The citron is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind. It is one of the original citrus fruits from which all other citrus types developed through natural hybrid speciation or artificial hybridization. Though citron cultivars take on a wide variety of physical forms, they are all related genetically, it is used in Asian cuisine, in traditional medicines and for religious rituals and offerings. Hybrids of citrons with other citrus are commercially prominent, notably many limes; the fruit's English name "citron" derives from Latin, the origin of the genus name. A source of confusion is that citron in French and English are false friends, as the French word refers to the lemon. Indeed, into the 16th century, the English name citron included the lemon and the lime as well. In Italian it is known as cedro. In Persian languages, it is called turunj, as against naranj. Both names were borrowed into Arabic and introduced into Spain and Portugal after their occupation by Muslims in AD 711, whence it became the source of the name orange.
In Syria it is called kabbad. In Hebrew, the citron is known as etrog. In Gujarati it is called bijora. In Chinese, it is known as xiāngyuán; the citron is an original citrus species. There is molecular evidence that most cultivated citrus species arose by hybridization of a small number of ancestral types, including citron, mandarin and to a lesser extent and kumquat; the citron is fertilized by self-pollination. This results in them displaying a high degree of genetic homozygosity, it is the male parent of any citrus hybrid rather than a female one; the citron is thought to have been native to India, in valleys at the foothills of the eastern Himalayas. It is thought that by the 4th century BC, when Theophrastus mentions the "Persian or Median apple", the citron was cultivated in the Persian Gulf on its way to the Mediterranean basin, where it was cultivated during the centuries in different areas as described by Erich Isaac. Many mention the role of Alexander the Great and his armies as they attacked Persia and what is today Pakistan, as being responsible for the spread of the citron westward, reaching the European countries such as Greece and Italy.
Leviticus mentions the "fruit of the beautiful tree" as being required for ritual use during the Feast of Tabernacles. According to Rabbinical tradition, the "fruit of the tree hadar" refers to the citron, which the Israelites brought to Israel from their exile in Egypt, where the Egyptologist and archaeologist Victor Loret claimed to have identified it depicted on the walls of the botanical garden at the Karnak Temple, which dates back to the time of Thutmosis III 3,000 years ago; the citron has been cultivated since ancient times, predating the cultivation of other citrus species. The following description on citron was given by Theophrastus In the east and south there are special plants... i.e. in Media and Persia there are many types of fruit, between them there is a fruit called Median or Persian Apple. The tree has a leaf similar to and identical with that of the andrachn, but has thorns like those of the apios or the firethorn, except that they are white, smooth and strong; the fruit is not eaten, but is fragrant, as is the leaf of the tree.
It is useful when one has drunk deadly poison, for when it is administered in wine. It is useful to improve the breath, for if one boils the inner part of the fruit in a dish or squeezes it into the mouth in some other medium, it makes the breath more pleasant; the seed is removed from the fruit and sown in the spring in tilled beds, it is watered every fourth or fifth day. As soon the plant is strong it is transplanted in the spring, to a soft, well watered site, where the soil is not fine, for it prefers such places, and it bears its fruit at all seasons, for when some have gathered, the flower of the others is on the tree and is ripening others. Of the flowers I have said those that have a sort of distaff projecting from the middle are fertile, while those that do not have this are sterile, it is sown, like date palms, in pots punctured with holes. This tree, as has been remarked, grows in Persia. Citron was described by Pliny the Elder, who called it nata Assyria malus; the following is from his book Natural History: There is another tree with the same name of "citrus," and bears a fruit, held by some persons in particular dislike for its smell and remarkable bitterness.
This tree is used as an ornament to houses. The citron tree, called the Assyrian, by some the Median apple, is an antidote against poisons; the leaf is similar to that of the arbute. As to the fruit, it is never eaten, but it is remarkable for its powerful smell, the case with the leaves; the tree bears fruit at all seasons of the year. Various nations have attempted to naturalize this tree amo
The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.
China alone produced 58% of the world's total for peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.
Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.
Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.
Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buc
Cucurbita is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown worldwide for their edible fruit, variously known as squash, pumpkin, or gourd depending on species and local parlance, for their seeds. Other kinds of gourd called bottle-gourds, are native to Africa and belong to the genus Lagenaria, in the same family and subfamily as Cucurbita but in a different tribe; these other gourds are used as utensils or vessels, their young fruits are eaten much like those of Cucurbita species. Most Cucurbita species are herbaceous vines that grow several meters in length and have tendrils, but non-vining "bush" cultivars of C. pepo and C. maxima have been developed. The yellow or orange flowers on a Cucurbita plant are of two types: female and male; the female flowers produce the male flowers produce pollen. Many North and Central American species are visited by specialist bee pollinators, but other insects with more general feeding habits, such as honey bees visit.
There is debate about the taxonomy of the genus, as the number of accepted species varies from 13 to 30. The five domesticated species are Cucurbita argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo. All of these can be treated as winter squash; the fruits of the genus Cucurbita are good sources of nutrients, such as vitamin A and vitamin C, among other nutrients according to species. The fruits have many culinary uses including pumpkin pie, bread, puddings and soups. Cucurbita species fall into two main groups; the first group are annual or short-lived perennial vines and are mesophytic, i.e. they require a more or less continuous water supply. The second group are perennials growing in arid zones and so are xerophytic, tolerating dry conditions. Cultivated Cucurbita species were derived from the first group. Growing 5 to 15 meters in height or length, the plant stem produces tendrils to help it climb adjacent plants and structures or extend along the ground. Most species do not root from the nodes.
The vine of the perennial Cucurbita can become semiwoody. There is wide variation in size and color among Cucurbita fruits, within a single species. C. ficifolia is an exception, being uniform in appearance. The morphological variation in the species C. pepo and C. maxima is so vast that its various subspecies and cultivars have been misidentified as separate species. The typical cultivated Cucurbita species has five-lobed or palmately divided leaves with long petioles, with the leaves alternately arranged on the stem; the stems in some species are angular. All of the above-ground parts may be hairy with various types of trichomes, which are hardened and sharp. Spring-like tendrils are branching in some species. C. argyrosperma has ovate-cordate leaves. The shape of C. pepo leaves varies widely. C. moschata plants can have dense pubescence. C. ficifolia leaves are angular and have light pubescence. The leaves of all four of these species may not have white spots. There are male and female flowers on a single plant, these grow singly, appearing from the leaf axils.
Flowers have five fused yellow to a green bell-shaped calyx. Male flowers in Cucurbitaceae have five stamens, but in Cucurbita there are only three, their anthers are joined together so that there appears to be one. Female flowers have thick pedicels, an inferior ovary with 3–5 stigmas that each have two lobes; the female flowers of C. argyrosperma and C. ficifolia have larger corollas than the male flowers. Female flowers of C. pepo have a small calyx, but the calyx of C. moschata male flowers is comparatively short. Cucurbita fruits are fleshy. Botanists classify the Cucurbita fruit as a pepo, a special type of berry derived from an inferior ovary, with a thick outer wall or rind with hypanthium tissue forming an exocarp around the ovary, a fleshy interior composed of mesocarp and endocarp; the term "pepo" is used for Cucurbitaceae fruits, where this fruit type is common, but the fruits of Passiflora and Carica are sometimes pepos. The seeds, which are attached to the ovary wall and not to the center, are large and flat with a large embryo that consists entirely of two cotyledons.
Fruit size varies considerably: wild fruit specimens can be as small as 4 centimeters and some domesticated specimens can weigh well over 300 kilograms. The current world record was set in 2014 by Beni Meier of Switzerland with a 2,323.7-pound pumpkin. Cucurbita was formally described in a way that meets the requirements of modern botanical nomenclature by Linnaeus in his Genera Plantarum, the fifth edition of 1754 in conjunction with the 1753 first edition of Species Plantarum. Cucurbita pepo is the type species of the genus. Linnaeus included the species C. pepo, C. verrucosa and C. melopepo, as well as C. citrullus and C. lagenaria (both are not Cucurbita but are in the family Cucurbitaceae. The Cucurbita digitata, C. foetidissima, C. galeotti, C. pedatifolia species groups are xerophytes, arid zone perennials with storage roots.
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials colors, it must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, plastic, cosmetics and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants ground into a fine powder. For use in paint, this powder is added to a binder, a neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
A distinction is made between a pigment, insoluble in its vehicle, a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can act as either a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt; the resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by North America; the global demand on pigments was US$20.5 billion in 2009. Pigments appear colored because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. White light is a equal mixture of the entire spectrum of visible light with a wavelength in a range from about 375 or 400 nanometers to about 760 or 780 nm; when this light encounters a pigment, parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the pigment.
Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds. Some inorganic pigments, such as vermilion or cadmium yellow, absorb light by transferring an electron from the negative ion to the positive ion; the other wavelengths or parts of the spectrum are scattered. The new reflected. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones; the appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high color temperature and a uniform spectrum and is considered a standard for white light, while artificial light sources tend to have strong peaks in parts of their spectra. Viewed under different lights, pigments will appear different colors. Color spaces used to represent colors. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or "Daylight 6500 K", the color temperature of sunlight.
Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. For example, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules and may be reflected unchanged; these stray rays of source light make. Pure pigment allows little white light to escape, producing a saturated color, while a small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder will appear unsaturated and pale due to incident white light escaping unchanged. Occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.
Before the Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technologically limited. Most of the pigments in use were pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances; some colors were impossible to obtain, given the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity. Biological pigments were difficult to acquire, the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species of Murex snail. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians, was continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 CE, with the fall of Constantinople; the pigment was expensive and complex to produce, items colored with it became associated with power and wealth. Greek historian Theopompus, writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon."Mineral pigments were traded over long distances.
The only w
Peel known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which can be peeled off. The rind is the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp includes the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but rather shells because of their hardness. A fruit with a thick peel, such as a citrus fruit, is called a hesperidium. In hesperidia, the inner layer is peeled off together with the outer layer, together they are called the peel; the flavedo and albedo are the exocarp and the mesocarp. The juicy layer inside the peel is the endocarp. Depending on the thickness and taste, fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit, such as with apples. In some cases the peel is unpleasant or inedible, in which case it is removed and discarded, such as with bananas or grapefruits; the peel of some fruits — for example, pomegranates — is high in tannins and other polyphenols, is employed in the production of dyes. The peel of citrus fruits is bitter and not eaten raw, but may be used in cooking.
In gastronomy, the outermost, colored part of the peel is called the zest, which can be scraped off and used for its tangy flavor. A large piece of citrus peel, called a "twist", is used to garnish cocktails; the fleshy white part of the peel, bitter when raw in most species, is used as succade or is prepared with sugar to make marmalade or fruit soup. The peel can be candied, or dried to produce a seasoning. Banana peel Biorefinery: conversion of citrus peel to succinic acid Fruit anatomy, describing the botanical terms of fruit and skin layers Peeler Zest