Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Joakim Frederik Schouw
Joakim Frederik Schouw was a Danish lawyer and politician. From 1821, professor in botany at the University of Copenhagen — first extraordinary professor and his main scientific field was the new discipline of phytogeography. He was already a lawyer when he in the summer of 1812 travelled to Norway with the Norwegian botanist Christen Smith, on this journey, he was strongly impressed with the conspicuous zonal division of the mountain vegetation and distribution of plant species in relation to altitude. Back in Copenhagen, he attended the lectures given by Martin Vahl, while earning for his living as a lawyer, he delved into the copious literature on plant geography, e. g. by Wahlenberg and von Humboldt. The first result of his efforts was a dissertation, Dissertatio de sedibus plantarum originariis. In this thesis, he dealt with the question of Generatio aequivoca, that is the origin of species through continuous evolution and he was given a travel grant to study phytogeography in Southern Europe and to visit A. P.
de Candolle in Geneva. The expectations of his potential were so great that King Frederik VI granted him an extraordinary professorship of botany at the University of Copenhagen. In 1822, his most significant contribution was published, Grundtræk til en almindelig Plantegeographie, german translation, Grundzüge einer allgemeinen Pflanzengeographie, Berlin 1823. His scientific contributions turned out to be rather meagre and he planned a great work and gathered material for it during two journeys to Italy. However, he never had time to continue his work, from 1835-1849, he was one of the main leaders of the political movement that led to the first democratic constitution of Denmark, the June Constitution of 1849. He was much engaged in Scandinavism and in the Schleswig-Holstein Question and he refused to become a minister because he, unlike the government, favoured the division of Schleswig. Together with Jens Vahl and Salomon Drejer, Schouw was the publisher of Flora Danica fasc, in 1841, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Christensen, Carl Joakim Frederik Schouw, pp. 100–103 in, prominent Danish Scientists through the Ages. University Library of Copenhagen 450th Anniversary
University of Copenhagen
The University of Copenhagen is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, it is the second oldest institution for education in Scandinavia after Uppsala University. The university has 23,473 undergraduate students,17,398 postgraduate students,2,968 doctoral students, the university has four campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the headquarters located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish, many courses are offered in English. The university has several thousands of students, about half of whom come from Nordic countries. The university has had 8 alumni become Nobel laureates and has produced one Turing Award recipient, the rector, the prorector and the director of the university is appointed by the university board. The rector in turn appoints directors of the different parts of the central administration, the deans appoint heads of 50 departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, hence the university has no faculty governance, although there are elected Academic Boards at faculty level who advise the deans.
The governing body manages a budget of about BDKK8.3. The University is organized into six faculties and about 100 departments, the University employs about 5,600 academic staff and 4,400 technical and administrative staff. The total number of enrolled students is about 40,000 annually, UCPH has established an international graduate talent program which provides grants for international Ph. D, students and a tenure track carrier system. UCPH operates about fifty master’s programmes taught in English, and has arranged about 150 exchange agreements with institutions and 800 Erasmus agreements. Each year there are about 1,700 incoming exchange students,2,000 outbound exchange students and 4,000 international degree-seeking students, about 3,000 Ph. D. students study there each year. South Campus – houses the Faculty of Humanities and a proportion of the Faculty of Science. In the winter of 2016–2017, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Theology will move to South Campus, frederiksberg Campus – home to sections of the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences.
The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the Faculty of Science use the Taastrup Campus, the Faculty of Science has facilities in Helsingør, Hørsholm and Nødebo. The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark, between the closing of the Studium Generale in Lund in 1536 and the establishment of the University of Aarhus in the late 1920s, it was the only university in Denmark. The university became a centre of Roman Catholic theological learning, but had faculties for the study of law, between 1675 and 1788, the university introduced the concept of degree examinations
Christian Frederik Hansen
Christian Frederik Hansen, known as C. F. He was known as Denmark’s Palladio on account of the style he promoted. His buildings are known for their simplicity and scale and he was born in Copenhagen into the poor household of shoemaker and leatherworker Matthias Hansen and his wife Anna Marie, who had been nursemaid for Prince Christian VII. He was the youngest son in the family, and there was not much money to spend on his upbringing and his parents sent him to train in business, but he wanted to draw. His mother used her connections at the court, and found some influential people who interested themselves in his education. He was brought into training as a bricklayer, and at the time he attended classes at the Academy of Art starting in 1766. He studied at the Academy under architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, and he won the Academy’s small silver medallion in 1772-1773, the large silver medallion in 1774-1775, and the large gold medallion in 1779. He was taken into Harsdorffs private studio where he worked on the construction of Frederik Vs chapel at Roskilde Cathedral in 1780 and he received no travel grant from the Academy, in spite of his receiving the gold medallion.
His student drawings from the trip are kept in the Academy’s Library to this day and he returned home September 1784, and became a member of the Academy in 1785. Shortly afterwards he was named to the position of Regional Architect for the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, with residence in Altona and he held this position from 24 November 1784 until his retirement on 31 October 1844. He was named titular Professor at the Academy in 1791, in 1792 he married Anne Margrethe Rahbek. He prospered during his 18 years in Altona and Hamburg, with a practice that made up for the meager earnings he made in his official position. He built fine houses for the well-to-do, both in town and out in the country, estates on Elbchaussee, and small churches. He designed many houses along Altonas elegant boulevard Palmaille, including some investment houses at his own expense. He used a simple Roman Palladio-style in his work, when Harsdorff died in 1799 a number of public building projects were transferred to Hansen, among these the completion of Frederiks Church, known as The Marble Church in Copenhagen.
He returned to Copenhagen in 1804, where he lived until his death and he had a large, social household in a fabulously appointed apartment in Copenhagen. In 1808 he was named Professor of Architecture, Chief Building Director and he held the title of Chief Building Director until his retirement. He overtook Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaards leading position at the Academy, and was eight times as Director of the Academy, 1811–1818, 1821–1827
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
Copenhagen Castle was a castle on Slotsholmen in Copenhagen, built in the late 14th century at the site of the current Christiansborg Palace. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric of Pomerania usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. The castle was several times. King Christian IV, for example, added a spire to the entrance tower. In the 1720s, Frederik IV entirely rebuilt the castle, but it became so heavy that the walls began to give way and to crack. It became therefore evident to Christian VI, Frederik IVs successor, immediately after his accession to the throne in 1730, the demolition of the overextended and antiquated Copenhagen Castle was commenced in 1731 to make room for the first Christiansborg Palace
Johan Daniel Herholdt
Johan Daniel Herholdt was a Danish architect and royal building inspector. He worked in the Historicist style and had a significant influence on Danish architecture during the half of the 19th. His most famous work is the Copenhagen University Library in Fiolstræde in Copenhagen which heralded a new trend, the strong use of red brick in large-scale cultural and civic buildings was to characterize Danish architecture for several decades. He was a proponent of the national school in Danish architecture of the period as opposed to Ferdinand Meldahls. Johan Daniel Herholdt was born in 1818 in Copenhagen and he first trained and worked as a carpenter until 1840. From 1841, he travelled in Denmark and Northern Germany, studying buildings, in 1845, he returned to Copenhagen to complete his studies in architecture. Herholdts first assignments were mainly large villas and a few manor houses and his major breakthrough came when he won the first architectural competition of its kind in Denmark, for the design of a new building for the Copenhagen University Library.
His winning Neo-Gothic design started a trend in Danish architecture which was typified by the use of red brick in large-scale cultural. It was to last for the half century. His building was the first in Denmark to rely on a system of cast iron. The library was completed in 1861 and the year he became a member of the Academy. His works include Copenhagens second Central Station and a building for the National Bank of Denmark and he was responsible for the design of a building complex for the College of Advanced Technology where he served as a teacher. Erholm Manor, Funen Selchausdal Manor, Kalundborg Copenhagen University Library, Fiolstræde, Copenhagen Own Villa,8 Ewaldsgade, Copenhagen Villa for P
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
Johan Nicolai Madvig
Johan Nicolai Madvig, was a Danish philologist and Kultus Minister. He was born on the island of Bornholm and he was educated at the classical school of Frederiksborg and the University of Copenhagen, at least partially on the cost of Marie Kofoed. In 1828 he became reader, and in 1829 professor of Latin language and literature at Copenhagen, in 1848 Madvig entered parliament as a member of the Eider-Danish part—those who desired the Eider to be the boundary of the country. When this party came into power Madvig became Kultus Minister in the Cabinet of Moltke II and III, in 1852 be became director of public instruction. Some years later, from 1856 to 1863, Madvig was president of the Danish parliament, with these brief interruptions the greater part of his life was devoted to the study and teaching of Latin and the improvement of the classical schools, of which he was chief inspector. As a critic of classical texts he was distinguished for learning and he devoted much attention to Cicero, and revolutionized the study of his philosophical writings by an edition of De Finibus.
Other major contributions to scholarship are his Emendationes Livianae and the papers collected in his Opuscula Academica. Perhaps his most widely known works are those on Latin grammar and Greek syntax, in 1874 his vision began to fail, and he was forced to give up much of his work. He continued to lecture, and in 1879 he was rector of the university for the sixth time. In 1880 he resigned his professorship, but went on with his work on the Roman constitution, in this book Madvig takes a strongly conservative standpoint and attacks Theodor Mommsens views on Caesars programme of reforms. It is an exposition, though rather too dogmatic and without sufficient regard for the views of other scholars. His last work was his autobiography, one of his textbooks, on Latin syntax, was re-issued as recently as 2001. P. J. Jensen, Johan Nicolai Madvig, Greece & Rome 1, Works by Johan Nicolai Madvig at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Johan Nicolai Madvig at Internet Archive