BitTorrent, Inc. headquartered in San Francisco, California, is a held American company, responsible for the ongoing development of the BitTorrent peer-to-peer protocol, as well as the ongoing development of µTorrent and BitTorrent Mainline, two clients for that protocol. Files transferred using the BitTorrent protocol constitute a significant slice of all Internet traffic. At its peak, 170 million people used the protocol every month, according to the company’s website; the company was founded on September 2004 by Bram Cohen and Ashwin Navin. Bram Cohen left the company in 2018 BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer computer program developed by Bram Cohen and BitTorrent, Inc., used for uploading and downloading files via the BitTorrent protocol. BitTorrent was the first client written for the protocol, it is nicknamed Mainline by developers, denoting its official origins. Since version 6.0, the BitTorrent client has been a rebranded version of µTorrent. As a result, it is no longer open source and is available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. µTorrent is a freeware, closed source BitTorrent client owned by BitTorrent, Inc.
It is the most used BitTorrent client outside China. It is available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. A µTorrent Server is available for Linux. All versions are written in C++. On December 7, 2006, µTorrent was purchased by BitTorrent, Inc. as it was announced on their official forum. Pro is the name received by advanced versions branded Plus, of BitTorrent and μTorrent are premium versions of the Windows software with additional features that are downloaded and installed when the user upgrades for $19.95 USD. Pre-sales for Plus were announced November 29, 2011 and the upgrade became available December 8, 2011; when a user upgrades to the Pro version of BitTorrent or μTorrent they enable the following features: Anti-virus protection for acquired.torrent files Integrated HD media player Transcoding capability with media codecs Streaming playback while torrent is downloading BitTorrent Sync is a peer-to-peer file synchronization tool running on Windows and Linux. It can sync files between computers between remote users over the Internet.
The BitTorrent Sync pre-Alpha program, announced in January 2013, was opened to general users on April 23, 2013. On November 23, 2013, BitTorrent announced the release of version 1.2 of the client along with a beta version of the BitTorrent Sync API. On June 1, 2016, product and team were spun out of BitTorrent Inc. as an independent company, Resilio Inc. which will continue development of the product under the name Resilio Sync. The company has released "Bundles" with artists such as Linkin Park, Public Enemy, Madonna; the Madonna Bundle, entitled secretprojectrevolution, was released on September 24, 2013 and consisted of the 17-minute film of the same name, stills from the film, an option for those users who submit their email addresses and make a donation that includes HD and 2K versions of the film, a VICE interview, a message from Madonna. On September 17, 2013, the company launched "BitTorrent Bundles for Publishers", an alpha program for content creators to distribute bundles of any size and file type using the BitTorrent client.
The first released bundle was the fantasy feature film "Overturn: Awakening of the Warrior" starring Ukrainian Vietnamese actor Ivan DoanOn September 26, 2014, Thom Yorke released his album Tomorrow's Modern Boxes as the first paid Bundle, priced at $6.00 USD. On October 3, 2014, it was announced that the project had been downloaded over 1 million times, which included the free single and video plus the paid downloads. On October 28, 2014, Alice in Chains released their music video for "Phantom Limb" via BitTorrent Bundle for free streaming and download; the bundle included the video treatment and the shot list in PDF, as well as access to the band's merch. BitTorrent, Inc. offers BitTorrent DNA, a free content delivery service based on the BitTorrent protocol that allows content providers to distribute their content using the bandwidth of their users. On January 5, 2012, SoShare was released in alpha as "Share" within the μTorrent client, as a standalone desktop client and as a plug-in based web client.
On February 15, 2013, the SoShare beta was launched and repositioned as a user-friendly web application that uses the BitTorrent protocol, designed for creative industry professionals to share high-res photos and videos using the app's email system or public links. From the official website, the service messages that registered users can send file bundles containing up to one terabyte of data per send, free. BitTorrent Live was first announced in September 2011, was first publicly tested on October 14, 2011. BitTorrent premiered Live in public beta in March 2013; the platform was used to showcase live streaming events of DJs. It was shut down in 2017. In March 2019 it was announced that BitTorrent Live is going to return in the form of Snapchat-like social media app for Android and iOS. A live streaming news network based on BitTorrent Live that launched at the 2016 Republican National Convention. BitTorrent Bleep was a multi-platform, peer-to-peer, serverless chat client available free on Windows, Android and iOS.
Bleep was never discontinued, but as of August 2017 the website no longer exists, the Windows application is no longer available to download from their website, or on the Google Play store, the Bleep Blog hasn't been updated since August 2015, the Bleep forums no longer have any active moderators participating. On December 10, 2014, BitTorrent announced Projec
Ashwin Navin is an Indian-American entrepreneur, the CEO and co-founder of Samba TV, a data and analytics service that measures television viewership using data from Internet-connected devices and set-top boxes. The company has been compared to more traditional TV measurement firms like Nielsen which rely on the people meter to gather viewership data. Prior to Samba TV, Navin was the co-founder of BitTorrent, Inc.. He joined Bram Cohen, the inventor of BitTorrent, in 2004 and handled business and company-related matters while Cohen focused on engineering and product development. According to a post on his blog], Navin has resigned from BitTorrent in order to focus on his new venture Samba TV, his new venture capital fund i/o Ventures. Navin evaluated Cohen's invention for Yahoo! in 2004. Although it was a notable development for the Internet, BitTorrent was considered to be the bane of the film industry, because it made the cost of transferring large files, including unlicensed film copies, negligible to the end user.
Navin is a 1999 graduate of Claremont McKenna College with a dual B. A. in Government and Economics. Before BitTorrent, he was employed at Yahoo! from 2002 to 2004 in its Corporate Development group which handled corporate strategy and acquisitions. Before Yahoo!, Navin worked on Wall Street with Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch both as an investment banker and research analyst. In 2000, Navin helped start a technology-based financial services company called Epoch Partners. Epoch was the investment banking arm of several online stock brokerages including Charles Schwab, TD Waterhouse. Epoch Partners was acquired by Goldman Sachs in 2001. Cohen entrusted Navin with the responsibility of crafting a business model for BitTorrent with hopes of bringing BitTorrent out of the fringes and into the mainstream. Navin has assumed the public face of the company as an evangelist for its commercial viability. In 2007, Navin launched 3 commercial products: the BitTorrent Entertainment Network in February, the BitTorrent SDK in June, BitTorrent DNA in October.
As the foundation for these products, in 2006 Navin acquired uTorrent, the largest Torrent client in the world, outside China. To catalyze BitTorrent's commercialization, Navin began by engaging movie industry executives directly. Although predicted by many to be unlikely, BitTorrent has struck relationships with many major media companies including Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, MTV, Kadokawa Pictures, some others. Beyond copyright issues, BitTorrent faced struggles with Cable companies and ISPs which were overwhelmed with high volumes of P2P traffic on their networks. In the wake of FCC hearings that pitted Comcast and BitTorrent against each other for traffic management policies that inhibited P2P file transfers, Navin was responsible for striking a deal with Comcast that resolved the companies' differences and defused a contested issue at in the Network Neutrality debate. NPR's All Things Considered interviews Ashwin Navin Podcast with Navin's views on the Download business and DRM Podcast with Navin's views on BitTorrent in China Navin addressing the deal his company negotiated with Comcast
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Java (software platform)
Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. Java applets, which are less common than standalone Java applications, were run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications through being embedded in HTML pages. It's still possible to run Java in web browsers after most of them having dropped support for Java's VM. Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as byte code in a Java virtual machine. In addition, several languages have been designed to run natively on the JVM, including Clojure and Scala. Java syntax borrows from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk and Objective-C.
Java eschews certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a simple memory model where objects are allocated on the heap and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM. On November 13, 2006, Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License; the latest version is Java 11, released on September 25, 2018. Java 11 is a supported long-term support version. Oracle "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java", because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues. Since Java 9 is no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to Java 11. Extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018; the Java platform is a suite of programs that facilitate developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. A Java platform will include a compiler and a set of libraries. Java is not specific to any processor or operating system as Java platforms have been implemented for a wide variety of hardware and operating systems with a view to enable Java programs to run identically on all of them.
Different platforms target different classes of device and application domains: Java Card: A technology that allows small Java-based applications to be run securely on smart cards and similar small-memory devices. Java ME: Specifies several different sets of libraries for devices with limited storage and power capacities, it is used to develop applications for mobile devices, PDAs, TV set-top boxes, printers. Java SE: For general-purpose use on desktop PCs, servers and similar devices. Java EE: Java SE plus various APIs which are useful for multi-tier client–server enterprise applications; the Java platform consists of several programs, each of which provides a portion of its overall capabilities. For example, the Java compiler, which converts Java source code into Java bytecode, is provided as part of the Java Development Kit; the Java Runtime Environment, complementing the JVM with a just-in-time compiler, converts intermediate bytecode into native machine code on the fly. The Java platform includes an extensive set of libraries.
The essential components in the platform are the Java language compiler, the libraries, the runtime environment in which Java intermediate bytecode executes according to the rules laid out in the virtual machine specification. The heart of the Java platform is the concept of a "virtual machine" that executes Java bytecode programs; this bytecode is the same no matter what operating system the program is running under. However, new versions, such as for Java 10, have made small changes, meaning the bytecode is in general only forward compatible. There is a JIT compiler within the Java Virtual Machine, or JVM; the JIT compiler translates the Java bytecode into native processor instructions at run-time and caches the native code in memory during execution. The use of bytecode as an intermediate language permits Java programs to run on any platform that has a virtual machine available; the use of a JIT compiler means that Java applications, after a short delay during loading and once they have "warmed up" by being all or JIT-compiled, tend to run about as fast as native programs.
Since JRE version 1.2, Sun's JVM implementation has included a just-in-time compiler instead of an interpreter. Although Java programs are cross-platform or platform independent, the code of the Java Virtual Machines that execute these programs is not; every supported operating platform has its own JVM. In most modern operating systems, a large body of reusable code is provided to simplify the programmer's job; this code is provided as a set of dynamically loadable libraries that applications can call at runtime. Because the Java platform is not dependent on any specific operatin
Gnutella is a large peer-to-peer network. It was the first decentralized peer-to-peer network of its kind, leading to other networks adopting the model, it celebrated a decade of existence on March 14, 2010, has a user base in the millions for peer-to-peer file sharing. In June 2005, Gnutella's population was 1.81 million computers increasing to over three million nodes by January 2006. In late 2007, it was the most popular file-sharing network on the Internet with an estimated market share of more than 40%; the first client from which the network got its name was developed by Justin Frankel and Tom Pepper of Nullsoft in early 2000, soon after the company's acquisition by AOL. On March 14, the program was made available for download on Nullsoft's servers; the event was prematurely announced on Slashdot, thousands downloaded the program that day. The source code was to be released under the GNU General Public License; the next day, AOL stopped the availability of the program over legal concerns and restrained Nullsoft from doing any further work on the project.
This did not stop Gnutella. This parallel development of different clients by different groups remains the modus operandi of Gnutella development today. Among the first independent Gnutella pioneers were Gene Kan and Spencer Kimball, they launched the first portal aimed to assemble the open-source community to work on Gnutella, developed "GNUbile", one of the first open-source programs to implement the Gnutella protocol; the Gnutella network is a distributed alternative to such semi-centralized systems as FastTrack and the original Napster. The initial popularity of the network was spurred on by Napster's threatened legal demise in early 2001; this growing surge in popularity revealed the limits of the initial protocol's scalability. In early 2001, variations on the protocol allowed an improvement in scalability. Instead of treating every user as client and server, some users were now treated as ultrapeers, routing search requests and responses for users connected to them; this allowed the network to grow in popularity.
In late 2001, the Gnutella client LimeWire Basic became open source. In February 2002, Morpheus, a commercial file sharing group, abandoned its FastTrack-based peer-to-peer software and released a new client based on the free and open source Gnutella client Gnucleus; the word Gnutella today refers not to any one project or piece of software, but to the open protocol used by the various clients. The name is a portmanteau of GNU and Nutella, the brand name of an Italian hazelnut flavored spread: Frankel and Pepper ate a lot of Nutella working on the original project, intended to license their finished program under the GNU General Public License. Gnutella is not associated with GNU's own peer-to-peer network, GNUnet. On October 26, 2010, the popular Gnutella client LimeWire was ordered shut down by Judge Kimba Wood of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York when she signed a Consent Decree to which recording industry plaintiffs and LimeWire had agreed; this event was the cause of a notable drop in the size of the network, while negotiating the injunction, LimeWire staff had inserted remote-disabling code into the software.
As the injunction came into force, users who had installed affected versions were cut off from the P2P network. Since LimeWire was free software, nothing had prevented the creation of forks that omitted the disabling code, as long as LimeWire trademarks were not used; the shutdown did not affect, for example, FrostWire, a fork of LimeWire created in 2004 that carries neither the remote-disabling code nor adware. On November 9, 2010, LimeWire was resurrected by a secret team of developers and named LimeWire Pirate Edition, it was based on LimeWire 5.6 BETA. This version had its server dependencies removed and all the PRO features enabled for free. To envision how Gnutella worked, imagine a large circle of users, each of whom has Gnutella client software. On initial startup, the client software must find at least one other node. Various methods have been used for this, including a pre-existing address list of working nodes shipped with the software, using updated web caches of known nodes, UDP host caches and even IRC.
Once connected, the client requests a list of working addresses. The client tries to connect to the nodes it was shipped with, as well as nodes it receives from other clients until it reaches a certain quota, it connects to only that many nodes, locally caching the addresses it has not yet tried and discards the addresses it tried that were invalid. When the user wants to do a search, the client sends the request to each connected node. In version 0.4 of the protocol, the number of connected nodes for a client was quite small, so each node forwarded the request to all its connected nodes, they, in turn, forwarded the request, so on, until the packet reached a predetermined number of hops from the sender. Since version 0.6, Gnutella is a composite network made of leaf nodes and ultra nodes. The leaf nodes are connected to a small number of ultrapeers while each ultrapeer is connected to more than 32 other ultrapeers. With this higher outdegree, the maxi
The Invisible Internet Project is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by encrypting the user's traffic, sending it through a volunteer-run network of 55,000 computers distributed around the world. Given the high number of possible paths the traffic can transit, a third party watching a full connection is unlikely; the software that implements this layer is called an "I2P router", a computer running I2P is called an "I2P node". I2P is free and open source, is published under multiple licenses. I2P is beta software since 2003; the software's developers emphasize that there are to be bugs in the beta version and that there has been insufficient peer review to date. However, they believe the code is now reasonably stable and well-developed, more exposure can help development of I2P; the network itself is message-based, but there is a library available to allow reliable streaming communication on top of it. All communication is end-to-end encrypted through garlic routing, the end points are cryptographic identifiers, so that neither sender nor recipient of a message need to reveal their IP address to the other side or to third-party observers.
Although many developers had been a part of the Invisible IRC Project and Freenet communities, there are significant differences between their designs and concepts. IIP was an anonymous centralized IRC server. Freenet is a censorship-resistant distributed data store. I2P is an anonymous peer-to-peer distributed communication layer designed to run any traditional internet service, as well as more traditional distributed applications. Many developers of I2P are known only under pseudonyms. While the previous main developer, jrandom, is on hiatus, such as zzz and Complication have continued to lead development efforts, are assisted by numerous contributors. I2P uses 2048bit ElGamal/AES256/SHA256+Session Tags encryption and Ed25519 EdDSA/ECDSA signatures. I2P has had a stable release every six to eight weeks. Updates are signed by the release manager. Since I2P is an anonymous network layer, it is designed so other software can use it for anonymous communication; as such, there are a variety of tools available for I2P or in development.
The I2P router is controlled through the router console, a web frontend accessed through a web browser. I2PTunnel is an application embedded into I2P that allows arbitrary TCP/IP applications to communicate over I2P by setting up "tunnels" which can be accessed by connecting to pre-determined ports on localhost. SAM is a protocol which allows a client application written in any programming language to communicate over I2P, by using a socket-based interface to the I2P router. BOB is a less complex app to router protocol similar to "SAM" Orchid Outproxy Tor plugin Any IRC client made for the Internet Relay Chat can work, once connected to the I2P IRC server. Several programs provide BitTorrent functionality for use within the I2P network. Users cannot connect to non-I2P torrents or peers from within I2P, nor can they connect to I2P torrents or peers from outside I2P. I2PSnark, included in the I2P install package, is a port of the BitTorrent client named Snark. Vuze known as Azureus, is a BitTorrent client that includes a plugin for I2P, allowing anonymous swarming through this network.
This plugin is still in an early stage of development, however it is fairly stable. I2P-BT is a BitTorrent client for I2P; this client is a modified version of the original BitTorrent 3.4.2 program which runs on MS Windows and most dialects of Unix in a GUI and command-line environment. It was developed by the individual known as'duck' on I2P in cooperation with'smeghead', it is no longer being developed. I2PRufus is an I2P port of the Rufus BitTorrent client. Robert is the most maintained I2PRufus fork. XD is a standalone BitTorrent client written in Go. Two Kad network clients exist for iMule and Nachtblitz. IMule is a port of eMule for I2P network. IMule has not been developed since 2013. IMule is made for anonymous file sharing. In contrast to other eDonkey clients, iMule only uses the Kademlia for proceeding to connect through I2P network, so no servers are needed. Nachtblitz is a custom client built on the. NET Framework; the latest version is 1.4.27, released on March 23, 2016. Nachtblitz includes.
I2Phex is a port of the popular Gnutella client Phex to I2P. It is stable and functional. A port of Tahoe-LAFS has been ported to I2P; this allows for files to be anonymously stored in Tahoe-LAFS grids. Vuze is the only torrent client that make clearnet torrents available on I2P and vice versa, by using a plugin that connects them to the I2P network. Depending on the client settings, torrents from the internet can be made available on I2P and torrents from I2P can be made available to the intern
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s