A crossbencher is an independent or minor party member of some legislatures, such as the British House of Lords and in the Parliament of Australia. They take their name from the crossbenches and perpendicular to the government and opposition benches, where crossbenchers sit in the chamber, Crossbench members of the British House of Lords are not aligned to any particular party. Until 2009, these included the Law Lords appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, in addition, former Speakers of the House of Commons and former Lord Speakers of the House of Lords, who by convention are not aligned with any party, sit as Crossbenchers. Although non-affiliated members, and members of parties, sometimes physically sit on the crossbenches. An increasing number of Crossbenchers have been created peers for non-political reasons, since its establishment in May 2000, the House of Lords Appointments Commission has nominated a total of 67 non-party-political life peers who joined the House of Lords as Crossbenchers.
From April 2007 to 2009, the number of Crossbenchers was higher than the number of Conservatives in the Lords for the first time. Although the Lords Spiritual have no party affiliation, they are not considered Crossbenchers and do not sit on the crossbenches, the current convenor is David Hope, Baron Hope of Craighead, who took the office in September 2015. While convenors are not part of the channels, they have been included in their discussions in recent years. Unlike the United Kingdom, in Australia the term is applied to those parties, the last few federal elections have seen an increase in the size and power of the crossbench in both houses of Parliament. The resulting 76–74 margin entitled Labor to form a minority government, derryn Hinch won a seat, while Liberal Democrat David Leyonhjelm, Family Firsts Bob Day, and Jacqui Lambie retained their seats. The number of crossbenchers increased by two to a record 20, the Liberal/National Coalition government required at least nine additional votes to reach a Senate majority.
The term crossbencher generally is not used for the Canadian Parliament or any of the provincial or territorial legislatures, any party that is not the governing party is an opposition party, with the largest of these designated the official opposition. All opposition parties other than the opposition are called third parties. Third parties and independents sit on the side of the chamber. Parties require a number of seats to have official party status for procedural purposes. Although parties without official party status behave like political parties, their members are treated as individual members, third parties have been common in Canadian legislatures since the 1920s. In particular, legislatures often contain members of an ideological party, beginning in 2016, the Independent Senators Group was formed in the Senate of Canada, fulfilling a similar purpose as Crossbenchers. The ISG was created partly as a response to Prime Minister Justin Trudeaus decision to appoint more non-partisan Senators, similar to Crossbenchers in the UK, the group has chosen a leader, and does not use a whipping system
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland. The directly elected Dáil is by far the more powerful branch of the Oireachtas, the term oireachtas derives from the Old Irish word airech. Its first recorded use as the name of a body was within the Irish Free State. Dáil Éireann, the house, is directly elected under universal suffrage of all Irish and United Kingdom citizens who are resident. An election is held at least once in five years as required by law. However the house can usually be dissolved at any time at the request of the Taoiseach, Dáil elections occur under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The Dáil has had 166 members since 1981, the Seanad is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members selected in a number of ways. 43 senators are elected by councillors and parliamentarians,11 are appointed by the Taoiseach, the President of Ireland is directly elected once in every seven years, for a maximum of two terms.
However, if, as has occurred on a number of occasions, to become law, a bill must first be approved by both the Dáil and in most circumstances the Seanad, and signed into law by the President. Bills to amend the Constitution must be approved by the People in a prior to being presented to the President. The powers of the Seanad are in limited to delay rather than veto. It is the Dáil, that is the tier of the Irish legislature. The Oireachtas has exclusive power to, including a power vested in the Dáil of approving the financial resolutions relevant to the budget, the courts have allowed the Oireachtas to delegate limited legislative powers to other entities, such as Government Ministers. Propose changes to the constitution, which must be submitted to a referendum, allow international agreements to become part of the domestic law of the state. Pass certain laws having extraterritorial effect, when it considers a state of emergency to exist, almost any law it deems necessary, with imposition of capital punishment being the only absolutely excluded act in all circumstances.
Laws are invalid if, and to the extent that, they contradict the constitution, in the event of a conflict, EU law takes precedence over acts of the Oireachtas, as is common throughout the European Union. It may not retrospectively criminalise acts that were not illegal at the time they were committed and it may not enact any law providing for the imposition of the death penalty, even during a state of emergency. The Oireachtas has a number of joint committees that include members of both houses and this parliament governed the English-dominated part of Ireland, which at first was limited to Dublin and surrounding cities, but grew to include the entire island
Government of Ireland
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. The structure of the Government of Ireland is regulated fundamentally by the Constitution of Ireland, the Government is headed by a prime minister called the Taoiseach. The deputy prime minister is called the Tánaiste, and is nominated by the Taoiseach from among the members of the Government, the Government must consist of between seven and fifteen members, according to the Constitution of Ireland. Every member of the Government must be a member of the parliament of Ireland, no more than two members of the Government may be members of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas. Therefore, all members of the Government must be members of Dáil Éireann. The Taoiseach, Tánaiste and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil, the 7 to 15 Members of Government are generally referred to as The Cabinet. The Taoiseach is nominated by Dáil Éireann, the house of the Oireachtas. Other members of the Government are nominated by the Taoiseach, approved by Dáil Éireann, Members of the government are often styled cabinet ministers, as opposed to Ministers of State, called junior ministers, who are not in the cabinet.
A minister is usually in charge of a Department of State, occasionally a minister without portfolio is appointed who is a minister and a member of the Government but not a Minister of the Government. Non members have no voting rights at Cabinet but may participate fully and normally receive circulated Cabinet Papers on the same basis as a full member of Government. The Government is advised by the Attorney General, who is not formally a member of the Government, the Chief Whip may attend meetings of the cabinet, but is not a member of the Government. In addition, the Government can choose other Ministers of State and this person is informally known as a Super Junior Minister. The current Super Junior Ministers are Paul Kehoe and Finian McGrath, Office of the President The Office of President was established by The Constitution. The President is elected directly by the people, the term of office is 7 years and a President may not serve more than 2 terms. The President must reside in or near Dublin, st.
Patrick’s Hall, Dublin Castle, is the venue for Inauguration ceremonies, at which each President takes an oath as provided in the Constitution. The President represents all the people when undertaking official engagements at home, the President is Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces. There have been nine different holders of the office – Michael D. Higgins is the current President. The formal powers, the President, who does not have an executive or policy role, exercises them on the advice of the Government. Additional functions can be conferred on the President by law, a special Commission acts whenever the President is absent
The Ceann Comhairle is the chairperson of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas of Ireland. The person who holds the position is elected by members of the Dáil from among their number in the first session after each general election, the Ceann Comhairle of the 32nd Dáil is Fianna Fáil TD Seán Ó Fearghaíl,8 June 2016. The Ceann Comhairle is expected to observe strict impartiality, despite this, a government usually tries to select a member of its own political party for the position, if it has enough deputies to allow that choice. As a consequence, the constituency that an incumbent Ceann Comhairle represents elects one fewer TD in an election than its usual entitlement. The Ceann Comhairle does not take part in debates nor vote except in the event of a tie, in this event they generally vote in accordance with the parliamentary conventions relating to the Speaker of the British House of Commons, which tend to amount to voting against motions. The Ceann Comhairle formally opens each days sitting by reading the official prayer, the Ceann Comhairle is the sole judge of order in the house and has a number of special functions.
Specifically, the Ceann Comhairle, Calls on members to speak, all speeches must be addressed to the Ceann Comhairle. Puts such questions to the house and supervises and declares the results of divisions, to ensure obedience to his rulings the Ceann Comhairle may order members to withdraw from the Dáil or suspend an individual from the House for a period. In the case of disorder the Ceann Comhairle can suspend or adjourn the house. Rings a bell when deputies are out of order, the bell is a half-sized reproduction of the ancient bell of Lough Lene Castle found at Castle Island, Lough Lene, County Westmeath in 1881 and now in the National Museum. The reproduction was presented in 1931 by the widow of Bryan Cooper, the Ceann Comhairle is an ex officio member of the Presidential Commission, Council of State, Commission for Public Service Appointments. The position of Ceann Comhairle is as old as the Dáil, the first Ceann Comhairle was Cathal Brugha, who served for only one day, presiding over the houses symbolic first meeting, before leaving the post to become Príomh Aire.
The office was continued under the 1922–1937 Irish Free State, the constitution of which referred to the office-holder as the Chairman of Dáil Éireann, the practice of automatically re-electing the Ceann Comhairle in a general election was introduced by a constitutional amendment in 1927. The position of Ceann Comhairle was retained when the Constitution of Ireland was adopted in 1937, the use of secret ballot commenced in 2016. This list includes the constituencies and political affiliation of each Ceann Comhairle as well as the number of their Dáil Éireann, the Leas-Cheann Comhairle holds office as the Deputy Chairman of Dáil Éireann under Article 15.9.1 of the Constitution. In the absence of the Ceann Comhairle, the Leas-Cheann Comhairle deputises, the current Leas-Cheann Comhairle is Fianna Fáil TD Pat the Cope Gallagher, since 6 July 2016. By tradition, the position is reserved for the Opposition, the role carries the same pay and the same status as that of a Minister of State. Cathaoirleach Politics of the Republic of Ireland History of the Republic of Ireland Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly OConnor, Tom, OHalloran, Politics in a Changing Ireland 1960–2007, A Tribute to Seamus Pattison
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%