In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, with two competing definitions. There is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis and this contrasts with consonants, such as the English sh, which have a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. In the other, phonological definition, a vowel is defined as syllabic, a phonetically equivalent but non-syllabic sound is a semivowel. In oral languages, phonetic vowels normally form the peak of many to all syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and coda. Some languages allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, the word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning vocal. In English, the vowel is commonly used to mean both vowel sounds and the written symbols that represent them. The phonetic definition of vowel does not always match the phonological definition, the approximants and illustrate this, both are produced without much of a constriction in the vocal tract, but they occur at the onset of syllables. A similar debate arises over whether a word like bird in a dialect has an r-colored vowel /ɝ/ or a syllabic consonant /ɹ̩/.
The American linguist Kenneth Pike suggested the terms vocoid for a vowel and vowel for a phonological vowel, so using this terminology. Nonetheless, the phonetic and phonemic definitions would still conflict for the syllabic el in table, or the syllabic nasals in button, daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height, tongue backness and roundedness. These three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right, there are additional features of vowel quality, such as the velum position, type of vocal fold vibration, and tongue root position. This conception of vowel articulation has been known to be inaccurate since 1928, Peter Ladefoged has said that early phoneticians. Thought they were describing the highest point of the tongue, and they were actually describing formant frequencies. The IPA Handbook concedes that the quadrilateral must be regarded as an abstraction. Vowel height is named for the position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw.
However, it refers to the first formant, abbreviated F1. Height is defined by the inverse of the F1 value, The higher the frequency of the first formant, however, if more precision is required, true-mid vowels may be written with a lowering diacritic. Although English contrasts six heights in its vowels, they are interdependent with differences in backness and it appears that some varieties of German have five contrasting vowel heights independently of length or other parameters
International Phonetic Association
The International Phonetic Association is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science. The IPA’s major contribution to phonetics is the International Phonetic Alphabet—a notational standard for the representation of all languages. The acronym IPA is used to refer to both the association and the alphabet, the IPA publishes the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. In addition, it arranges for the quadrennial International Congress of Phonetic Sciences through its affiliate, the group, led by Paul Passy, called itself initially Dhi Fonètik Tîcerz Asóciécon. The IPA’s early peak of membership and influence in education circles was around 1914, world War I and its aftermath severely disrupted the Associations activities, and the Journal did not resume regular publication until 1922. Since then, there have been several sets of changes to the Alphabet, the IPA has given examinations in phonetics since 1908, awarding Certificates of Proficiency in the phonetics of English, French, or German.
List of phonetics topics Language reform International Phonetic Association, handbook of the International Phonetic Association, A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet
History of the International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century. It was intended as a system of phonetic transcription for oral languages. The association was established in Paris in 1886 by French and British language teachers led by Paul Passy, the first published alphabet appears in Passy. The extIPA for speech disorders was created in 1991 and revised in 1997, many of the symbols derived from Sweets Revised Romic alphabet. Originally the symbols had different phonetic values from language to language, for example, ⟨c⟩ transcribed both English and French ch. However, over time it was decided to each symbol to a single pronunciation. They were, Each sign should have its own distinctive sound, the same sign should be used for the same sound across all languages. As many ordinary Roman letters should be used as possible, International usage should decide the sound of each sign. The look of the new letters should suggest the sound that they represent, diacritics should be avoided when possible, as they are difficult to write and hard to see.
Aside from these six guidelines, the association encouraged phonemic-style transcription, several of the new letters were created by turning ordinary Roman sorts upside-down when typesetting, ⟨ʎ ɥ ə ɔ⟩. This was a convenient way to create new symbols without having to cast special IPA type, during the 1890s, the alphabet was expanded to cover sounds of Arabic and other non-European languages which did not easily fit the Latin alphabet. These additions were published together in 1900, along with a few revisions, such as ⟨ɲ⟩ and ⟨ŋ⟩ for ⟨ɴ⟩, and ⟨ʃ⟩ for ⟨c⟩, for the first time the glyphs were organized into a chart according to their articulation. Vowels and consonants were placed in a chart, reflecting how sounds ranged in openness from stops to open vowels. As of 1908, Tense and lax vowels were distinguished with an acute vs grave accent, so English ⟨fíːt fìt⟩ feet, retroflex consonants were written ⟨ṭ ḍ ṣ ṇ⟩ etc. as in Indology, this applied to rhotic vowels, as in English ⟨ɑ̣⟩ ar. Arabic emphatic consonants were ⟨s̤ t̤⟩ etc, ⟨ɑ̃ ɛː r̬ r̥ kʼ ŭ n̩⟩ etc. had their modern values, though ejective affricates were written ⟨tʼs⟩, and voiceless vowels were ⟨u̦ i̦⟩ etc.
As today, a letter indicated a partial quality, as in ⟨ʃˢ⟩. This was extended to ⟨pᵇ tᵈ kᶢ⟩ etc. for tenuis consonants, palatal was written ⟨sⁱ⟩, as the ⟨ʲ⟩ convention was not yet pervasive. Tonal transcription was still provisional at this stage, and tended to vary from one language to another, a second round of expansion, along with a few reassigned letter values, occurred in 1932
Open-mid front rounded vowel
The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is an open-mid front-central rounded vowel, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨œ⟩. The symbol œ is a ligature of the letters o and e. Note that ⟨ɶ⟩, a small version of the ⟨Œ⟩ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound. The IPA prefers terms close and open for vowels, and the name of the article follows this, however, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms high and low. The open-mid front compressed vowel is transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨œ⟩. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɛ͡β̞⟩ or ⟨ɛᵝ⟩. The spread-lip diacritic ⟨ ͍ ⟩ may be used with a vowel letter ⟨œ͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol. Its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a vowel and a mid vowel.
Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant, note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front. Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense, catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels, one of these, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels. As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, another possible transcription is ⟨œʷ⟩ or ⟨ɛʷ⟩, but this could be misread as a diphthong. Acoustically, this sound is between the more typical compressed open-mid front vowel and the unrounded open-mid front vowel and its vowel height is open-mid, known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel and a mid vowel.
Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant, note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front. Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue, as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip, as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh. To disambiguate, the bridge may be used for a dental consonant, note that differs from dental in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. Differs from postalveolar in being unpalatalized, the bare letters, etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used, the letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called alveolar, and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.
Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows, The alveolar or dental consonants and are, along with, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore, colloquial Samoan, lacks both and, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant /l/. In Standard Hawaiian, is an allophone of /k/, but /l/, in labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages
In phonology, an allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language. For example, and are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language, the specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the phonetic context, but sometimes allophones occur in free variation. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme will usually not change the meaning of a word, the term allophone was coined by Benjamin Lee Whorf in the 1940s. In doing so, he placed a cornerstone in consolidating early phoneme theory, the term was popularized by G. L. Trager and Bernard Bloch in a 1941 paper on English phonology and went on to become part of standard usage within the American structuralist tradition. Every time a users speech is vocalized for a phoneme, it will be slightly different from other utterances. This has led to debate over how real, and how universal. Only some of the variation is significant to speakers, when a specific allophone must be selected in a given context, the allophones are said to be complementary.
In the case of complementary allophones, each allophone is used in a specific phonetic context, in other cases, the speaker is able to select freely from free variant allophones, based on personal habit or preference. Another example of an allophone is assimilation, wherein a phoneme is to more like the other phoneme. A tonic allophone is sometimes called an allotone, for example in the tone of Mandarin. Aspiration – strong explosion of breath, in English a voiceless plosive is aspirated whenever it stands as the consonant at the beginning of the stressed syllable or of the first, stressed or unstressed, syllable in a word. For example, as in pin and as in spin are allophones for the phoneme /p/ because they cannot distinguish words, English speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different, the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated. Many languages treat these two phones differently, see Aspirated consonant, section Usage patterns, nasal plosion – In English a plosive has nasal plosion when it is followed by a nasal, inside a word or across word boundary.
Partial devoicing of sonorants – In English sonorants are partially devoiced when they follow a voiceless sound within the same syllable, complete devoicing of sonorants – In English a sonorant is completely devoiced when it follows an aspirated plosive. Partial devoicing of obstruents – In English, an obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound. Retraction – in English /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/, because the choice of allophone is seldom under conscious control, people may not realize they exist. The difference can be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. For a Mandarin speaker, to whom /t/ and /tʰ/ are separate phonemes, Allophones of English /l/ may be noticed if the light of leaf is contrasted with the dark of feel
History of French
French is a Romance language that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance spoken in northern France. Before the Roman conquest of what is now France by Julius Caesar, much of present France was inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples referred to by the Romans as Gauls and Belgae. The Celtic population of Gaul had spoken Gaulish, which is well attested, with what appears to be wide dialectal variation including one distinctive variety. While the French language evolved from Vulgar Latin, it was influenced by Gaulish. Chief among these are sandhi phenomena, the loss of unstressed syllables, the sound changes /ps/ → /χs/ and /pt/ → /χt/ appears in a pottery inscription from la Graufesenque where the word paraxsidi is written for paropsides. These two changes sometimes had an effect in French, Latin capsa → *kaχsa → caisse or captīvus → *kaχtivus → Occ caitiu. In French and adjoining folk dialects and closely related languages, some 200 words of Gaulish origin have been retained, and loan translations, aveugle blind, from Latin ab oculis eyeless, calque of Gaulish exsops blind, literally eyeless.
The eventual spread of Latin can be attributed to social factors in the Late Empire such as the movement from urban-focused power to village-centered economies and legal serfdom. From the 3rd century on, Western Europe was invaded by Germanic tribes from the north and east, the Frankish language had a profound influence on the Latin spoken in their respective regions, altering both the pronunciation and the syntax. They introduced a number of new words, changes in lexicon/morphology/syntax, the name of the language itself, français, comes from Old French franceis/francesc from the Germanic frankisc french, frankish from Frank. The Franks referred to their land as Franko which became Francia in Latin in the 3rd century, the name Gaule was taken from the Frankish *Walholant. Several terms and expressions associated with their social structure, colors derived from Frankish and other Germanic languages. Merged with Old French fuers outside, beyond from Latin foris, Latin foris was not used as a prefix in Classical Latin, but shows up as a prefix in Medieval Latin following the Germanic invasions.
Prefix en-, em- was extended to fit new formations not previously found in Latin, influenced or calqued from Frankish *in- and *an-, usually with an intensive or perfective sense, emblaver, enhardir, enrichir, etc. The inversion of subject-verb to verb-subject to form the interrogative is characteristic of the Germanic languages but is not found in any of the major Romance languages, in Walloon, the order adjective + noun is the general rule, as in Old French and North Cotentin Norman. Several words calqued or modeled on corresponding terms in Germanic languages and this is the result of an earlier gap created between Latin and the new language, which was no longer mutually intelligible with it. This Germanic language shaped the popular Latin spoken here and gave it a distinctive identity compared to the other future Romance languages. Latin decima > F dîme, Vulgar Latin dignitate > OF deintié, otherwise two new phonemes that did not exist anymore in Vulgar Latin were added, and, e. g
Modern Greek refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. Varieties of Modern Greek include several varieties, including Demotic, Pontic, Mariupolitan, Southern Italian, Demotic Greek comprises various regional varieties with minor linguistic differences, mainly in phonology and vocabulary. Due to the degree of mutual intelligibility of these varieties, Greek linguists refer to them as idioms of a wider Demotic dialect. Most English-speaking linguists however refer to them as dialects, emphasising degrees of variation only when necessary, Demotic Greek varieties are divided into two main groups and Southern. The main distinguishing feature common to Northern variants is a set of standard phonological shifts in unaccented vowel phonemes, becomes and and are dropped. The dropped vowels existence is implicit, and may affect surrounding phonemes, for example, Southern variants do not exhibit these phonological shifts. Examples of Northern dialects are Rumelian, Thessalian, Thracian, Demotic Greek has officially been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982.
Polytonic script remains popular in intellectual circles, Katharevousa is a semi-artificial sociolect promoted in the 19th century at the foundation of the modern Greek state, as a compromise between Classical Greek and modern Demotic. It was the language of modern Greece until 1976. Katharevousa is written in polytonic Greek script, while Demotic Greek contains loanwords from Turkish, Italian and other languages, these have for the most part been purged from Katharevousa. It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region, Pontic evolved as a separate dialect from Demotic Greek as a result of the regions isolation from the Greek mainstream after the Fourth Crusade fragmented the Byzantine Empire into separate kingdoms. Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine, the Crimean Greek state continued to exist as the independent Greek Principality of Theodoro.
The Greek-speaking inhabitants of Crimea were invited by Catherine the Great to resettle in the new city of Mariupol after the Russo-Turkish War to escape the Muslim-dominated Crimea, mariupolitans main features have certain similarities with both Pontic and the northern varieties of the core dialects. Southern Italian or Italiot comprises both Calabrian and Griko varieties, spoken by around 15 villages in the regions of Calabria and Apulia, the Southern Italian dialect is the last living trace of Hellenic elements in Southern Italy that once formed Magna Graecia. Its origins can be traced to the Dorian Greek settlers who colonised the area from Sparta and Demotic are mutually intelligible to some extent, but the former shares some common characteristics with Tsakonian. Yevanic is an extinct language of Romaniote Jews. The language was already in decline for centuries until most of its speakers were killed in the Holocaust, the language was mostly kept by remaining Romaniote emigrants to Israel, where it was displaced by modern Hebrew.
Tsakonian evolved directly from Laconian and therefore descends from the Doric branch of the Greek language and it has limited input from Hellenistic Koine and is significantly different from and not mutually intelligible with other Greek varieties
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Case variants of IPA letters
With the adoption of letters from the International Phonetic Alphabet in various national alphabets, letter case forms have been developed. This usually means capital forms were developed, but in the case of the glottal stop ʔ, the adoption of IPA letters has been particularly notable in Sub-Saharan Africa, in languages such as Hausa, Akan, Gbe languages, Manding languages, and Lingala. The most common are open o ⟨Ɔ ɔ⟩, open e ⟨Ɛ ɛ⟩, and eng ⟨Ŋ ŋ⟩, but several others are found. Kabiyé of northern Togo, for example, has ⟨Ɔ ɔ, Ɛ ɛ, Ɖ ɖ, Ŋ ŋ, Ɣ ɣ, Ʃ ʃ, Ʊ ʊ⟩, as in this newspaper headline, MBƱ AJƐYA KIGBƐNDƱƱ ŊGBƐYƐ KEDIƔZAƔ SƆSƆƆ TƆM SE. Some of the IPA letters that were adopted into language orthographies have since become obsolete in the IPA itself, others letters are the graphic equivalent of IPA capitals, but are not identified with the IPA. Examples are ɟ Ɉ, ʎ , ɹ ꓤ