Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
Fiesta Alegre fronton
The Fiesta Alegre fronton was a fronton located on the intersection of the streets Marqués de Urquijo and Juan Álvarez Mendizabal, in the Argüelles area, in Madrid, Spain. The Madrilenian Fiesta Alegre fronton was designed by the architect Francisco Andrés Octavio Palacios and opened to the public in 1892, it had a 70-meters track and capacity to host 3,500 spectators, an important volume for the time
Basque pelota is the name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using one's hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket, against a wall or, more traditionally, with two teams face to face separated by a line on the ground or a net. The roots of this class of games can be traced to the other ancient cultures; the term pelota comes from the Vulgar Latin term pilotta. It is a diminutive form of the word pila which may relate to a hard linen or leather ball filled with pilus or to the Latin words for strike or spade and is related to the English word pellet. Today, Basque pelota is played in several countries. In Europe, this sport is concentrated in Spain and France in the Basque Country; the sport is played in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile and Cuba. Operated as a gaming enterprise called Jai Alai, it is seen in parts of the U. S. such as Florida, Connecticut and Rhode Island. In Valencia, Valencian pilota is considered the national sport. Since its creation, the International Federation of Basque Pelota has standardised the different varieties into four modalities and fourteen disciplines, with fixed ball weights and court sizes.
The four modalities—30 metres wall, 36 metres wall, 54 metres wall and trinquete—admit fourteen disciplines, depending the use of bare hand, leather ball, rubber ball, paleta and xare. Two of the fourteen disciplines are played by both women; this allows championship play at the international level, allows the participation of players and teams from around the world using the same rules. There is, criticism about this, since purists might argue that some of the original traits of each particular modality could be lost. With protection, accidents do happen. With the ball travelling at 200 kilometres per hour, pelota can kill if safety equipment is not used properly or at all; the origin of this sport is tied to the decline of the ancient jeu de paume, ca. 1700. While the game evolved to the modern jeu de paume and to tennis, rural Alpine and Pyrenean communities kept the tradition. In the Basque Country the "pasaka" and "laxoa", local versions of the paume evolved to the peculiar style of the pilota: instead of playing face to face, with a net in the midfield, the Basques began to fling the ball against a wall.
According to the Basque pilota historian Chipitey Etcheto, the first recorded matches took place in Napoleonic times. The mid-19th century saw the explosion of the "pelota craze"; the player "Gantxiki" is considered the original "father" of the chistera, the basket-shaped racquet that can propel the ball at incredible speeds, introduced around 1850. The top champions of the end of the 19th century, such as "Chiquito de Cambo", were immensely popular and the best-paid sportsmen of their time; the first official competitions were organized in the 1920s and led to the world championship in the 1950s. In 1924, the United States built its first fronton, in Miami. Jai-Alai is used for betting. During the'80s and'90s, Jai-Alai was popular in Miami and Florida, where the frontons had press boxes and restaurants and going to the Jai-Alai was seen to be a privilege. Men came in suits and women came in elaborate dresses for the "special event". Nowadays, Jai-Alai has dropped in popularity. Instead of thousands of people who came to watch, now there are a couple hundred.
Pelota is played in the Basque regions of south-western France and north-eastern Spain, where it originates. There are federations of Basque ball in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, United States, Netherlands, Sweden and Greece. Due to the origin of the game, there are many good players who are Basques, either natives or from the Basque diaspora. Basque pelota was an official Olympic sport once, in the 1900 Paris Games, a demonstration sport in 1924, 1968 and 1992. See Basque pelota at the 1900 Summer Olympics. In the 1900 Paris Games there were only two teams competing and Spain; the Spanish team: Amezola and Villota, beat the French team: Maurice Durquetty and Etchegaray by an unknown score. Basque pelota is played in a two walled court; as seen in the picture, there are courts with one wall, a modality prevailing on the French side of the Basque Country, some spots of Navarre or at the exceptional court of Zubieta in province Gipuzkoa.
Yet they are not recognized by the International Federation of Basque Pelota for international tournaments, reserved to joko-garbia and open-air grand chistera games. The trinquet is a court in Pelota where there is a front wall, a glass wall on the right and a wall on the left that has a dugout built into it and lastly a wall at the back. Where the right wall and the front wall meet there is small 45 degree wall; the trinquet is 28.50 meters long and 9.30 meters wide. The mur a gauche is French for'wall on the left' which it is, as represented in the diagram below where there is a front wall called a frontis, a left wall and a back
The International fronton is an indirect style ball game created to bring together some varieties, to be played in the Handball International Championships. It is known as One Wall Handball. International fronton takes back its courtfield to the most basic version of the indirect style: One wall where the ball must bounce; this only wall, the fronton, is 4,90 m high. From the left and right corners two lines are drawn on the ground, 10,60m long, that mark the place into which the ball may bounce, this is the courtfield. There must be some free space out the courtfield for the players to play balls that are risking to bounce twice. At 4,90 m from the fronton wall there is a line on the fault line; the serving player must throw the ball before that line, the ball must surpass it after bouncing on the fronton. At 10,60m from the fronton there is another line on the ground, the back line, which the ball may not bounce from. In agreement with American handball there is no left or back wall, the ball may bounce on the lines, specially, there is no line on the fronton for the ball to ball over.
The International fronton ball is a synthetic one, without any default colour. Diameter: 4,80 cm, weight: 65gr. Two players or four players play to score points. Players strike the ball with the hand so that it bounces on the fronton and falls into the courtfield. Whoever fails to do so commits a fault and so loses a point the opponent serves. A fault is committed if: The player hits the ball with any other part of the body but the hand, The ball doesn't bounce on the fronton, The ball's first bounce on the ground is out the courtfield, The player strikes the ball after a second bounce on the ground. Handball International Championships American handball Basque pelota Gaelic handball Pêl-Law Valencian fronto Muurkaatsen, 1-wall
Asegarce is a Basque event production and deportive license company devoted to Basque pelota. Through the Bainet company, it has made audiovisual productions, it was established in 1992 among others. Its creation was revolutionary for Basque pelota, giving it a professional structure, starting the TV transmission of the sport in the Basque Country, La Rioja and Castilla y León. In 1993 it took the lead of Eusko – Basque, that had until exclusive rights on professional jai alai. So, together with the rights it had achieved before, Asegarce had exclusive rights on the categories of hand-pelota and jai alai. Official website of Asegarce
Jai alai is a sport involving a ball bounced off a walled space by accelerating it to high speeds with a hand-held device. It is a variation of Basque pelota; the term, coined by Serafin Baroja in 1875, is often loosely applied to the fronton where the sport is played. The game is called "zesta-punta" in Basque; the court for jai alai consists of walls on the front and left, the floor between them. If the ball touches the floor outside these walls, it is considered out of bounds. There is a border on the lower 3 feet of the front wall, out of bounds; the ceiling on the court is very high, so the ball has a more predictable path. The court is divided by 14 parallel lines going horizontally across the court, with line 1 closest to the front wall and line 14 the back wall. In doubles, each team consists of a backcourt player; the game begins. The winner of each point stays on the court to meet the next team in rotation. Losers go to the end of the line to await another turn on the court; the first team to score 7 points wins.
The next highest scores are awarded "show" positions, respectively. Playoffs decide tied scores. A jai alai game is played in round robin format between eight teams of two players each or eight single players; the first team to score 7 or 9 points wins the game. Two of the eight teams are in the court for each point; the server on one team must bounce the ball behind the serving line with the cesta "basket" hurl it towards the front wall so it bounces from there to between lines 4 and 7 on the floor. The ball is in play; the ball used in jai alai consists of metal strands wound together and wrapped in goat skin. Teams alternate catching the ball in their cesta and throwing it "in one fluid motion" without holding or juggling it; the ball must be caught either after bouncing once on the floor. A team scores a point if an opposing player: fails to serve the ball directly to the front wall so that upon rebound it will bounce between lines No. 4 and 7. If it does not, it is the other team will receive the point.
Fails to catch the ball on the fly or after one bounce holds or juggles the ball hurls the ball out of bounds interferes with a player attempting to catch and hurl the ballThe team scoring a point remains in the court and the opposing team rotates off the court to the end of the list of opponents. Points double after the first round of play, once each team has played at least one point; the players attempt a "chula" shot, where the ball is played off the front wall high reaches the bottom of the back wall by the end of its arc. The bounce off the bottom of the back wall can be low, the ball is difficult to return in this situation. Since there is no wall on the right side, all jai alai players must play right-handed, as the spin of a left-handed hurl would send the ball toward the open right side; the Basque Government promotes jai alai as "the fastest sport in the world" because of the speed of the ball. The sport once held the world record for ball speed with a 125–140 g ball covered with goatskin that traveled at 302 km/h, performed by José Ramón Areitio at the Newport Rhode Island Jai Alai, until it was broken by Canadian 5-time long drive champion Jason Zuback on a 2007 episode of Sport Science with a golf ball speed of 328 km/h.
The sport can be dangerous. It has led to injuries that caused players to retire and fatalities have been recorded in some cases. Jai alai is a popular sport within the Latin American countries and the Philippines from its Hispanic influence, it was one of the two gambling sports from Europe, the other being horse racing, in the semi-colonial Chinese cities of Shanghai and Tianjin, was shut down after the communist victory there. The jai alai arena in Tianjin's former Italian Concession was confiscated and turned into a recreation center for the city's working class. Jai alai was played in Manila at the Manila Jai Alai Building, one of the most significant Art Deco buildings in Asia, torn down in 2000 by the Manila city government. In 1986, jai alai was banned in the Philippines because of problems with game fixing. However, jai alai returned to the Philippines in March 2010. In 2011, jai-alai was shut down in the province of Pangasinan because of its connection to illegal jueteng gambling but was reopened after a court order.
In the United States, jai alai enjoyed some popularity as a gambling alternative to horse racing, greyhound racing, harness racing, remains popular in Florida, where the game is used as a basis for Parimutuel betting at six frontons throughout the state: Dania Beach, Fort Pierce, Casselberry and Reddick. The first jai alai fronton in the United States was located in St. Louis, operating around the time of the 1904 World's Fair; the first fronton in Florida opened at the site of Hialeah Race Course near Miami. The fronton was relocated to its present site in Miami near Miami International Airport. Year-round jai alai operations include Dania Jai Alai. Seasonal facilities are Ocala Jai Alai and Hamilton Jai Alai; the Tampa Jai Alai operated for many years before closing in the late 1990s. Inactive jai alai permits are located in Tampa, Daytona B