Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. Birds, which are cladistically included within Reptilia, are traditionally excluded here. Thus, the definition of herpetology can be more stated as the study of ectothermic tetrapods. Under this definition "herps" exclude fish, but it is not uncommon for herpetological and ichthyological scientific societies to "team up", publishing joint journals and holding conferences in order to foster the exchange of ideas between the fields, as the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists does. Many herpetological societies have been formed to promote interest in reptiles and amphibians, both captive and wild. Herpetology offers benefits to humanity in the study of the role of amphibians and reptiles in global ecology because amphibians are very sensitive to environmental changes, offering a visible warning to humans that significant changes are taking place; some toxins and venoms produced by reptiles and amphibians are useful in human medicine.
Some snake venom has been used to create anti-coagulants that work to treat strokes and heart attacks. The word "herpetology" is from Greek: ἑρπετόν, herpeton, "creeping animal" and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge". People with an avid interest in herpetology and who keep different reptiles or amphibians refer to themselves as "herpers"."Herp" is a vernacular term for non-avian reptiles and amphibians. It is derived from the old term "herpetile", with roots back to Linnaeus's classification of animals, in which he grouped reptiles and amphibians together in the same class. There are over 9000 species of reptiles. In spite of its modern taxonomic irrelevance, the term has persisted in the names of herpetology, the scientific study of non-avian reptiles and amphibians, herpetoculture, the captive care and breeding of reptiles and amphibians; the field of herpetology amphibians. Batrachology, the study of amphibians in particular Ophiology, the study of snakes. Saurology, the study of lizards. Cheloniology, the study of turtles and tortoises.
Career options in the field of herpetology include, but are not limited to lab research, field studies and survey, zoological staff, museum staff and college teaching. In modern academic science, it is rare for individuals to consider themselves a herpetologist first and foremost. Most individuals focus on a particular field such as ecology, taxonomy, physiology, or molecular biology, within that field ask questions pertaining to or best answered by examining reptiles and amphibians. For example, an evolutionary biologist, a herpetologist may choose to work on an issue such as the evolution of warning coloration in coral snakes. Modern herpetological writers include Philip Purser. Modern herpetological showmen include Jeff Corwin, Steve Irwin, popularly known as the "Crocodile Hunter", the star Austin Stevens, popularly known as "AustinSnakeman" in the TV series Austin Stevens: Snakemaster. Most colleges or universities do not offer a major in herpetology at the undergraduate or the graduate level.
Instead, persons interested in herpetology select a major in the biological sciences. The knowledge learned about all aspects of the biology of animals is applied to an individual study of herpetology. Herping List of herpetologists List of herpetology academic journals Adler, Kraig. Contributions to the History of Herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Eatherley, Dan. Bushmaster: Raymond Ditmars and the Hunt for the World's Largest Viper. New York: Arcade. 320 pp. ISBN 978-1628725117. Goin, Coleman J.. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company. Xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. Iranian Herpetological Studies Institute Field Herpetology Guide American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Herpetological Conservation and Biology Societas Europaea Herpetologica Distribution Maps for European Reptiles and Amphibians Center for North American Herpetology over 500 species of reptiles and amphibians European Field Herping Community New Zealand Herpetology Chicago Herpetological Society Biology of the Reptilia is an online copy of the full text of a 22-volume 13,000-page summary of the state of research of reptiles.
HerpMapper is a database of reptile and amphibian sightings Amphibian and Reptile Atlas of Peninsular California, San Diego Natural History Museum A Primer on Reptiles and Amphibians
Flatwoods, pine savannas and longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem are terms that refer to an ecological community in the Southeastern coastal plain of North America. Flatwoods are an ecosystem maintained by wildfire or prescribed fire and are dominated by longleaf pine, slash pine in the tree canopy and saw palmetto and other flammable evergreen shrubs in the understory, along with a high diversity of herb species, it was once one of the dominant ecosystem types of southeastern North America. Although grasses and pines are characteristic of this system, the precise composition changes from west to east, that is, from Texas to Florida. In Louisiana, savannas differ between the east and west side of the Mississippi River; the key factor maintaining this habitat type is recurring fire. Without fire, the habitat is invaded by other species of woody plants. A number of rare and endangered animals are typical of this habitat including red-cockaded woodpeckers, gopher tortoises, frosted flatwoods salamanders, striped newts.
Many rare and usual herbaceous plants are found here orchids and carnivorous plants. A second key factor is moisture. Overall, wet pine savannas have more species than pine savannas, the distribution of each species within a savanna is intimately connected with soil moisture regimes. Temporary ponds, seepage areas, are therefore a critical control on plant species composition. Orchids and pitcher plants, for example, are associated with wetter locations, but these wetter locations burn during dry periods, allowing regeneration of species of pitcher plant and sundew. Pineywoods are characterized by low basal area and large spaced mature pine; the flatwoods were dominated by longleaf pine, which can live to be 500 years old. Large scale overharvesting in conjunction with detrimental silvicultural practices like replacement with faster growing loblolly pine has drastically reduced the range of the longleaf pine ecosystem. Longleaf requires frequent fires, ideally every 1–3 years, which prevent invasion of the habitat by other tree species.
Decades of fire exclusion in the Southeast have contributed to the decline of this community type. However, with the restoration of fire, natural flooding regimes, it is possible to restore small areas of habitat, with concerted effort, several large wilderness areas could still be restored east of the Mississippi River; some of the largest remaining areas of this habitat type are found in De Soto National Forest, Eglin Air Force Base, Apalachicola National Forest. South Florida pine flatwoods Wet Flatwoods in Florida Accessed 21 May 2012
Eastern savannas of the United States
The eastern savannas of the United States covered large portions of the southeast side of the continent until the early 20th century. These were in a fire ecology of open grassland and forests with low ground cover of herbs and grasses; the frequent fires which maintained the savannas were started by the region's many thunderstorms and Native Americans, with most fires burning the forest understory and not affecting the mature trees above. Before the arrival of humans about 15,000 years ago, lightning would have been the major source of ignition, the region having the most frequent wind and lightning storms in North America; the European settlers who displaced the natives blended the local use of fire with their customary use of fire as pastoral herdsmen in the British Isles and France. In the southern pine savanna, each area burned about every 1–4 years. In oak -- hickory areas, estimates range from 3 to 14 years. Of all the United States, southeastern flora has been least changed in composition during the last 20,000 years.
During the Last Glacial Maximum about 18,000 years ago, when the glacial front extended south to the approximate location of the Ohio River, preexisting natural communities in the Southeast remained intact. As a result, the Southeast contains a high level of endemism and genetic diversity as would be expected of an old flora. Temperate deciduous forests dominated from about 33° to 30° N. latitude, including most of the glacial Gulf Coast from about 84° W. longitude. The coastline changed during glacial melt, both in the Mississippi River valley and sea level rise of 130 meters. Regional climate was similar to or drier than modern conditions. Oak, hickory and southern pine species were abundant. Walnuts, sweetgum, birch, tulip tree, hornbeams and others that are common in modern southern deciduous forests were common then. Grasses and sunflowers were common. Extensive mesophytic forest communities, similar to modern lowland and bottomland forests, occurred along major river drainages the Mississippi embayment, the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa Basin, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin, the Savannah River Basin.
Humans arrived as five thousand years passed following the retreat of the glaciers, while deciduous forests expanded northward throughout the region. Pockets of boreal elements remained only at high elevations in the Appalachian Mountains and in a few other refuges. Broadleaf evergreen and pine forests occupied an extent similar to their current one in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Mesophytic and bottomland forest communities continued to occupy the major river drainages of the region. Although the major modern community types were flourishing in the Southeast by 10,000 years BP, the climate was similar to that today, the understory flora had not yet come to resemble modern herbaceous floras. Mixed hardwood forests dominated the majority of the upper Coastal Plains and lower mountain regions. Southern pine communities dominated the middle and lower Coastal Plains, whereas evergreens and some remnant boreal elements occupied higher elevation sites. There were few canopy openings in high-elevation forest.
Warming and drying during the Holocene climatic optimum began about 9,000 years ago and affected the vegetation of the Southeast. Extensive expansions of prairies and savannas occurred throughout the region, xeric oak and oak-hickory forest types proliferated. Cooler-climate species upward in elevation; this retreat caused a proportional increase in pine-dominated forests in the Appalachians. The grasslands and savannas of the time expanded and were linked to the great interior plains grasslands to the west of the region; as a result, elements of the prairie flora became established throughout the region, first by simple migration, but also by invading disjunct openings that were forming in the canopy of more mesic forests. During most of the climatic shifts of the last 100,000 years, most plant migration in Eastern North America occurred along a more or less north-south axis; the climate optimum was significant because it made conditions favorable for the invasion and establishment of species from the center of the continent.
After the end of the optimum about 5,000 years BP, as the climate cooled and precipitation increased, species migrated so that communities were reassembled in new forms in which all of the components of the modern southern forests were in place. The boreal forests of the early Quaternary enjoyed a modest expansion. Riparian and wetland plant communities expanded. Grasslands and savannas retracted westward. At about 4,000 years BP, the Archaic Indian cultures began practicing agriculture throughout the region. Technology had advanced to the point that pottery was becoming common, the small-scale felling of trees became feasible. Concurrently, the Archaic Indians began using fire in a widespread manner in large portions of the region. Intentional burning of vegetation was taken up to mimic the effects of natural fires that tended to clear forest understories, thereby making travel easier and facilitating the growth of herbs and berry-producing plants that were important for both food and medicines.
The oak-hickory forest of the Northeast was burned by Native Americans, resulting in "oak openings", "barrens", prairies in the Northeast and the Piedmont of North Carolina. There was nearly annual burning throughout the Northeast. After the death of 90%
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
The longleaf pine is a pine native to the Southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from East Texas to southern Maryland, extending into northern and central Florida. It reaches a height of 30–35 m and a diameter of 0.7 m. In the past, before extensive logging, they grew to 47 m with a diameter of 1.2 m. The tree is a cultural symbol of the Southern United States, being the official state tree of Alabama and the unofficial state tree of North Carolina; the bark is thick, reddish-brown, scaly. The leaves are dark green and needle-like, occur in bundles of three, they are twisted and 20–45 cm in length. It is one of the two Southeastern U. S. pines with long needles, the other being slash pine. The cones, both female seed cones and male pollen cones, are initiated during the growing season before buds emerge. Pollen cones begin forming in their buds in July, while seed conelets are formed during a short period of time in August. Pollination occurs early the following spring, with the male cones 3–8 cm long.
The female cones mature in about 20 months from pollination. The seeds are 7–9 mm long, with a 25–40 mm wing. Longleaf pine may live to be 500 years old; when young, they grow a long taproot, 2–3 m long. They grow on well-drained sandy soil, characteristically in pure stands. Longleaf pine is known as being one of several species grouped as a southern yellow pine or longleaf yellow pine, in the past as pitch pine; the species epithet palustris is Latin for "of the marsh" and indicates its common habitat. The scientific name meaning "of marshes" is a misunderstanding on the part of Philip Miller, who described the species, after seeing longleaf pine forests with temporary winter flooding. Longleaf pine is pyrophytic. Periodic natural wildfire selects for this species by killing other trees, leading to open longleaf pine forests or savannas. New seedlings do not resemble a dark-green fountain of needles; this form is called the grass stage. During this stage, which lasts for 5–12 years, vertical growth is slow, the tree may take a number of years to grow ankle high.
After that, it makes a growth spurt if no tree canopy is above it. In the grass stage, it is resistant to low intensity fires because the terminal bud is protected from lethal heating by the packed needles. While immune to fire at this stage, the plant is quite appealing to feral pigs. Longleaf pine forests are rich in biodiversity, they are well-documented for their high levels of plant diversity, in groups including sedges, carnivorous plants, orchids. These forests provide habitat for gopher tortoises, which as keystone species, dig burrows that provide habitat for hundreds of other species of animals; the red-cockaded woodpecker is dependent on mature pine forests and is now endangered as a result of this decline. Longleaf pine seeds are large and nutritious, forming a significant food source for birds and other wildlife. Nine salamander species and 26 frog species are characteristic of pine savannas, along with 56 species of reptiles, 13 of which could be considered specialists on this habitat.
The Red Hills Region of Florida and Georgia is home to some of the best-preserved stands of longleaf pines. These forests have been burned for many decades to encourage bobwhite quail habitat in private hunting plantations. Vast forests of longleaf pine once were present along the southeastern Atlantic coast and Gulf Coast of North America, as part of the eastern savannas; these forests were the source of naval stores - resin and timber - needed by merchants and the navy for their ships. They have been cutover since for timber and replaced with faster-growing loblolly pine and slash pine, for agriculture, for urban and suburban development. Due to this deforestation and overharvesting, only about 3% of the original longleaf pine forest remains, little new is planted. Longleaf pine is available, however, at many nurseries within its range; the yellow, resinous wood is used for pulp. Boards cut years ago from virgin timber were wide, up to 1 m, a thriving salvage business obtains these boards from demolition projects to be reused as flooring in upscale homes.
The long needles are popular for use in the ancient craft of coiled basket making. The stumps and taproots of old trees become will not rot. Farmers sometimes find old buried stumps in fields in some that were cleared a century ago, these are dug up and sold as fatwood, "fat lighter", or "lighter wood", in demand as kindling for fireplaces, wood stoves, barbecue pits. In old-growth pine, the heartwood of the bole is saturated in the same way; when boards are cut from the fat lighter wood, they are heavy and will not rot, but buildings constructed of them are quite flammable and make hot fires. Th