A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight
I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight is the second album released by Richard Thompson and the first including and credited with his wife, Linda Thompson as Richard and Linda Thompson. It was released by Island Records in the UK in 1974. Although never commercially successful and critically ignored upon its release, it is now considered by a number of critics to be a masterpiece and one of the finest works of both Richard and Linda singularly or together; the album has been included on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. After the marked lack of success achieved by his first album, Henry the Human Fly, British singer/songwriter/guitarist Richard Thompson started a personal and professional relationship with Linda Peters, a session singer. I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight was the first album by the duo of Richard and Linda Thompson. Sessions for the album took place in Spring 1973 at the Sound Techniques studio, in Chelsea, London with house engineer John Wood co-producing with Thompson.
The album, provisionally titled Hokey Pokey, was recorded on a shoestring budget in a matter of days, but because of vinyl shortages, the album was not released until 1974. Where his first album was treated harshly by the critics, the second was hailed as a masterpiece, it is now regarded as one of the Thompsons' finest achievements. In the sleeve notes for the 2004 CD re-release, David Suff writes: "Throughout the album Richard's sombre, dark songs are driven by his masterful understated guitar and Linda's haunting spiritual vocals; the songs detail a beautiful yet desolate world of life before the fall, the lives of the homeless, the thief and the inebriate. The songs are English in their mood and responsibility, wry observations of the hopelessness of the human condition." Considering the song "End of the Rainbow", Suff writes: Richard denies that the song is pessimistic, "there's always hope in the third verse of my songs" yet the overall effect is a magnificent evocation of disillusionment.
Thompson's songs are despairing but not self-pitying, leaving the listener with an abiding sense of peace and, paradoxically hope. Ignored by reviewers, I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight came to be regarded. Robert Christgau rated it when it was re-released as one-half of Live! Noting that " don't sentimentalize about time gone—they encompass it in an endless present." When it was re-released in 1984, along with other albums in the Thompsons' catalogue, Kurt Loder writing in Rolling Stone described it as a "timeless masterpiece" with "not a single track that's less than luminous". More recent reviews are complimentary. AllMusic notes that the album is "nothing short of a masterpiece" and calls it "music of striking and unmistakable beauty". Q: "After his 1971 departure from Fairport Convention, Richard Thompson found his ideal foil in recent bride Linda. A hugely inventive guitarist, he gives full vent to his talent on this dark. Indeed, he never quite recaptured the murky demons inside the likes of'Withered and Died' again."
In 2003 the album was placed at number 479 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. The album appeared in the Mojo "100 Greatest Albums Ever Made"; the title track has been covered by, among others, Lucy Kaplansky, Dori Freeman, Weddings Parties Anything, Arlo Guthrie, Matt Pond PA, Ocean Colour Scene, Julie Covington and Sleater-Kinney. Caitlin Cary, Kate Rusby and Elvis Costello have all covered "Withered and Died". Kelly Willis has sung an acapella version in concert. Costello has covered "The End of the Rainbow," as has Barbara Manning. Maria McKee covered "Has He Got a Friend for Me" on her first solo album Maria McKee; the Fatima Mansions covered "The Great Valerio" on their 1991 mini-album Bertie's Brochures. All tracks written by Richard Thompson. Bonus tracks were recorded at the Roundhouse, London, on 7 September 1975. Richard Thompson – guitar, Hammered dulcimer, tin whistle, electric piano, harmonium Linda Thompson – vocals Timmy Donald – drums Pat Donaldson – bass guitar John Kirkpatrick – accordion, concertina Simon Nicol – dulcimer Brian Gulland – krummhorn Richard Harvey – krummhorn Royston Wood – harmony bass vocals Trevor Lucas - harmony vocals The CWS Silver Band Bonus tracks: Richard and Linda Thompson with John Kirkpatrick, Dave Pegg and Dave Mattacks.
John Wood - producer and engineer Richard Thompson - producer Cover design - unknown2004 CD re-release: Tim Chacksfield - research and project co-ordination Joe Black - project co-ordination for Universal David Suff - sleeve note and archive assistance Phil Smee - CD package design Richard Thompson – The Biography by Patrick Humphries. Schirmer Books. 0-02-864752-1 The Great Valerio – A Study of the Songs of Richard Thompson by Dave Smith. 1001 Albums by Robert Dimery and Michael Lydon
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
13 Rivers is the eighteenth solo studio album by British singer/songwriter Richard Thompson. It was released on 14 September 2018 by New West Records in the US and by Proper in the UK. 13 Rivers was written after a period of difficulty for Thompson's family with songs that stick "close to a vision of darkness and noise". Thompson explains that the songs were written in a "fairly tight time period of about six months", giving them a sense of commonality, he states that "many of these songs came to him as a pleasant surprise and that feeling of grabbing the creative urge and running with it is what comes across throughout the running time". The album was self-produced by Thompson with the album and some minor overdubs being recorded on analogue equipment over a 10 day period; the album title derives from the song count, with Thompson explaining that "there are 13 songs on the record, each one is like a river. Some flow faster than others"; this is illustrated further by the album's internal artwork which features a map, "showing the individual songs on the album flowing into a central lake".
On Metacritic, which aggregates reviews from critics and assigns a normalised rating out of 100, 13 Rivers received a score of 81, based on 1 mixed and 6 positive reviews. The album received favourable reviews from the press, with it being described as "brilliant" and "engaging" by PopMatters who state that 13 Rivers is "a raw, unfiltered affair from a veteran artist who shows no signs of slowing down". Folk Radio UK call 13 Rivers "a toothy energetic album" and Uncut write that "13 Rivers is a sparse and noisy record"; the Irish Times agreed that "the tone is ominous from the get-go"" and Mojo write that "this may be Richard Thompson's most creative album in decades" describing the record as being "driven along by a renewed sense of urgency and purpose". NPR feel that the album has captured Thompson's live sound, explaining that "the live show is always spectacular, on 13 Rivers, Thompson more than manages to bring that live energy and those searing and soaring guitar solos to life in the studio".
AllMusic write that "Thompson's vocals are superb throughout" claiming that "13 Rivers is striking music from a musician who remains fresh and peerless". All tracks written by Richard Thompson "The Storm Won't Come" – 6:11 "The Rattle Within" – 3:06 "Her Love Was Meant for Me" – 5:01 "Bones of Gilead" – 4:21 "The Dog in You" – 4:54 "Trying" – 3:35 "Do All These Tears Belong to You?" – 4:13 "My Rock, My Rope" – 3:19 "You Can't Reach Me" – 3:58 "O, Cinderella" – 3:49 "No Matter" – 3:46 "Pride" – 3:17 "Shaking the Gates" – 4:00 Richard Thompson – vocals and keyboards Michael Jerome – drums and vocals Taras Prodaniuk – bass guitar and vocals Bobby Eichorn – guitar Siobhan Maher Kennedy – harmony vocal Judith Owen – harmony vocal on "No Matter" Zara Phillips – harmony vocal
Live from Austin, TX (Richard Thompson album)
Live from Austin, TX is a live album by Richard Thompson, recorded in 2001 and released in 2005 on CD and DVD. Thompson has composed and performed since the late 60s, has been signed to several major labels, but despite his reputation as a compelling and powerful live performer live albums have been few and far between for most of his career. There was the flawed, Small Town Romance in 1984, several not-for-retail releases on Thompson's own boutique labels. In 2004 Cooking Vinyl released a live DVD and in 2005 New West Records released this recording of a 2001 performance given for KLRU's Austin City Limits series. Unlike Thompson's boutique live releases, available at his website and at his shows, Live from Austin, TX is an audio recording of a single show. Thompson's boutique releases, such as Ducknapped! and Semi-Detached Mock Tudor are compiled from a large number of different shows on the same tour. This performance was given in KLRU's studios in front of an audience; the band is a trio, with Thompson joined by bassist Danny Thompson and drummer Michael Jerome.
Danny Thompson and Jerome had toured as members of the Richard Thompson band in 1999 and 2000, would go on to work with him in 2002 on the recording sessions for the 2003 release The Old Kit Bag. The DVD version of Live From Austin, TX includes an extra track, "Put It There Pal" omitted from the CD. Neither version includes the entire performance. Thompson broke a guitar string during "Shoot Out The Lights" and whilst the guitar was being restrung he performed an a cappella rendition of the 19th century music hall song "Sam Hall". All songs composed by Richard Thompson except "Persuasion", written by Tim Finn and Richard Thompson. "Cooksferry Queen" "Uninhabited Man" "Walking The Long Miles Home" "Al Bowlly's In Heaven" "Mingus Eyes" "Dry My Tears And Move On" "Easy There, Steady Now" "Persuasion" "Bathsheba Smiles" "Mr. Rebound" "Ghosts In The Wind" "She Twists The Knife Again" "Shoot Out The Lights" "Crawl Back" "1952 Vincent Black Lightning" Richard Thompson - guitar and vocals Danny Thompson - double bass Michael Jerome - drums http://www.richardthompson-music.com/
Steel-string acoustic guitar
The steel-string acoustic guitar is a modern form of guitar that descends from the nylon-strung classical guitar, but is strung with steel strings for a brighter, louder sound. Like the classical guitar, it is referred to as an acoustic guitar; the most common type is called a flat top guitar, to distinguish it from the more specialized archtop guitar and other variations. The standard tuning for an acoustic guitar is E-A-D-G-B-E, although many players fingerpickers, use alternate tunings, such as open G, open D, or drop D. Steel-string guitars vary in construction and materials. Different woods and approach to bracing affect the instrument's tone. Many players and luthiers believe. Decrease in the content of hemicellulose, crystallization of cellulose, changes to lignin over time all result in its wood gaining better resonating properties. Steel-string acoustic guitars are constructed in several body types, varying in size and proportion. In general, the guitar's soundbox can be thought of as composed of two mating chambers: the upper bouts on the neck end of the body, lower bouts.
These meet at the narrowest part of the body face near the soundhole. The proportion and overall size of these two parts helps determine the overall tonal balance and "native sound" of a particular body style – the larger the body, the louder the volume; the 00, double-O or grand concert body type is the major body style most directly derived from the classical guitar. It has the thinnest soundbox and the smallest overall size, making it comfortable to play but lacking in projection -volume - relative to the larger types, its smaller size makes it suitable for smaller-framed players. It is called a "parlor steel", as it is well-suited to smaller rooms. Martin's 00-xxx series and Taylor's x12 series are common examples; the grand auditorium guitar, sometimes called the 000 or the triple-O is similar in design to the grand concert, but wider and deeper. Many 000-style guitars have a convex back to increase the physical volume of the soundbox without making it deeper at the edges, which would affect comfort and playability.
The result is a balanced tone, comparable to the 00 but with greater volume and dynamic range and more low-end response, making this Classically shaped body style popular. Eric Clapton's signature Martin, for example, is of this style. Martin's 000-xxx series and Taylor's x14 series are well-known examples of the grand auditorium style; the dreadnought is a large-bodied guitar which incorporates a deeper soundbox, but a smaller and less-pronounced upper bout than most styles. Its size and power gave rise to its name, from the most formidable class of warship at the time of its creation in the early 20th century; the style was designed by Martin Guitars to produce a deeper sound than "classic"-style guitars, with resonant bass. Its body's combination of compact profile with a deep sound has since been copied by every major steel-string luthier, making it the most popular body type. Martin's "D" series guitars, such as the prized D-28, are classic examples of the dreadnought; the jumbo body type is bigger again than a grand auditorium but proportioned, is designed to provide a deep tone similar to a dreadnought's.
It was designed by Gibson to compete with the dreadnought,) but with maximum resonant space for greater volume and sustain. These come at the expense of being oversized, with a deep sounding box, thus somewhat more difficult to play; the foremost example of the style is the Gibson J-200, but like the dreadnought, most guitar manufacturers have at least one jumbo model. Any of these body type can incorporate a cutaway, where a section of the upper Below the neck is scalloped out; this allows for easier access to the frets located atop the soundbox, at the expense of reduced soundbox volume and altered bracing, which can affect the resonant qualities and resulting tone of the instrument. The 12-string guitar replaces each string with a course of two strings; the lower pairs are tuned an octave apart. Its unique sound was made famous by artists such as Pete Seeger and Leo Kottke. All of these traditional looking and constructed instruments are referred to as flattop guitars. All are used in popular music genres, including rock, blues and folk.
Other styles of guitar which enjoy moderate popularity in more specific genres, include: The archtop, which incorporates an arched, violin-like top either carved out of solid wood or heat-pressed using laminations. It has violin style f-holes rather than a single round sound hole, it is most used by swing and jazz players and incorporates an electric pickup. The Selmer-Maccaferri guitar is played by those who follow the style of Django Reinhardt, it is an unusual-looking instrument, distinguished by a large body with squarish bouts, either a D-shaped or longitudinal oval soundhole. The strings are gathered at the tail like an archtop guitar, it has a wide fingerboard and slotted head like a nylon-string guitar. The loud volume and penetrating tone make it suitable for single-note soloing, it is employed as a lead instrument in gypsy swing; the resonator guitar or resophonic guitar called the Dobro after its most prominent manufacturer, amplifies its sound through one or more metal cone-shaped resonators.
It was designed to overcome the problem of conventional acoustic guitars being overwhelmed by horns and perc