Haas F1 Team
Haas Formula LLC, competing as Rich Energy Haas F1 Team, is a Formula One racing team established by NASCAR Monster Energy Cup Series team co-owner Gene Haas in April 2014. The team intended to make its début at the start of the 2015 season, but elected to postpone their entry until the 2016 season; the team is headquartered in Kannapolis, North Carolina – 50 km from Charlotte – alongside sister team and NASCAR entrant Stewart-Haas Racing, though the two teams are separate entities. The team established a second forward base in Banbury in Oxfordshire for the purpose of turning cars around between races during the European part of the calendar. From 2019, the team will be rebranded as Rich Energy Haas F1 Team, following a multi-year title sponsorship agreement with Rich Energy, a British energy drink brand. Haas was the first constructor to submit an F1 entry after the failed US F1 project in 2010, it is the first American team to compete since the unrelated Haas Lola outfit raced in the 1985 and 1986 seasons.
The Haas Lola team was owned by former McLaren boss Teddy Mayer and Carl Haas, not related to Gene Haas. Following the collapse of Marussia F1 during the 2014 season and the auctioning of their assets, Haas purchased the team's Banbury headquarters to serve as a forward base for their operations. Unrestricted by testing regulations until the time the team entered Formula One, Haas shook its new car down in December 2015 ahead of official pre-season testing at Barcelona in early 2016. Haas approached Italian manufacturer Dallara to build their chassis, with a power unit supplied by Ferrari. Former Jaguar and Red Bull Racing technical director Guenther Steiner is the team principal. Haas confirmed its new car had passed the mandatory FIA crash tests on January 8, 2016; the team announced on September 29, 2015 that Romain Grosjean would be one of their drivers for 2016. On October 30, 2015 during the Mexican Grand Prix weekend, it was announced that Ferrari test driver Esteban Gutiérrez would join the team for 2016.
Haas's approach of establishing a far-reaching partnership with Ferrari was met with a mixed response from the paddock. The team was applauded for pioneering a low-cost model that would allow new teams to enter the sport and be competitive, of concern to the sport following the collapse of HRT and Caterham, ongoing financial problems that had threatened Marussia and Lotus. Conversely, Haas's approach was criticized by smaller, privateer teams who had invested in their own infrastructure and expressed concerns about the close relationship between manufacturers and satellite teams handing more political power to the sport's larger teams. In 2018 the team was again coming under fire from competitors after the team showed up at Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya for winter testing with a car that resembled the Ferrari SF70H. McLaren and Force India both criticized the partnership between Haas. While no official grievance has been filled with the FIA, McLaren boss Zak Brown has questioned the relationship.
In the team's debut at the opening Australian Grand Prix, Grosjean finished 6th, scoring eight points for the team, which became the first American constructor to win points in its first F1 race and the first constructor overall since Toyota Racing in 2002 to record points in its debut. At the same race his teammate, Gutiérrez crashed out in an incident which destroyed former world champion Fernando Alonso's McLaren and caused the race to be temporarily red-flagged. Another impressive race followed in Bahrain. Although the rest of the season the team fell off the pace, only scoring points on two more occasions, it was Grosjean. On November 11, 2016, the team announced that Kevin Magnussen would drive alongside Grosjean in 2017, replacing Gutiérrez. In the first race of the season, the team scored its best qualifying effort, with Grosjean piloting the VF-17 to 6th place. However, in the race, one of the issues, hampering the performance of Kevin Magnussen throughout the weekend struck again, forcing both cars to retire from the race.
The second race weekend proved better for the team as Kevin Magnussen finished 8th, scoring his first points since his 10th-place finish in the 2016 Singapore Grand Prix, Haas's first points since the 2016 United States Grand Prix, where Grosjean finished 10th. The team's success would continue in 2017 as Haas would go on to get their first double points finish in Monaco, where Grosjean finished eighth and Magnussen tenth, with the Williams of Felipe Massa between them; the team finished 8th place in the constructors' title for the 2nd straight year after being surpassed by the Renault Sport Formula One Team in the final races. On February 14, 2018, Haas unveiled their new car, the VF-18. Following a strong showing during winter testing, Haas again showed up in Australia with a competitive car. During the Grand Prix, they were running in 4th and 5th positions which would have given them their best result and half of their 2017 points tally, but both cars retired one lap after their respective pit stops, triggering a Virtual Safety Car that affected the ending of the race.
They would match this 4th and 5th place result in Austria, where they surpassed their 2017 points total after only nine races. At the Singapore Grand Prix, Magnussen scored Haas' first fastest lap. 2018 was their best season to date, finishing fifth in the Constructors' Championship, one point short of doubling their previous year's performance. The team will be
Renault in Formula One
Renault are involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault F1 Team. They have been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986 again from 1989 to 1997 and at various other times since until the present. Renault returned to Formula One in 2000. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as "Renault F1 Team" and started to use Renault as their constructor name, winning both the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships in 2005 and 2006. For the 2011 season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the team changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015, when they returned to the control of Renault as a works manufacturer.
For the 2019 season "Sport" was removed from the team's official title. Renault has supplied engines to other teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula and Williams. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors' Championships and two Drivers' Championships, as an engine supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers' Championships, it has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier. Renault's first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car; the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V6 1.5 L turbocharged engine, the first used turbo engine in Formula One history. Jabouille's car and engine proved unreliable and became something of a joke during its first races, earning the nickname of "Yellow Teapot" and failing to finish any of its races despite being powerful; the first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the ninth round of the season, but the car was not yet ready.
The team's début was delayed until the British Grand Prix. The car's first qualifying session was not a success, Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters, 1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the car's turbo failed on lap 17; the team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment. They returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth, he had a poor start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The team's poor qualifying form returned in Italy, he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. Things improved at Watkins Glen for the United States Grand Prix as Jabouille qualified 14th, but the good pace from Zandvoort seemed to be gone as he once again ran outside the top 10 before retiring with yet another reliability problem, this time the alternator, on lap 31.
Jabouille failed to qualify in Canada. After this, Renault did not travel to the season finale in Japan; the following year was hardly better, characterised by four consecutive retirements caused by blown engines, but near the end of the year the team showed signs of success. Twice, the RS01 qualified 3rd on the grid and while finishing was still something of an issue, it managed to finish its first race on the lead lap at Watkins Glen near the end of 1978, giving the team a fourth-place finish and its first Formula One points; the team did not enter the first two races of 1978, in Argentina and Brazil, but returned for the South African Grand Prix at Kyalami. Jabouille secured Renault's best qualifying position to date, with sixth place, just 0.71 seconds behind polesitter Niki Lauda in the Brabham. He dropped out of the points early in the race before retiring with electrical problems on lap 39. At Long Beach, Jabouille qualified 13th, but retired as the turbo failed again on lap 44, he was twelfth in qualifying for the team's first Monaco Grand Prix, gave the team their first finish in Formula One, finishing in tenth place four laps down on race-winner Tyrrell's Patrick Depailler.
Expanding to two drivers with René Arnoux joining Jabouille, the team continued to struggle although Jabouille earned a pole position in South Africa. By mid-season, both drivers had a new ground-effect car, the RS10, at Dijon for the French Grand Prix the team legitimised itself with a brilliant performance in a classic race; the two Renaults were on the front row in qualifying, pole-sitter Jabouille won the race, the first driver in a turbo-charged car to do so, while Arnoux and Gilles Villeneuve were involved in an competitive duel for second, Arnoux narrowly getting beaten to the line. While Jabouille ran into hard times after that race, Arnoux finished a career-high second at Silverstone in the following race and repeated that at the Glen, proving it was not a fluke. Arnoux furthered this in 1980 with consecutive wins in Brazil and South Africa, both on high altitude circuits whe
Scuderia Toro Rosso
Scuderia Toro Rosso known as Toro Rosso or by its abbreviation STR and competing as Red Bull Toro Rosso Honda, is an Italian Formula One racing team. When the name "Toro Rosso" is translated to English, it is the exact same word as its sister team - Red Bull, it is one of two Formula One teams owned by Austrian beverage company Red Bull, the other being Red Bull Racing. Toro Rosso functions as a junior team to Red Bull Racing, with the aim of developing the skills of promising drivers for the senior team; the team made its racing debut in the 2006 season, moving to complete independence from its sister team in 2010. The team was established after Paul Stoddart sold his remaining interest in the Minardi team at the end of 2005 to Red Bull's owner, Dietrich Mateschitz and Minardi was renamed Toro Rosso. Mateschitz subsequently struck a 50/50 joint-ownership deal with former Formula One driver Gerhard Berger before the start of the season. In late November 2008, Red Bull regained total ownership of Toro Rosso after buying back Berger's share of the team.
From 2007 to 2013, Toro Rosso used Ferrari V8 engines, taking over the contract that their senior team broke from at the end of 2006 to switch engine builders to Renault. For 2014, Toro Rosso switched to Renault engines as well, but in 2016 returned to using Ferrari power. However, they switched back to Renault in 2017 in 2018 to Honda; the team principal is Franz Tost of BMW's motor sport division. Vitantonio Liuzzi scored the team's first point in its first season at the 2006 United States Grand Prix; the team's first and only pole position and victory were scored by Sebastian Vettel at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix. The team's set 2008 driver line-up was Sebastian Vettel, third driver for BMW Sauber in 2006 before switching to a race seat at Toro Rosso midway through the 2007 season, Sébastien Bourdais, the four-time winner of the Champ Car World Series. For the 2009 season, Sébastien Buemi took Vettel's seat when he moved to the Red Bull team, while Bourdais was dropped after the German Grand Prix, following a series of poor performances that had only scored him two points.
Jaime Alguersuari took over Bourdais' seat at the Hungarian Grand Prix, kept the seat for the remaining part of the year. Both Alguersuari and Buemi raced for the team for all of the 2011 seasons, it was announced on 14 December 2011, that Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Éric Vergne would be the team's drivers for the 2012 season. At the 2013 Italian Grand Prix it was announced that Daniel Ricciardo had been chosen to succeed Mark Webber at Red Bull Racing. For 2014, Toro Rosso signed newcomer Daniil Kvyat. Kvyat spent one season with Toro Rosso before being promoted to Red Bull, the team elected to overhaul their line-up by signing Carlos Sainz Jr. and Max Verstappen, who in 2015 became the youngest driver in Formula One history at just 17 years and 166 days old. Minardi had competed in Formula One from 1985 to 2005. Despite having a large fan base, it had been one of the least competitive teams in the sport, never achieving a podium finish and only finishing as high as fourth in three races. Minardi owner Paul Stoddart claimed to have had 41 approaches to buy the team, but preferred to sell it to someone who could'take it further' than he could and who would maintain it in its traditional base in Italy.
Included in the terms of the deal with Red Bull GmbH was the clause that the team must keep its headquarters in Faenza, Italy until at least the 2007 season. Whilst Red Bull have abandoned the Minardi name in line with their own sponsorship and marketing plans, the use of the Italian language in the name is intended to hint at the team's Italian heritage. Red Bull changed the name of the team after taking control of the team on 1 November 2005, it was reported as'Squadra Toro Rosso' but changed because squadra in Italian depicts a'squad' like a football team, to'Scuderia Toro Rosso'. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses, is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams, such as Ferrari. Many Minardi fans were upset by the name change to Scuderia Toro Rosso and over 15,000 signed an online petition to keep the Minardi name, but were unsuccessful. Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed were the 2006 race drivers of the STR1, with Neel Jani filling the test/third driver role.
Liuzzi had raced part-time for Red Bull Racing in 2005, while Speed entered F1 following the Red Bull Driver Search in the United States. Jani was the test driver for Sauber Petronas in 2004; the 2006 chassis was a modified version of the 2005 Red Bull Racing RB1. Some teams felt that this infringed the Concorde Agreement as each team is expected to design their own car. Toro Rosso claim that this design was produced during 2004 by Jaguar Racing, Red Bull's predecessor, that the intellectual rights had belonged to the Ford Motor Company, Jaguar Racing's parent company before passing to Toro Rosso; the team used Minardi's contracted supply of rev limited and air restricted Cosworth 3.0l V10 engines. This concession had been granted to assist less well funded teams by avoiding the cost of sourcing a new supply of V8 engines as required by the 2006 regulations; the continuation of this arrangement after the Red Bull takeover caused friction with other teams, in particular Super Aguri and Midland who felt that the engine conferred too much of an advantage.
They contended that the concession to allow the team use a V10 engine was based on Minardi's poor financial situation, should not have continued to apply after the team achieved a different financial footing. As the season progressed, the Toro Rossos began to struggle in qualifying as their competitors developed their new V8
Coloni Motorsport known as Scuderia Coloni, is an auto racing team from Italy. Formed by Enzo Coloni in 1982, the team participated in Formula Three between 1983 and 1986, before racing in Formula One as Enzo Coloni Racing Car Systems between 1987 and 1991, they made 82 attempts to take part in a Formula One race but only qualified 14 times. Since under the management of Enzo Coloni's son Paolo, the team has been successful in Formula Three, Formula 3000 and GP2 Series. Between 2006 and 2009 the team ran under the name of Fisichella Motor Sport, with support from Formula One driver Giancarlo Fisichella and his manager Enrico Zanarini; the team was founded in 1983 by a racing driver from Perugia, Italy. It is located in Passignano sul Trasimeno. Coloni competed during the 1970s and after participating in the Italian Formula 3 series for several years, he won the drivers' title in 1982 when he was 36 years old. Before that, called "the wolf", had taken part in two Formula Two races, one in 1980 with the San Remo team and another one in 1982 with the Minardi team.
At the end of 1982, he gave up active racing and started managing his own team in Italian Formula Three. Success came immediately: the team won the 1984 Italian Formula 3 championship with Ivan Capelli. In 1986, Coloni Motorsport appeared in Formula 3000, entering an out-dated March 85B with drivers like Nicola Larini and Gabriele Tarquini; the Formula 3000 attempt was unsuccessful. Nonetheless the team progressed to Formula One the next year; the FIA's announcement that turbos would be banned from Formula One from 1989 - making the sport more affordable — was the trigger for Enzo Coloni to enter the category. Enzo Coloni Racing Car Systems made its first appearance in Formula One at the 1987 Italian Grand Prix in September 1987; the yellow painted FC187, powered by a Novamotor-prepared Cosworth DFZ, was a simple machine designed by former Dallara apprentice Roberto Ori. Coloni himself had carried out the shake-down drive but Nicola Larini was the race driver; the car was not ready and Larini did not qualify.
The Italian recorded Coloni’s first Formula One race start at the 1987 Spanish Grand Prix, although mechanical problems meant that he did not finish. The team did not fly to the end of year overseas races that year, so Larini’s retirement from the Spanish Grand Prix that year ended their first season, they were, of course, 16th and last in the Constructors Championship, because they were the only team without a finish. The 1988 season started well. Although the "new" FC188 was identical to its predecessor, Coloni's new driver Gabriele Tarquini qualified and finished 8th at the Canadian Grand Prix; this turned out to be Coloni's best result in Formula One. Due to a shortage of funds little development work was carried out during the year; the team’s performance suffered as a result and qualification or prequalification were no longer certain. The team scored no points this year, finishing again 15th, ahead of Osella, the new EuroBrun and the suffering Zakspeed Team. Although money was tight for 1989, Coloni entered two cars for Roberto Moreno and French newcomer Pierre-Henri Raphanel.
The FC188Bs were another update of the 1987 car, but were hard to handle and about 20 km/h slower than the rest of the grid. Both drivers were able to qualify for the Monaco Grand Prix; this was the only race participation of a Coloni in the first part of the season. In Canada, Coloni presented a new car, penned by former AGS engineer Christian Vanderpleyn; the C3 was a good design but the team suffered again from a complete lack of testing. This meant that the team failed to find the right setup for the races; the team failed to qualify for most of the rest of the season — only in three cases, the debut of the Coloni C3, the 1989 Canadian Grand Prix, the 1989 British Grand Prix and at the Portuguese Grand Prix did Moreno qualify, in 26th, 23rd and 15th place after a developmental front wing was fitted for Estoril. For the team, he collided with Eddie Cheever in the warm-up and had to use the spare car, he did not finish the race. As results failed to arrive, the team was cut back throughout the year.
After Vanderpleyn had left the team in September, Enzo Coloni took over the engineer's job himself but unsurprisingly this brought no improvement. The team finished equal 18th and last with Zakspeed, because the EuroBrun team never qualified that year; the Portuguese Grand Prix proved to be the last qualification for a Coloni car. An unexpected contract with Subaru, the automobile branch of Fuji Heavy Industries, brought substantial financial backing and additionally an exclusive "works" engine for free; the Japanese took over 51% of the Coloni team, paid the team's debts and supported the new alliance with a brand new, unique engine. It was a flat-12 engine. Chiti's Motori Moderni company at Novara had supplied V6 turbo engines for the Minardi team from 1985 to 1987, in 1988 Chiti had penned a aspirated V12 engine that attracted Subaru. In late 1988, the Japanese commissioned Chiti to design a new Formula One engine with a "flat" layout — as used in their road cars —, ready in the summer of 1989.
The engine, now with a Subaru badge, was tested in a Minardi M188 chassis but due to a severe lack of power Minardi soon lost interest. After a few months of searching, Subaru found the Coloni team; the "Subaru Coloni" Team was founded with Enzo Coloni st
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car; the death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made; the company struggled financially, released one last model in the 1950s, before being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group. Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region, part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919.
The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family. During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away to Milan and to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim. Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919, he exhibited three light cars, all of them based on their pre-war equivalents, each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder. Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm wheelbase; the others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,400 mm respectively. The company enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a entered Bugatti won the first Monaco Grand Prix.
Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice. Bugatti cars were successful in racing; the little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars; the Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who drove it in the car’s first Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon. Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans, most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources. In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize; this would be the Bugatti 100P.
It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body. Ettore Bugatti designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti; the death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died. World War II left the Molsheim factory in the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars. Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952. After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.
Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché finishes on them, safety wires had been threaded through every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts, he famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy". Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was owned by British race car driver Earl Howe; because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.
On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Mu
Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis.
Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles; the first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.
After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company; that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis.
The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932.
Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars. In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963.
Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6, DBS (1967–1
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh