters such as Claude Lorrain and Hubert Robert, they had symbolic importance, illustrating the virtues of ancient Rome, or the virtues of country life. The temple of philosophy at Ermenonville, left unfinished, symbolised that knowledge would never be complete, while the temple of modern virtues at Stowe was deliberately ruined, to show the decay of contemporary morals. In the 18th century, the follies became more exotic, representing other parts of the world, including Chinese pagodas, Japanese bridges, Tatar tents.
The Irish Potato Famine of 1845-49 led to the building of several follies in order to provide relief to the poor without robbing them of their dignity by issuing unconditional handouts. However, to hire the needy for work on useful projects would deprive existing workers of their jobs. Thus, construction projects termed; these included roads in the middle of nowhere, between two random points and estate walls, piers in the middle of bogs, etc. Follies are found worldwide, but they are abundant in Great Britain. Roman ruin and gloriettes, in the park of Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna Series of buildings in Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape Chanteloup Pagoda, near Amboise Désert de Retz, folly garden in Chambourcy near Paris, France Parc de la Villette in Paris has a number of modern follies by architect Bernard Tschumi. Ferdinand Cheval in Châteauneuf-de-Galaure, built what he called an Ideal Palace, seen as an example of naive architecture. Hameau de la Reine, in the park of the Château de Versailles Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe