Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, he served as President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010, with his political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism. Born in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Kirchner studied law at the National University of La Plata, he met and married Cristina Fernández at this time, returned with her to Río Gallegos at graduation, opened a law firm. Commentators have criticized him for a lack of legal activism during the Dirty War, an issue he would involve himself in as president. Kirchner ran for mayor of Río Gallegos in 1987 and for governor of Santa Cruz in 1991, he was reelected governor in 1999 due to an amendment of the provincial constitution. Kirchner sided with Buenos Aires provincial governor Eduardo Duhalde against President Carlos Menem. Although Duhalde lost the 1999 presidential election, he was appointed president by the Congress when previous presidents Fernando de la Rúa and Adolfo Rodríguez Saá resigned during the December 2001 riots.
Duhalde suggested that Kirchner run for president in 2003 in a bid to prevent Menem's return to the presidency. Menem won a plurality in the first round of the presidential election but, fearing that he would lose in the required runoff election, he resigned. Kirchner took office on 25 May 2003. Roberto Lavagna, credited with the economic recovery during Duhalde's presidency, was retained as minister of economy and continued his economic policies. Argentina repaid the International Monetary Fund; the National Institute of Statistics and Census intervened to underestimate growing inflation. Several Supreme Court judges resigned while fearing impeachment, new justices were appointed; the amnesty for crimes committed during the Dirty War in enforcing the full-stop and due-obedience laws and the presidential pardons were repealed and declared unconstitutional. This led to new trials for the military. Argentina increased its integration with other Latin American countries, discontinuing its automatic alignment with the United States dating to the 1990s.
The 2005 midterm elections were a victory for Kirchner, signaled the end of Duhalde's supremacy in Buenos Aires Province. Instead of seeking reelection, Kirchner stepped aside in 2007 in support of his wife, Cristina Fernández, elected president, he participated in the unsuccessful Operation Emmanuel to release FARC hostages, was narrowly defeated in the 2009 midterm election for deputy of Buenos Aires Province. Kirchner was appointed Secretary General of UNASUR in 2010, he and his wife were involved in the 2013 political scandal known as the Route of the K-Money. Kirchner died of cardiac arrest on 27 October 2010, received a state funeral. Kirchner was born Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. on 25 February 1950, in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, a federal territory at the time. His father, Néstor Carlos Kirchner Sr. met the Chilean María Juana Ostoić by telegraphy. They had three children: Néstor and María Cristina. Néstor was part of the third generation of Kirchners living in the city; as a result of pertussis, he developed strabismus at an early age.
When Kirchner was in high school he considered becoming a teacher, but poor diction hampered him. Kirchner moved to La Plata in 1969 to study law at the National University. During this period, the decline of the Argentine Revolution, the return of former president Juan Perón from exile, the election of Héctor Cámpora as president, his resignation and the election of Perón, the beginning of the Dirty War had led to severe political turmoil. Kirchner joined the University Federation for the National Revolution, a political student group whose relationship with the Montoneros guerrillas is a matter of debate. Kirchner was not a leader of the group, he was present at the Ezeiza massacre, in which right-wing Peronist snipers opened fire on a celebration of Juan Perón's return at the Ezeiza International Airport. He was present at the expulsion of Montoneros from Plaza de Mayo. Although Kirchner met many members of the Montoneros, he was not a member of the group. By the time the Montoneros were outlawed by Perón, he had left FURN.
In 1974 Kirchner met Cristina Fernández, three years his junior, they fell in love. They were married after a courtship limited to six months by the political turmoil in the country. At the civil ceremony, Kirchner's friends sang the Peronist song "Los Muchachos Peronistas", he graduated a year returned to Patagonia with Cristina, established a law firm with fellow attorney Domingo Ortiz de Zarate. Cristina joined the firm in 1979. By the time of Kirchner's graduation and move to the Patagonia, Juan Perón had died, his vice president and wife Isabel Martínez de Perón had become president. Isabel Perón had been unseated by a coup d'état; the Kirchners worked for banks and financial groups which filed foreclosures, since the Central Bank's 1050 ruling had raised mortgage loan interest rates. And acquired 21 real-estate lots for a low price when they were about to be auctioned, their law firm defended. Forced disappearances were common during the Dirty War, but unlike other lawyers of the time the Kirchners never signed a habeas corpus.
Julio César Strassera, prosecutor in the
Unitarianists or Unitarians were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816. They were opposed to the Argentine Federalists. In the Argentine War of Independence the forces of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata fought Spanish royalists who attempted to regain control of their American colonies after the Napoleonic Wars. After the victorious May Revolution of 1810, disagreements arose between the dominant province of Buenos Aires, who were known as Unitarianists, the other provinces of Argentina, known as the Federalists; these were evident at least as early as the declaration of Argentine independence in 1816. The Unitarianists lost their controlling power after the Battle of Cepeda, followed by several months of chaos. However, the Unitarianists were forced to sign a treaty with other provinces; this did not solve the conflicts between the Federalists and the Unitarians.
Under President Bernardino Rivadavia, the Unitarianists gained control for a short period of time. The Constitution of 1826 allowed for a balance between the ideas of the Unitarianists and the Federalists: “It provided for a centralized national authority while leaving the provinces with considerable local powers.” However, the constitution was rejected by provincial caudillos, military leaders, the conflict continued. Forced to resign, the Government of Buenos Aires and the Foreign relations of the country were taken over by Federalist Manuel Dorrego. However, a contingent of military led by Juan Lavalle, opposed to the peace negotiations with the Brazilian Empire after the end of the Cisplatine War took over the Buenos Aires Government and shot Dorrego at Navarro. In 1829, Juan Manuel de Rosas, the leader of a troop of Federalists, became the Governor of Buenos Aires after defeating General Juan Lavalle, forced into exile. Although Rosas was a Federalist, his following of the principles of Federalism has been questioned.
In 1830, the Unitarian League was created by General José María Paz in order to defeat the Federalists. The Federalists faced Paz and his troops on May 31, 1831 and the Unitarianists were defeated after the Gauchos captured the Unitarianist commander; the Provinces of the Unitarian League joining into the Federal Pact and the Argentine Confederation. Although the Unitarians exiled in neighboring countries, the Civil War would continue for another two decades, the Unitarians being led by Lavalle, Paz and many others. With support from Corrientes Province and the Brazilian Empire, Justo José de Urquiza, Federalist caudillo of Entre Ríos Province defeated Rosas at the Battle of Caseros on February 3, 1852. On May, the San Nicolás Agreement was signed by the provincial governors; the pact reinstated the 1831 Federal Pact original provisions for a constitutional convention. In 1853 the Autonomists of Buenos Aires broke away from the Argentine Confederation after Urquiza nationalized the customs receipts from Buenos Aires and allowed the free flow of trade on the Parana and Uruguay rivers.
In 1859 Buenos Aires was forced to accept the federal constitution of 1853 after six years of secession, after Mitre was defeated at the 1859 Battle of Cepeda by Urquiza. However, the federal constitution was "amended to allow Buenos Aires greater influence" after the ensuing 1861 Battle of Pavón. Mitre was chosen as President of a new national government. Opposition to the Unitarianists continued until 1890 under the Córdoba League. History of Argentina United Provinces of South America Bernardino Rivadavia "unitario" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9100157>. "Cepeda, battles of" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9022115>. Crow, John A. he Epic of Latin America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2
Carlos Álvarez (politician)
Carlos Alberto "Chacho" Álvarez is an Argentine politician. Álvarez was born in Buenos Aires. His father was a printing worker, the younger Álvarez's first experience in politics would be in the splinter trade union CGT de los Argentinos, formed in 1968 by Raimundo Ongaro, he earned his degree in history at the University of Buenos Aires. Álvarez married three times in his youth: Marta Chojo, Gloria López Lecube, Liliana Chiernajowsky. He had two daughters with his second wife, he met Liliana Chiernajowsky, who had spent 7 years as a political prisoner during the Dirty War, shortly after her release in 1981. They had one daughter, he served as an adviser at the Regional Economies Commission of the Argentine Senate from 1983 to 1989. Álvarez established Unidos in 1985, a periodical in support of the progressive wing of the Justicialist Party that would become influential in Argentine universities through the student organization APU. He was elected National Deputy for the Justicialist Party in 1989, but split from the party shortly afterward over disagreements with President Carlos Menem's turn to the right, creating an independent caucus known as The Group of Eight.Álvarez joined a group of politicians of different progressive parties, as well as former Justicialists, in 1991 to create the Frente Grande coalition party.
He was again elected congressman for the 1993-97 period, as well as a member of the Constitutional Convention that drafted the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution. He took part in the creation of the FrePaSo coalition in 1994. Nominated candidate for Vice-President on José Octavio Bordón's ticket, they obtained second place in the 1995 presidential elections. FrePaSo joined the Radical Civic Union in 1997 to form the Alliance for Work and Education. Álvarez was reelected that year to the Chamber of Deputies, this time within the Alianza, in 1997. He ran again as a vice-presidential nominee in 1999, was elected Vice President of Argentina with Alianza nominee Fernando de la Rúa in the 1999 presidential elections. Revelations of bribery on the part of President de la Rúa in the passage of a labour flexibility law bill in 2000 led Álvarez to resign his post on October 6, 2000, denouncing corruption in the administration and in the Senate, his resignation became critical a year when de la Rúa himself resigned in the face of nationwide rioting, resulting in four separate officials holding the presidency for the balance of de la Rúa's term.
He retired from public life for five years. His marriage to Liliana Chiernajowsky ended, his notable relationships included those with politician Vilma Ibarra and actress Soledad Silveyra, he was appointed as President of Mercosur´s permanent representatives committee, CRPM. He took office on December 9, 2005, was reelected in 2007, served until December 2009. Álvarez underwent vascular bypass surgery in 2009, recovered. He took office as General Secretary of the Latin American regional trade organization, ALADI on September 1, 2011
There is an Intransigent Party in Uruguay, see Intransigent Party. The Intransigent Party is a political party in Argentina, founded in 1963 by Oscar Alende, its membership came from the Intransigent Radical Civic Union, one of the two factions into which the Radical Civic Union had divided in 1956. The party was. Alende was presidential candidate in 1963, 1973, 1983 without much success; the party had its most successful period in 1985. It fell into oblivion after allying with the Justicialist Party from 1987; the party was part of the FrePaSo coalition from the 1990s and entered government in 1999 as part of the Alianza between FrePaSo and the Radical Civic Union that brought Fernando de la Rúa to the presidency. The Alianza collapsed in 2001 and FrePaSo disappeared. For the 2003 Presidential Election, the Intransigent Party was allied to ARI, the party of Elisa Carrió, supporting her for President, allowing her to be candidate. For 2005 legislative elections, the Intransigent Party allied with the Broad Front, Socialist Party and the Communist Party of Argentina, forming the coalition called Encuentro Amplio.
In 2007, the Party backed the Front for Victory and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as candidate for President of Argentina. Official web site
Argentine Chamber of Deputies
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress. It is made up of 257 national deputies who are elected in multi-member constituencies corresponding with the territories of the 23 provinces of Argentina by party list proportional representation. Elections to the Chamber are held every two years; the Constitution of Argentina lays out certain attributions that are unique to the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber holds exclusive rights to levy taxes. Additionally, the Chamber of Deputies receives for consideration bills presented by popular initiative; the Chamber of Deputies is presided over by the President of the Chamber, deputized by three Vice Presidents. It has 257 seats and one-half of the members are elected every two years to serve four-year terms by the people of each district using proportional representation, D'Hondt formula with a 3% of the district registered voters threshold, the following distribution: All data from official website. In order for an Argentine citizen to be elected to congress, they have to fulfil certain requirements: He or she has to be at least twenty five years old with at least four years of active citizenship and it has to be naturalized in the province, being elected to or at least have two years of immediate residency in said province, according to art.
48 or the Argentine Constitution. The Chamber of Deputies was provided for in the Constitution of Argentina, ratified on May 1, 1853. Eligibility requisites are that members be at least twenty-five years old, have been a resident of the province they represent for at least four years. Otherwise patterned after Article One of the United States Constitution per legal scholar Juan Bautista Alberdi's treatise, Bases de la Constitución Argentina, the chamber was apportioned in one seat per 33,000 inhabitants; the constitution made no provision for a national census and because the Argentine population doubled every twenty years from 1870 to 1930 as a result of immigration, censuses were conducted generationally, rather than every decade, until 1947. The distribution of the Chamber of Deputies is regulated since 1983 by Law 22.847 called Ley Bignone, enacted by the last Argentine dictator, General Reynaldo Bignone, ahead of the 1983 general elections. This law established that each province shall have one deputy per 161,000 inhabitants, with standard rounding.
If a province has fewer than five deputies, the number of deputies for that province is increased to reach that minimum. Controversially, apportionment remains based on the 1980 population census, has not been modified since 1983; the minimum of five seat per province allots the smaller ones a disproportionately large representation, as well. Accordingly, this distribution does not reflect Argentina's current population balance; the President of the Chamber is elected by the majority caucus. The officeholders for this post since 1983 have been: Leadership positions include: List of current Argentine deputies Argentine Senate Politics of Argentina List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Argentina - Official Site