A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help to provide a three dimensional, moving image coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth; the human eye can differentiate between about 10 million colors and is capable of detecting a single photon. Similar to the eyes of other mammals, the human eye's non-image-forming photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina receive light signals which affect adjustment of the size of the pupil and suppression of the hormone melatonin and entrainment of the body clock; the eye is not shaped like a perfect sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit, composed of the anterior segment and the posterior segment. The anterior segment is made up of the cornea and lens; the cornea is transparent and more curved, is linked to the larger posterior segment, composed of the vitreous, retina and the outer white shell called the sclera.
The cornea is about 11.5 mm in diameter, 1/2 mm in thickness near its center. The posterior chamber constitutes the remaining five-sixths; the cornea and sclera are connected by an area termed the limbus. The iris is the pigmented circular structure concentrically surrounding the center of the eye, the pupil, which appears to be black; the size of the pupil, which controls the amount of light entering the eye, is adjusted by the iris' dilator and sphincter muscles. Light energy enters the eye through the cornea, through the pupil and through the lens; the lens shape is controlled by the ciliary muscle. Photons of light falling on the light-sensitive cells of the retina are converted into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve and interpreted as sight and vision. Dimensions differ among adults by only one or two millimetres, remarkably consistent across different ethnicities; the vertical measure less than the horizontal, is about 24 mm. The transverse size of a human adult eye is 24.2 mm and the sagittal size is 23.7 mm with no significant difference between sexes and age groups.
Strong correlation has been found between the width of the orbit. The typical adult eye has an anterior to posterior diameter of 24 millimetres, a volume of six cubic centimetres, a mass of 7.5 grams.. The eyeball grows increasing from about 16–17 millimetres at birth to 22.5–23 mm by three years of age. By age 12, the eye attains its full size; the eye is made up of layers, enclosing various anatomical structures. The outermost layer, known as the fibrous tunic, is composed of the sclera; the middle layer, known as the vascular tunic or uvea, consists of the choroid, ciliary body, pigmented epithelium and iris. The innermost is the retina, which gets its oxygenation from the blood vessels of the choroid as well as the retinal vessels; the spaces of the eye are filled with the aqueous humour anteriorly, between the cornea and lens, the vitreous body, a jelly-like substance, behind the lens, filling the entire posterior cavity. The aqueous humour is a clear watery fluid, contained in two areas: the anterior chamber between the cornea and the iris, the posterior chamber between the iris and the lens.
The lens is suspended to the ciliary body by the suspensory ligament, made up of hundreds of fine transparent fibers which transmit muscular forces to change the shape of the lens for accommodation. The vitreous body is a clear substance composed of water and proteins, which give it a jelly-like and sticky composition; the approximate field of view of an individual human eye varies by facial anatomy, but is 30° superior, 45° nasal, 70° inferior, 100° temporal. For both eyes combined visual field is 200 ° horizontal, it is 13700 square degrees for binocular vision. When viewed at large angles from the side, the iris and pupil may still be visible by the viewer, indicating the person has peripheral vision possible at that angle. About 15° temporal and 1.5° below the horizontal is the blind spot created by the optic nerve nasally, 7.5° high and 5.5° wide. The retina has a static contrast ratio of around 100:1; as soon as the eye moves to acquire a target, it re-adjusts its exposure by adjusting the iris, which adjusts the size of the pupil.
Initial dark adaptation takes place in four seconds of profound, uninterrupted darkness. The process is nonlinear and multifaceted, so an interruption by light exposure requires restarting the dark adaptation process over again. Full adaptation is dependent on good blood flow; the human eye can detect a luminance range of 1014, or one hundred trillion, from 10−6 cd/m2, or one millionth of a candela per square meter to 108 cd/m2 or one hundred million candelas per square meter. This range does not include looking at the midday lightning discharge. At the low end o
The lavender scare refers to a witch hunt and the mass firings of homosexual people in the 1950s from the United States government. It contributed to and paralleled the anti-communist campaign known as McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare. Gay men and lesbians were said to be security risks and communist sympathizers, which led to the call to remove them from state employment. Former U. S. Senator Alan K. Simpson has written: "The so-called'Red Scare' has been the main focus of most historians of that period of time. A lesser-known element... and one that harmed far more people was the witch-hunt McCarthy and others conducted against homosexuals." The term for this persecution was popularized by David K. Johnson's 2004 book which studied this anti-homosexual campaign, The Lavender Scare; the book drew its title from the term "lavender lads", used by Senator Everett Dirksen as a synonym for homosexual males. In 1952, Dirksen said that a Republican victory in the November elections would mean the removal of "the lavender lads" from the State Department.
The phrase was used by Confidential magazine, a periodical known for gossiping about the sexuality of politicians and prominent Hollywood stars. In 1950, the same year that Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed 205 communists were working in the State Department, Undersecretary of State John Peurifoy said that the State Department had allowed 91 homosexuals to resign. On April 19, 1950, the Republican National Chairman Guy George Gabrielson said that "sexual perverts who have infiltrated our Government in recent years" were "perhaps as dangerous as the actual Communists"; the danger was not because they were gay though. The homosexuals were considered to be more susceptible to blackmail and thus were labeled as security risks. McCarthy hired Roy Cohn—who would die of AIDS and was accused of being a closeted homosexual—as chief counsel of his Congressional subcommittee. Together, McCarthy and Cohn—with the enthusiastic support of the head of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover—were responsible for the firing of scores of gay men and women from government employment and strong-armed many opponents into silence using rumors of their homosexuality.
In 1953, during the final months of the Truman administration, the State Department reported that it had fired 425 employees for allegations of homosexuality. McCarthy used accusations of homosexuality as a smear tactic in his anti-communist crusade combining the Second Red Scare with the Lavender Scare. On one occasion, he went so far as to announce to reporters, "If you want to be against McCarthy, you've got to be either a Communist or a cocksucker." At least one recent history has argued that, in linking communism and homosexuality and psychological imbalance, McCarthy was employing guilt-by-association if evidence for communist activity was lacking. In 1953 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450, which set security standards for federal employment and barred homosexuals from working in the federal government; the restrictions set in place were cause for hundreds of gay people to be forcibly outed and fired from the State Department. The executive order was the cause for the firing of 5,000 gay people from federal employment.
Not only did the victims lose their jobs, but they were forced out of the closet and thrust into the public eye as lesbian or gay. Executive Order 10450 stayed on paper and in effect until 1995 when President Bill Clinton rescinded the order and put in place the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy for admittance of gays into the military. Both homosexuals and Communist Party members were seen as subversive elements in American society who all shared the same ideals of antitheism, rejection of bourgeois culture and middle-class morality, lack of conformity. McCarthy associated homosexuality and communism as "threats to the'American way of life'." Homosexuality was directly linked to security concerns, more government employees were dismissed because of their homosexual sexual orientation than because they were left-leaning or communist. George Chauncey noted that: "The specter of the invisible homosexual, like that of the invisible communist, haunted Cold War America," and homosexuality were referred to not only as a disease, but as an invasion, like the perceived danger of communism and subversives.
Senator Kenneth Wherry attempted to invoke a connection between homosexuality and anti-nationalism. He said in an interview with Max Lerner that: "You can't hardly separate homosexuals from subversives." In that same interview, he drew the line between patriotic Americans and gay men: "But look Lerner, we're both Americans, aren't we? I say, let's get these fellows out of the government."While the Mattachine Society was founded by Harry Hay, a former member of the Communist Party USA, Hay resigned from the society when the membership condemned his politics as a threat to the organization he had founded. The Subcommittee on Investigations was a subcommittee of the Committee on Expenditures in Executive Departments; this subcommittee led by Senator Clyde R. Hoey from 1949–1952 investigated "the employment of homosexuals in the Federal workforce." A related report, known as the Hoey Report, stated that all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks."
Washington D. C. had a large and active gay community before McCarthy launched his witch hunt campaign against homosexuals, but as time went on and the clima
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure, pulse and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions. The belief underpinning the use of the polygraph is that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers. There are, however, no specific physiological reactions associated with lying, making it difficult to identify factors that separate liars from truth tellers. Polygraph examiners prefer to use their own individual scoring method, as opposed to computerized techniques, as they may more defend their own evaluations; the polygraph was invented in 1921 by John Augustus Larson, a medical student at the University of California, Berkeley and a police officer of the Berkeley Police Department in Berkeley, California. Further work on the device was done by Leonarde Keeler.
As Larson's protege, Keeler updated the device by making it portable and added the galvanic skin response to it in 1939. His device was purchased by the FBI, served as the prototype of the modern polygraph. In some countries, polygraphs are used as an interrogation tool with criminal suspects or candidates for sensitive public or private sector employment. US law enforcement and federal government agencies such as the FBI, NSA and the CIA and many police departments such as the LAPD and the Virginia State Police use polygraph examinations to interrogate suspects and screen new employees. Within the US federal government, a polygraph examination is referred to as a psychophysiological detection of deception examination; the control question test known as the probable lie test, was developed to overcome or mitigate the problems with the relevant-irrelevant testing method. Although the relevant questions in the probable lie test are used to obtain a reaction from liars, the physiological reactions that "distinguish" liars may occur in innocent individuals who fear a false detection or feel passionately that they did not commit the crime.
Therefore, although a physiological reaction may be occurring, the reasoning behind the response may be different. Further examination of the probable lie test has indicated that it is biased against innocent subjects; those who are unable to think of a lie related to the relevant question will automatically fail the test. Polygraph examiners, or polygraphers, are regulated in some jurisdictions; the American Polygraph Association sets standards for courses of training of polygraph operators, though it does not certify individual examiners. The examiner begins polygraph test sessions with a pre-test interview to gain some preliminary information which will be used to develop diagnostic questions; the tester will explain how the polygraph is supposed to work, emphasizing that it can detect lies and that it is important to answer truthfully. A "stim test" is conducted: the subject is asked to deliberately lie and the tester reports that he was able to detect this lie. Guilty subjects are to become more anxious when they are reminded of the test's validity.
However, there are risks of innocent subjects being or more anxious than the guilty. The actual test starts; some of the questions asked are "irrelevant", others are "diagnostic" questions, the remainder are the "relevant questions" that the tester is interested in. The different types of questions alternate; the test is passed if the physiological responses to the diagnostic questions are larger than those during the relevant questions. Criticisms have been given regarding the validity of the administration of the Control Question Technique; the CQT may be vulnerable to being conducted in an interrogation-like fashion. This kind of interrogation style would elicit a nervous response from innocent and guilty suspects alike. There are several other ways of administering the questions. An alternative is the Guilty Knowledge Test, or the Concealed Information Test, used in Japan; the administration of this test is given to prevent potential errors that may arise from the questioning style. The test is conducted by a tester with no knowledge of the crime or circumstances in question.
The administrator tests the participant on their knowledge of the crime that would not be known to an innocent person. For example: "Was the crime committed with a.45 or a 9 mm?" The questions are in multiple choice and the participant is rated on how they react to the correct answer. If they react to the guilty information proponents of the test believe that it is that they know facts relevant to the case; this administration is considered more valid by supporters of the test because it contains many safeguards to avoid the risk of the administrator influencing the results. Although there is some debate in the scientific community regarding the efficacy of polygraphs, assessments of polygraphy by scientific and government bodies suggest that polygraphs are inaccurate, may be defeated by countermeasures, are an imperfect or invalid means of assessing truthfulness. Despite claims of 90% validity by polygraph advocates, the National Research Council has found no evidence of effectiveness. In particular, studies have indicated that the relevant–irrelevant questioning technique is not ideal, as many innocent subjects exert a heightened physiological reaction to the crime-relevant questions.
In 1991, two thirds of the scientific community who have the requisite background to evaluate polygraph procedures considered polygraphy to be pseudoscience. In 2002, a review by the National Research Council found that, in populations "untrai
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in British Columbia on 12 February 1912. The paper is published by the Pacific Newspaper Group, a division of Postmedia Network, it is published Monday to Saturday. Now combined with The Province newspaper, the Sun still has the largest newsroom of any newspaper in western Canada; the Sun is a broadsheet newspaper and was not related to the Sun Media chain and its tabloid Sun papers in Toronto, Winnipeg and Edmonton. However, Sun Media was acquired by Postmedia in 2015, making the Vancouver Sun and the tabloid Sun papers part of the same company; when the Sun began operation, it was published at 125 West Pender Street, just around the corner from The Province, its rival at the time. From 1917 until his death in 1936, its publisher was Robert James Cromie. In 1924, the Sun bought the Vancouver World newspaper, in financial difficulty for some time. In March 1937, a fire destroyed the Sun's editorial offices; the only casualty was the janitor, who smoke inhalation.
The Sun promptly moved across the street into the World Building, where the World had been published. The building was accordingly renamed the Sun Tower. In 1958, the Sun and the Province joined to create the Pacific Press in response to the rising costs of producing newspapers. First the papers merged their mechanical and financial departments they both moved into the Pacific Press Building on December 27, 1965; the newspaper's photography department became the first in the world to switch over to digital photography following the 1994 release of the Kodak DCS 400 series, which used a Nikon F90 body. In 1997 the paper moved to Granville Square. In 1997, Kennedy Heights, the printing press for the Vancouver Sun and The Province, was opened in Surrey. In May 2009, the newspaper laid off long-time editorial cartoonist Roy Peterson, drawing for the paper since 1962. In December 2011, after much research on the demographics of the greater Vancouver area, the newspaper launched a Chinese-language version Taiyangbao with original Chinese language content.
According to an article broadcast on China Now on China Radio International, the key to success was not to "translate" its English-language version into Chinese. In January 2015, the Kennedy Heights printing press operation was shut down, resulting in 220 workers losing their jobs. Printing of the Vancouver Sun and The Province were outsourced, each to different printing press operations. In 2017, the Vancouver Sun and Province moved to the Broadway Tech Centre; the Vancouver Sun has seen, like most Canadian daily newspapers a decline in circulation. Its total circulation dropped by 22 percent to 136,787 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average Bolan, Kim Vancouver Sun Run The Vancouver Sun Classic Children's Book Collection List of newspapers in Canada Official website Official mobile site Vancouver Sun RSS feed History of Metropolitan Vancouver
Fruit and fruitcake, as well as many variations, are slang or sexual slang terms which have various origins but modern usage tend to refer to gay men and sometimes other LGBT people. Used as pejoratives, the terms have been re-appropriated as insider terms of endearment within LGBT communities. Many modern pop culture references within the gay nightlife like "Fruit Machine" and "Fruit Packers" have been appropriated for reclaiming usage, similar to queer and dyke. In A Dictionary of Epithets and Terms of Address author Leslie Dunkling traces the friendly use of the phrase old fruit to the 1920s in Britain deriving from the phrase fruit of the womb. In the United States, both fruit and fruitcake are seen as negative with fruitcake originating from "nutty as a fruitcake". A costermonger was a street seller of fruit and vegetables; the term, which derived from the words costard and monger, i.e. "seller", came to be associated with the "barrow boys" of London who would sell their produce from a wheelbarrow or wheeled market stall.
Costermongers have existed in London since at least the 16th century, when they were mentioned by Shakespeare and Marlowe and were most numerous during the Victorian era, when there were said to be over 30,000 in 1860. They gained a unsavoury reputation for their "low habits, general improvidence, love of gambling, total want of education, disregard for lawful marriage ceremonies, their use of a peculiar slang language". Two examples of their slang are referring to potatoes as "bog-oranges" developed from the phrase "Irish fruit" referring to potatoes and "cool the delo nammow" which means'watch out for that old woman' with the words backwards. Out of the East End of London traditional Cockney rhyming slang developed, which works by taking two words that are related through a short phrase and using the first word to stand for a word that rhymes with the second. For instance, the most popular of these rhyming slang phrases used throughout Britain is "telling porkies" meaning "lies" as "pork pies" rhymes with lies.
"Alright, me old fruit?" is an example of this as "fruit gum" is translated as meaning "chum". Cassell's Dictionary of Slang traces uses of fruit meaning an easy victim in the late 19th century and as an eccentric person. Fruit as gay slang or slur is amongst the lexicon of the cant slang Polari used in the gay subculture in Britain, which has become more mainstream with transcontinental travel and online communication. There is still debate about how Polari originated but its origins can be traced back to at least the 19th century and has multiple origins and routes of dissemination with researchers finding a small base of less than two dozen common supplemented by regional phrases, it is believed to be passed on near by oral history and teaching and was found in traveling professions such as those in the sailing and traveling entertainment industries. In Polari, fruit means queen, which at the time and still today is a term for gay men and can be used positively or negatively depending on the speaker and intent.
Several origins of the word fruit being used to describe gay men are possible, most stem from the linguistic concepts of insulting a man by comparing him to or calling him a woman. In Edita Jodonytë and Palmina Morkienë's research On Sexist Attitudes in English they note "female-associated words become derogatory when applied to males" and “hen language oppresses it does so by any means that disparage and belittle.” Comparing a gay man to fruit and tender, like a woman has gained near universal use because both LGBT people and fruit are found nearly everywhere. In One of the Boys: Homosexuality in the Military During World War II author Paul Jackson writes "a number of words that referred to prostitutes came to be applied to effeminate or queer men - "queen, gay, faggot and fruit." From the 1857 "Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial English: Containing Words from the English Writers Previous to the Nineteenth Century Which Are No Longer In Use, Or Are Not Used In The Same Sense. And Words Which Are Now Used Only In The Provincial Dialects" several routes seem cockney was "an effeminate boy who sold fruit and greens while cobble is the stone of a fruit, presently defined as male testicles from the Cockney rhyming slang "cobbler's awls", meaning "balls" and blow was the blossoming of a fruit tree and is used as the Polari definition for oral sex on a man causing him to "blow".
Fruitcakes, which are cakes containing both fruit and nuts, have been in existence since the Middle Ages, but it is unclear when the term started being used disparagingly in the United Kingdom and the United States, as a slur for a'crazy person' although Cassell's Dictionary of Slang traces uses of fruitcake meaning an eccentric person to 1910s. It is derived from the expression "nutty as a fruitcake", first recorded in 1935. A nut can be either a fruit. By the 1930s both fruit and fruitcake terms are seen as not only negative but to mean male homosexual, although not universally, it should be noted that LGBT people were diagnosed as diseased with the potential for being cured, thus were "treated" with castration, pudic nerve surgery, electroshock treatment. Due to this, transferring the meaning of fruitc