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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Front line

A front line in military terminology is the position closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment referring to land forces. When a front between opposing sides forms, the front line is the area where each side's forces are engaged in conflict. All branches of the U. S. armed services use the related technical terms, Forward Line of Own Troops and Forward Edge of Battle Area. These terms are used as battlespace control measures that designate the forward-most friendly maritime or land forces on the battlefield at a given point in time during an armed conflict. FLOT/FEBA may include screening forces; the Forward Line of Enemy Troops is the FEBA from the enemy's perspective. Although the term "front line" first appeared in the 1520s, it was only in 1842 that it was recorded used in the military sense, its first use as an adjective was from 1915. The word "front" gained the military sense of "foremost part of an army" in the mid-14th century, which, in turn, led the word to take on the meaning "field of operations in contact with the enemy" in the 1660s.

That sense led to the phrase home front, which first appeared in 1919. In a non-combat situation or when a combat situation is not assumed, front can mean the direction in which the command is faced; the attributive adjective version of the term front line describes materiel or personnel intended for or in forward use: at sea, on land or in the air: at the front line. In the land campaigns of World War I, FEBAs, FLOTs and FLETs could be identified by eye. For example, in France and Belgium they were defined by opposing defensive trench systems. Typical modern conflicts are vastly different, characterised by "war amongst the people", the concept of a "Three Block War", the presence of an asymmetric threat from irregular or terrorist combatants. In those cases, the concepts of front line, FEBA, FLOT and FLET may be of little relevance; the term "front line" has come to refer more to any place where bullets and bombs are flying or are to fly. Which way to the FEBA?, Maj John M. Fawcett, Jr. USAF, Airpower Journal

Buena Suerte (newspaper)

Buena Suerte is a free Spanish language classifieds newspaper that serves the U. S. state of Texas the Greater Houston Area, San Antonio, Dallas. The name, Buena Suerte, means good luck in Spanish; the paper is published weekly, with different editions coming out on different days of the week. As of 2011, Buena Suerte Spanish News has an audited circulation of 101,000 net 94,000, as well as 10 Spanish language editions and over 3,500 distribution points in the Greater Houston area. In 1986, Buena Suerte Spanish news was founded by Emilio Martinez-Paula with the help of his son Emilio S. Martinez; the paper started as a shopper designed to reach the Hispanic community of Houston, including Mexican, Central American, South American communities. In 1990, the shopper became an community newspaper. Nine years Buena Suerte changed back to the shopper format, still publishes with this format today. In 2000, Carlos Martinez, another one of Emilio Martinez-Paula's sons, joined the company to run the sales department.

Buena Suerte Spanish News created a digital version of their paper in 1996. The company runs a personals website called Corazon a Corazon and another classifieds website, Super Pulga; the company has continued to grow. In 2008, the company started a new edition of the paper in Austin. In January 2009, a San Antonio edition was created and in January 2010 another edition was created in Dallas. Flood, Mary. "Publisher challenges city's news rack ordinance". Houston Chronicle. Official website Corazon a Corazon Super Pulga

Archaeological open-air museum

An archaeological open-air museum is a non-profit permanent institution with outdoor true-to-scale architectural reconstructions based on archaeological sources. It holds collections of intangible heritage resources and provides an interpretation of how people lived and acted in the past; the above definition was made by EXARC. By that time Roeland Paardekooper was their director. Further explanation of its components: Museum – "A museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education and enjoyment." Professional practice and performance in archaeological open-air museums should respect the ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums. True to scale architectural reconstructions in the open air – Archaeological open-air museums deal with outdoor true to scale reconstructed buildings; these can be constructed and interpreted only under the condition that: "the original buildings of the type portrayed are no longer available the copies or reconstructions are made according to the strictest scientific methods".

The authenticity of materials and techniques used should be accounted for through written and accessible records, quoting the sources of information on which the reconstructions are based. An honest assessment of each reconstruction should be feasible. Collections of intangible heritage resources – The overall presentation of an archaeological open-air museum can be regarded as a collection of intangible heritage resources which provides an interpretation of how people lived and acted with reference to a specific context of time and place. Connected to scientific research – The connection between scientific research and any specific archaeological open-air museum is provided by the active role of a trained archaeologist among the staff or an archaeological counsellor belonging to an affiliated organisation. Appropriate interpretation with organisation of activities for visitors – Depending on the nature and number of visitors, different kinds of interpretation can be appropriate; these activities can involve guided tours, educational programmes, presentation of experimental archaeology research, demonstrations of ancient crafts and techniques, live interpretation and living history activities.

Examples of archaeological open-air museums are Flag Fen, Lake Dwelling Museum Unteruhldingen, Colonial Williamsburg, Plimoth Plantation, West Stow Anglo-Saxon village, Butser Ancient Farm, Havránok, the Scottish Crannog Centre and the Eindhoven Museum. ICOM ICOM Code of ethics for museums EXARC the international ICOM affiliated association of archaeological open-air museums and experimental archaeology

Morgan County, Alabama

Morgan County is a county in the north central part of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 119,490; the county seat is Decatur. The county was created by the Alabama Territorial legislature on February 6, 1818 from land acquired from the Cherokee Indians in the Treaty of Turkeytown, was called Cotaco County. On June 14, 1821 it was renamed in honor of American Revolutionary War General Daniel Morgan of Virginia, it is a prohibition or dry county, though the cities of Decatur and Priceville are wet. Morgan County is included in the Decatur, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area, it is a part of the North and North-Central regions of Alabama. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 599 square miles, of which 579 square miles is land and 20 square miles is water. Tennessee River Madison County Marshall County Cullman County Lawrence County Limestone County Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 111,064 people, 43,602 households, 31,437 families living in the county.

The population density was 191 people per square mile. There were 47,388 housing units at an average density of 81 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 85.07% White, 11.24% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 1.25% from two or more races. 3.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Morgan County were English 60.1%, Scots-Irish 12.71%, African 11.24% There were 43,602 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,803, the median income for a family was $45,827. Males had a median income of $35,759 versus $21,885 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,223. About 9.70% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 119,490 people, 47,030 households, 33,135 families living in the county; the population density was 206.4 people per square mile. There were 51,193 housing units at an average density of 88 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.8% White, 11.9% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.8% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. 7.7 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 47,030 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families.

25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,349, the median income for a family was $54,653. Males had a median income of $43,455 versus $29,270 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,090. About 10.9% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. CSX Transportation Norfolk Southern Railway Decatur Hartselle Eva Falkville Priceville Somerville Trinity Lacon National Register of Historic Places listings in Morgan County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Morgan County, Alabama Water contamination in Lawrence and Morgan Counties, Alabama Decatur Morgan County Chamber of Commerce

Couronian colonization of the Americas

The Couronian colonisation of the Americas was performed by the Duchy of Courland, the second smallest state to colonise the Americas, with a colony on the island of Tobago from 1654 to 1659, intermittently from 1660 to 1689. Courland was located in present-day Latvia, had a population of only 200,000 of Latvian and Baltic German ancestry, was itself a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at that time. Under Duke Jacob Kettler, a Baltic German, it established one of the largest merchant fleets in Europe, with its main harbours in Windau, Libau. During his travels to Western Europe, Duke Jacob became an eager proponent of mercantilism. Metalworking and shipbuilding became much more developed. Trading relations were established not only with nearby countries, but with England, the Netherlands and others; the Duchy's ships started undertaking trade voyages to the West Indies at least as early as 1637, when a Couronian ship attempted to found a colony on Tobago with 212 settlers. An earlier European settlement on the island, a Dutch colony named New Walcheren, formed in 1628, had been wiped out a few months earlier by Spain.

The first Couronian colony met a similar end, whilst a second attempt was blockaded by Spain and strangled in infancy by 1639. In 1642 two ships under Captain Caroon with about 300 settlers attempted to settle on the north coast near Courland Bay; this colony proved more successful. Jesuit missionaries among the Carib agitated and armed the tribes to attack the settlement, subsequently evacuated to Tortuga and Jamaica. Under agreement with other Protestant powers who saw their various individual efforts insufficient to trade and/or colonise the Americas and the Indies Courland's attention shifted to Africa. In 1651 the Duchy gained its first successful colony in Africa, on St. Andrews Island in the Gambia River and it established Fort Jacob there. Soon afterwards the Protestant powers felt sufficiently organised and prepared to launch several colonial expeditions against Spanish interests in the Caribbean; the alliance between England and the Netherlands against Spain began to break apart under England's new trading program.

The Dutch were primary competitors to Courland, which decided to support the English in the brewing conflict. Therefore, Courland received permission from its Protestant English allies to make still another attempt at a colony on Tobago. On 20 May 1654, the ship Das Wappen der Herzogin von Kurland arrived carrying 45 cannon, 25 officers, 124 Couronian soldiers and 80 families of colonists to occupy Tobago. Captain Willem Mollens declared the island "New Courland". A fort was erected on the southwest of the island called Fort Jacobus with the surrounding town called Jacobsstadt. Other features were given Couronian names such as Great Courland Bay, Jacobs Bay, Courland Estate, Neu-Mitau, Libau Bay and Little Courland Bay. In their first year on the island the Couronians built an Evangelical Lutheran church; the colony was successful, but the Netherlands was not willing to accede to losing the West Indies and replied by establishing its own colony nearby a few months later. Thus, the small Couronian colony soon became overshadowed by a second Dutch colony.

While 120 Couronian colonists had come in 1657, the Dutch colony reached a population of 1,200 by the next year, when 500 French Protestant refugees fleeing Catholic persecution joined them. Goods exported to Europe included sugar, coffee, ginger, rum, tortoise shells, tropical birds and their feathers; the Duchy of Courland became a focus of strategic interest for both Poland-Lithuania. In 1655 the Swedish army entered the territory of the Duchy and the Northern Wars began; the Swedish army held Duke Jacob captive from 1658 to 1660. During this period both colonies continued to thrive until they were taken by the more numerous Dutch settlers, who surrounded Fort James and forced Hubert de Beveren, Governor of the Couronians, to surrender; the merchant fleet and factories were destroyed. Courland yielded New Courland on 11 December 1659. However, this war ended with the Treaty of Oliwa of 1660, on the basis of which Tobago was returned to Courland. Although peace had been established between the Couronians and the Dutch, there still remained Spain.

Following several attacks by buccaneers seeking new harbours, an expeditionary fleet of Spanish vessels, the Couronians left Tobago in 1666. In 1668 a Couronian ship was driven off by the Dutch. Tobago was regained again just for a short period at the end of Duke Jacob's rule with an attempt in July 1680 at a new colony which later failed, he began to restore the fleet and factories, the Duchy never again reached its previous level of prosperity. The island was abandoned except for visiting buccaneers from March 1683 to June 1686, before again being occupied by a collection of scattered Couronians from throughout the Dutch and English West Indies, as well as by fresh settlers from the home country. In May 1690, shortly after the island was sold by Courland the previous year, the Couronian government permanently left Tobago, those who remained joined the buccaneers or other Anglo-Dutch colonies. Absentee governors would continue to be appointed until 1795, thereby facilitating the continued use of covert privateering Letters of Marque and Reprisal in the region.

The Courland Monument near Courland Bay commemorates the Duchy's settlements. A final Couronian attempt to e

Fin Bartels

Fin Bartels is a German professional footballer who plays for Werder Bremen in the Bundesliga, either as midfielder or as a striker. Bartels began his career at TSV Russee and played for SpVgg Eidertal Molfsee before joining Holstein Kiel in 2002. In 2005 Bartels moved up to Holstein Kiel II; that year he broke into the first team squad at Kiel, before joining Hansa Rostock of the Bundesliga in 2007. Bartels made his debut for Rostock against VfL Wolfsburg in a 3–1 defeat, he scored his first Bundesliga goal with a bicycle kick on 1 March 2008 against Arminia Bielefeld to tie the game late on. Bartels became an instant regular at St. Pauli, his first start came against Borussia Dortmund. However, the club was relegated from the Bundesliga having finished in last place, his strongest two seasons for St. Pauli were the 2012–13 season and 2013–14 season, in both of which he scored 7 league goals in the 2. Bundesliga. In January 2014, he announced his decision to not renew his St. Pauli contract but to leave the club for Werder Bremen.

Bartels signed a three-year contract with Werder Bremen. In his first season he was able to command a regular place in the team from matchday 3 onwards and made 29 league appearances scoring 4 goals. In the following 2015–16 season he played 30 matches taking his goal tally up to 8 on the right of the midfield. In July 2016, Bartels agreed to a contract extension until 2019. In December 2017, in a 2–1 win against Borussia Dortmund, Bartels tore his achilles tendon which required surgery. In March 2018, his contract was extended until 2020 after he and Werder Bremen decided to exercise such an option in his running contract. On 1 March 2019, following a long time out of action with complications during the headling process, it was announced he would play in two matches for the club's reserves before he would return to the first team squad, he scored in his first match with the reserves, a 1–1 draw away to SC Weiche Flensburg 08 on 3 March. In March, he made two substitute appearances for the first team, in a 4–2 win against Schalke 04 on matchday 25, in a 3–1 away win against Bayer Leverkusen.

He missed the rest of the season due to a muscle injury with manager Florian Kohfeldt expecting him to return in time for pre-season preparation in the summer. As of 4 February 2020 Fin Bartels at fussballdaten.de Fin Bartels at WorldFootball.net