Angus William McDonald
Angus William McDonald was a 19th-century American military officer and lawyer in the U. S. state of Virginia. He served as a colonel in command of the Confederate States Army's 7th Virginia Cavalry during the American Civil War. McDonald was appointed to serve in a number of prominent political positions including a superintendent overseeing the construction of the Northwestern Turnpike and a commissioner representing Virginia in its boundary dispute with Maryland. McDonald was the grandson of Virginia military officer and frontiersman, Angus McDonald and the father of United States Fish Commissioner Marshall McDonald. Angus William McDonald was born on February 1799 in Winchester, Virginia, he was the eldest child of prominent local planter Angus McDonald and his wife, Mary McGuire McDonald and the grandson of Virginia militiaman and landowner Angus McDonald. McDonald was of Scottish and Dutch descent through his father, of French and Irish descent through his mother. In 1809, following the death of his mother, McDonald and his younger brother and sister were sent by their father to "Glengarry" plantation near Winchester to live with their grandmother, Anna Thompson McDonald.
By about the age of twelve, McDonald attended Winchester Academy where he was taught by Scotchman Mr. Hetterick. While attending the academy in Winchester, McDonald resided at the home of his uncle, Edward McGuire. On July 30, 1814, McDonald entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York following his appointment by United States President James Madison. In October 1814, McDonald's father, a United States Army major, died following a forced march near Batavia, New York during operations related to the War of 1812. McDonald gained admission to the academy's fourth class, but after much progress, he was permitted to pass during the middle of his third year from the second class into the first class, thus completing his education there in three years. Among his close friends at the academy was Ethan Allen Hitchcock, whom McDonald would name his second eldest son after. McDonald graduated from the academy on July 17, 1817 and was subsequently promoted to the rank of third lieutenant in the 7th Infantry Regiment.
On April 1, 1818, McDonald was further promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in the 7th Infantry Regiment. McDonald served in garrison at New Orleans in 1817 and at Mobile Bay, Alabama in 1818. After several attempts at a transfer to a post within the American Frontier were unsuccessful, McDonald resigned his commission on January 31, 1819 and set out for the Western frontier to pursue a career in the fur trade. From Mobile Bay, he traveled to St. Louis in the Missouri Territory where he befriended a number of fur traders. McDonald embarked as a clerk employed by the Missouri Fur Company, within his first year with the company, he mastered several Native American languages and assumed the duties of a language interpreter. McDonald became a full partner of the company in his second year, but soon after, it went bankrupt and McDonald continued on by engaging in his own successful trapping and trading business on the Yellowstone River for another three years. During his experiences on the American frontier, McDonald formed associations with several Native American tribes and their chiefs, including "Tobacco", a powerful chief of the Mandan tribe.
McDonald's athletic physique and fearlessness earned him the sobriquet of "Big Knife" from various Native American tribes of the Missouri Territory. McDonald returned to St. Louis with cargoes of furs and skins, which earned him large sums of money. After about four years on the American frontier, McDonald became attracted by the prospects of settling and developing the southwestern frontier, he and ten of his colleagues crafted a plan to organize "a body of emigrants" on the American frontier and wrest Texas and the southwest from the United Mexican States and establish a sovereign state. McDonald returned to Virginia to recruit participants in his endeavor. Shortly before his would-be departure from Winchester, McDonald met Leacy Anne Naylor, the daughter of prominent Romney lawyer William Naylor. McDonald instead settled in Romney to study law. In a little over a year, McDonald was admitted to the bar and established his law practice in Romney. In addition to his law profession, McDonald served as deputy sheriff of Hampshire County.
Shortly after his admittance to the bar, McDonald married Leacy Anne Naylor on January 11, 1827. McDonald and his wife resided in a log dwelling located on Lot 26 at the intersection of West Main and North Bolton Streets in Romney; the house, presently an American Civil War museum known as the Davis History House, had been purchased by Leacy Anne's father William Naylor, she and McDonald raised their nine children there. McDonald became well known in the legal profession and continued to engage in and grow his lucrative law practice for the succeeding 17 years, which allowed him to amass and invest in large tracts of land in the American West, he was appointed or elected prosecuting attorney of Hampshire County in 1836. His son, Angus William McDonald Jr. joined his father in the legal profession. In 1832, McDonald was appointed state superintendent for the construction of the Northwestern Turnpike through Hampshire and present-day Mineral counties under the leadership of his former West Point professor of engineering, Virginia Board of Public Works chief engineer Claudius Crozet.
McDonald created many enemies in his role as superintendent due to his attunement to cost efficiency and his "haughty" nature. He succeeded in building the turnpike through fer
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut thus not a true botanical nut, it is used for food after being processed, while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea; the walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids. Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree used for the meat after ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, commercially found in two segments. During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard; the shell encloses the kernel or meat, made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants; the antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.
Walnuts are late to grow leaves not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing; because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them. The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut; the English walnut originated in Persia, the black walnut is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut. Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut, J. cinerea, J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California. In 2016, worldwide production of walnuts was 3.7 million tonnes, with China contributing 48% of the world total.
Other major producers were: United States, Turkey, Mexico and Chile. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 19 tonnes per hectare. In 2014, the United States was the world's largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey; the Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of total United States commerce in English walnuts. It has been been found naturalized in England. Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations. A mold-infested walnut batch should be discarded; the ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C and low humidity – for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities. Temperatures above 30 °C, humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses.
Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form. Walnut meats are available in two forms; the meats may be whole, halved, or in smaller portions due to processing. Walnuts are candied, may be used as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be purchased in both raw and roasted forms. All walnuts can be eaten on their own or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish. For example, walnut soup and walnut pie are prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient. Walnut Whip and walnut cake, pickled walnuts are more examples. Walnut is the main ingredient of a khoresh in Iranian cuisine. Walnuts are popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods. Nocino is a liqueur made from unripe green walnuts steeped in alcohol with syrup added. Walnut oil is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient in salad dressings.
It has a low smoke point. Walnuts without shells are 4% water, 15% protein, 65% fat, 14% carbohydrates, including 7% dietary fiber. In a 100-gram serving, walnuts provide 2,740 kilojoules and rich content of several dietary minerals manganese at 163% DV, B vitamins. While English walnuts are the most consumed, their nutrient density and profile are similar to those of black walnuts. Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration provided a Qualified Health Claim allowing products containing walnuts to state
Alexander W. Monroe
Alexander W. Monroe was a prominent American lawyer and military officer in the U. S. states of West Virginia. Monroe served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and West Virginia House of Delegates representing Hampshire County, he was the Speaker of the West Virginia House of Delegates during the 1875–1877 legislative session. Monroe represented Hampshire County in the West Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1872. Monroe was born in Hampshire County, Virginia in 1817. At the age of 18, he and his siblings were orphaned and he became a schoolteacher to provide for the education of his brothers and sisters, he became a county surveyor, studied jurisprudence. Monroe was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, during which time he participated in the 1851 reform of the Constitution of Virginia, he was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1858 and in 1861, he purchased the Virginia Argus and Hampshire Advertiser newspaper, which he operated until the onset of the American Civil War. In 1861, Monroe commanded the 114th Regiment of the Virginia militia with the rank of colonel.
The 114th Regiment took part in several skirmishes in Hampshire County. Following the regiment's disbandment, Monroe volunteered and raised a battalion of cavalry within the 18th Virginia Volunteer Cavalry Regiment of the regular Confederate States Army, he commanded the rear guard during the withdrawal of Confederate forces under the command of General Robert E. Lee from the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 protecting the 27-mile -long wagon train. Monroe served in the Virginia House of Delegates throughout the Civil War. Monroe returned to the practice of law and in 1872 was a participant in the West Virginia Constitutional Convention. From 1875 to 1877, he was a member of the West Virginia House of Delegates and was twice elected speaker, he was the first delegate to represent Hampshire County in both the Virginia General Assembly and the West Virginia Legislature. Monroe was twice appointed as a director of the West Virginia Hospital for the Insane, he again served in the West Virginia House of Delegates from 1879 to 1883.
Monroe retired to his farm on the Little Cacapon River and died in 1905. Alexander W. Monroe was born on December 29, 1817, in Hampshire County and was the oldest child of Robert and Elizabeth Monroe, his parents were of Scottish descent. Monroe's great uncle, Dr. John Monroe, was an early physician and Baptist minister in Hampshire County. Monroe had four younger brothers and two sisters: Robert W. Monroe, James W. Monroe, J. Walker Monroe, Marion Monroe, a Mrs. Snapp, Sarah Ann Monroe Garrett, his brother, Robert W. Monroe, was appointed by United States President Grover Cleveland as an Indian agent in Idaho. At the age of 18, Monroe and his siblings were orphaned, Monroe took responsibility for the rearing and education of his four younger brothers and two sisters. To accomplish this feat, he taught school during the winter months, worked the family's farm during the growing season. Monroe studied surveying and began his career in public service as the county surveyor for Hampshire County. During his tenure, he surveyed the majority of the county's land tracts.
Monroe read law in Romney under Alfred P. White. While studying law, he was elected to represent Hampshire County in the Virginia House of Delegates alongside William P. Stump between 1850 and 1851. Monroe was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates during the 1851 reform of the Constitution of Virginia. In 1857, he was nominated as a Democratic candidate to represent the Hampshire County district in the Senate of Virginia. Monroe was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1858 at the age of 41 and engaged in a law practice in Romney. In 1859, he was elected the Commonwealth's Attorney for Hampshire County. Monroe and Job N. Cookus purchased the Virginia Argus and Hampshire Advertiser newspaper in Romney in 1861. During their joint ownership, the offices for the Virginia Argus and Hampshire Advertiser were located in an old stone building that housed the Romney Academy behind the Hampshire County Courthouse. Monroe and Cookus continued serving as its editors and publishers until the Union Army closed down the Advertiser's offices in August 1861, after which the newspaper was not revived.
Following the outbreak of the American Civil War in July 1861, Monroe commanded the 114th Regiment of the Virginia militia with the rank of colonel. At age 43, Monroe was the oldest colonel, by his commission, serving in the Virginia militia. On October 26, 1861, Monroe's 114th Regiment took part in a skirmish against a unit within the left column formation of Union Army troops under the command of Brigadier General Benjamin Franklin Kelley; the skirmish took place at present-day Blues Beach where a wire bridge carried the Moorefield and North Branch Turnpike across the South Branch Potomac River at the Lower Hanging Rocks. Monroe led 300 soldiers of the 114th Regiment in the Battle of Blue's Gap on January 7, 1862. Monroe remained the commanding officer of the 114th Regiment until its disbandment by the Congress of the Confederate States in April 1862. While serving in the Confederate States Army, Monroe completed another term as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates between 1862 and 1865.
He participated in the Virginia General Assembly for each legislative session conducted during wartime, returning to his military duties following each session's adjournment. Following the passage of the Conscription Bill by the Confederate States Congress, Monroe volunteered and raised a battalion of ca
Isaac Parsons (American military officer)
Isaac Parsons was an American planter and military officer in the U. S. state of Virginia. Parsons served as a Justice of the Peace of Hampshire County's District 3 from 1852 to 1853, he served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing Hampshire County from 1854 until 1857. Parsons was the grandson of Virginia House Delegate Isaac Parsons, the great-grandson of Colonial Virginia military officer William Foreman, the grandfather of First Lady of West Virginia, Edna Brady Cornwell. Parsons inherited his family's Wappocomo plantation north of Romney. In 1855, fugitive slave Jacob Green escaped from Parsons' Wappocomo plantation to Pennsylvania along with several other slaves. Parsons and his nephews went north to pursue the escapees, resulting in the arrest of his nephew, James "Zip" Parsons III; the arrest and trial of Parsons' nephew caused a dispute between the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania over the latter's refusal to execute the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Following the trial, a dispute ensued between Parsons and Charles James Faulkner over legal fees in 1857.
At the time of the dispute, Faulkner was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia's 8th congressional district. Parsons declared that Faulkner had offered his legal services at no cost during his nephew's trial. Following the onset of the American Civil War, Parsons served on Hampshire County's "committee for safety". Parsons received permission to raise an independent company of mounted infantry to provide defense along the border, he served as a military officer in the Huckleberry Rangers and Company K of the 13th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the Confederate States Army. Parsons died of natural causes following a skirmish with Union Army cavalry at Grassy Lick Run in 1862. Isaac Parsons was born on January 1814, in Hampshire County, West Virginia, he was the third son of his wife Mary Catherine Casey Parsons. The Parsons family was a prominent American family whose ancestors had arrived to the Thirteen Colonies from England in 1635, relocated to Hampshire County around 1740.
Parsons' paternal grandfather, of which he is a namesake, Isaac Parsons served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing Hampshire County from 1789 until his death in 1796. Through his mother, Parsons was a great-grandson of Colonial Virginia military officer William Foreman. Parsons was raised through childhood to adulthood on his family's Wappocomo plantation north of Romney. Following the death of James Gregg Parsons on January 25, 1847, his last will and testament dated November 7, 1846, probated February 22, 1847, devised Lot Number 21 including Wappocomo to his son Colonel Isaac Parsons. Parsons' brother James "Big Jim" Parsons, Jr. inherited the Collins tract and his other brother David C. Parsons inherited Lot Number 13. Parsons and his brothers inherited the nearby "Jake Sugar Rum tract, the McGuire tract, five town lots in Romney". Parsons acquired Wappocomo plantation outright, in 1861 he undertook a two-story stone expansion to the main house at Wappocomo; the ballroom in the upper story of this addition served as the scene of many parties.
Following the ratification of the 1851 Constitution of Virginia, Parsons was elected to serve as a justice of the peace for Hampshire County's District 3 in 1852 and 1853. Parsons served in this office alongside David Gibson, T. M. Davis, Joseph C. Pancake. Parsons served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing Hampshire County from 1854 until 1857. Parsons represented Hampshire County, a multi-member electoral district, in the following sessions of the Virginia House of Delegates: the 1854 session alongside Jesse Lupton. Prior to the American Civil War, Parsons was an ardent proponent of Virginia's secession and the passage of an Ordinance of Secession. In August 1855, Jacob Green, a slave owned by Parsons, escaped from Wappocomo farm with four other slaves from neighboring plantations. In October of that year, Green returned to Parsons' plantation in Romney, persuaded four or five slaves from neighboring farms owned by Parsons family relatives to escape with him to Pennsylvania.
A party of eight to ten men, including Parsons and two of his nephews, James "Zip" Parsons III and a Mr. Stump, went north in pursuit of the escapees. In the course of the pursuit, they captured two of Stump's escaped slaves, who were sent back to Hampshire County. James Parsons III was the son of Parsons' brother James "Big Jim" Parsons, Jr. and his wife Elizabeth Miller Parsons. With information obtained from the two recaptured slaves, Parsons went to Johnstown, James Parsons III to Hollidaysburg, Stump to Altoona, where they hoped to intercept Green as he headed west on the Allegheny Portage Railroad and Main Line Canal toward Pittsburgh. James Parsons III intercepted Green at Hollidaysburg, but local abolitionists thwarted his attempt to capture Green, he was arrested and arraigned for kidnapping. Upon learning of the arrest of his nephew, Parsons sought the assistance of Charles James Faulkner, a prominent Martinsburg lawyer and United States House Representative from Virginia's 8th congressional district, of James Murray Mason, a United States Senator from Virginia.
Faulkner and Mason both offered their legal services
Romney, West Virginia
Romney is a city in and the county seat of Hampshire County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 1,940 at the 2000 census, while the area covered by the city's ZIP code had a population of 5,873; the population was 1,848 at the 2010 census. Established by consecutive acts of the Virginia House of Burgesses and approved by the governor on December 23, 1762, Romney and Mecklenberg, in Jefferson County, are the oldest towns in West Virginia; the bill containing the Act for establishing the town of Romney, in the county of Hampshire, for other purposes therein-mentioned, is listed 20th on a list of approved "publick and private bills" and is followed by An Act for establishing the town of Mecklenburg, in the county of Frederick. Settled in 1725 by hunters and traders, Romney was known as Pearsall's Flats and was the site of the French and Indian War stockade Fort Pearsall. Named for the Cinque Ports town of Romney, England by Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the town still bears place names and symbols from its colonial past such as its Marsham Street, named for Robert Marsham, 2nd Baron Romney.
It is home to the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind and the nation's First Confederate Memorial in Indian Mound Cemetery. Romney is located at 39°20′42″N 78°45′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.96 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Romney has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,848 people, 843 households, 410 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,925.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 967 housing units at an average density of 1,007.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.8% White, 2.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 843 households of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 51.4% were non-families.
46.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 41.9 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.1% male and 55.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,940 people, 884 households, 454 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,114.3 people per square mile. There were 974 housing units at an average density of 1,061.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.91% White, 1.91% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.21% from other races, 0.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 884 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.7% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.6% were non-families.
44.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.97 and the average family size was 2.72. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 26.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 68.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,261, the median income for a family was $34,271. Males had a median income of $28,667 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,765. About 17.2% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.5% of those under age 18 and 18.2% of those age 65 or over. Arnold House The families Millar and Arnold are associated with this house built in 1770, it was the home of Isaac Millar, a prominent officer during the American Revolutionary War and civic leader.
Blue House This has been home to descendants of Lieutenant John Blue, famed Confederate spy, whose memoirs were published in Hanging Rock Rebel. Boxwood Reportedly sold for about $10 for unpaid taxes, the house was used as an American Civil War hospital, it is said that each of the 56 changes between the Northern and Southern armies during the Civil War in Romney took place under the great elm in the front yard. The Buffalo House at Fern Cliff Isaac Pancake built the original log portion in the early 19th century. Restored with additions made, it is the home of John and Barbara Pancake; the Burg Built around 1769, this property has been in the original family for seven generations. It was used as headquarters by both armies during the Civil War. Cookman Building Built as the Bank of Romney building and served as the offices for the Hampshire Review newspaper until 2009. County Poor Farm Originally a glebe-house for the local Episcopal church and Hampshire County's "poor farm." Davis History House The Davis House was home to the Davis family which sent
Romney Literary Society
The Romney Literary Society existed from January 30, 1819, to February 15, 1886, in Romney, West Virginia. Established as the Polemic Society of Romney, it became the first organization of its kind in the present-day state of West Virginia, one of the first in the United States; the society was founded by nine prominent men of Romney with the objectives of advancing literature and science and maintaining a library, improving educational opportunities. The society debated an extensive range of scientific and social topics violating its own rules which banned religious and political subjects. Though its membership was small, its debates and activities were discussed throughout the Potomac Highlands region, the organization influenced trends of thought in the Romney community and surrounding areas; the society's library began in 1819 with the acquisition of two books. The organization sought to establish an institution for "the higher education of the youth of the community." In 1820, as a result of this initiative, the teaching of the classics was introduced into the curriculum of Romney Academy, thus making the institution the first school of higher education in the Eastern Panhandle.
In 1846, the society constructed a building which housed the Romney Classical Institute and its library, both of which fell under the society's supervision. The institute was administered by noted Presbyterian Reverend William Henry Foote. Following a dispute with the society, Foote founded a rival school in Romney, known as the Potomac Seminary, in 1850; the Romney Literary Society and the Romney Classical Institute continued to grow in influence until the onset of the American Civil War in 1861. The contents of the society's library were plundered by Union Army forces, only 400 of the library's volumes could be recovered following the war's end in 1865. Reorganized in 1869, the society took a leading role in Romney's civil development during Reconstruction. Between 1869 and 1870, it completed construction of Literary Hall, where the society held meetings and reassembled its library; the organization used its influence to secure the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind for the town of Romney, offered the school its former Romney Classical Institute campus.
The schools opened on September 29, 1870. Interest in the society waned during its final years, its last recorded meeting was held in 1886; the Romney Literary Society was organized on January 30, 1819, by nine prominent men of Romney in the office of Dr. John Temple, a reputable physician in the community; the society was formed with the purpose "of taking into consideration the propriety of financing a Society, having for its object the advancement of Literature and Science, the purchase of a Library by and for the use of its members. With its establishment, the Romney Literary Society became the first organization of its kind in the present-day state of West Virginia, one of the first in the United States; the nine men at the society's first meeting were Thomas Blair, David Gibson, James P. Jack, Samuel Kercheval, Jr. Nathaniel Kuykendall, Charles T. Magill, James M. Stephens, John Temple, William C. Wodrow. According to historian Hu Maxwell, these men elected Kuykendall as chairman and Magill as secretary of a committee, charged with the drafting of a constitution for the society.
On February 4, 1819, the committee delivered its draft of the constitution and the society adopted the document, which provided that the organization should be known as the Polemic Society of Romney. The society's constitution specified that the officers should consist of a president and treasurer, each of whom was to be selected by a ballot vote; the constitution further stipulated that each member was to pay dues of 50 cents per month, that the society had the authority to levy further financial contributions from its members as it deemed necessary. The funds collected were to cover the society's operating costs, the remaining funds were to be used in purchasing books for the library. Under the constitution, the society's meetings were to be held weekly. Following each meeting's business session, a debate or other literary exercises were to be held consisting of topics of general interest of the members. No political or religious discussions were to take place during the debates unless they were of an abstract nature or in general terms.
Profane language and "spirituous liquors" were forbidden from the society's meetings, with each offense being punishable with a fine of one dollar. The society's first elected officers were Charles T. Magill as president, William C. Wodrow as secretary, John Temple as treasurer; the society's next meeting was held on February 13, 1819, in the old Hampshire County Courthouse, where the first matter for debate was "Resolved: That a representative should be governed by instructions from his constituents." Following the debate, the decision was rendered in favor of the affirmative. The second meeting, held on February 19 of that year at the Romney Academy, debated the question, "Is an education acquired at the public school or a private tutor to be preferred?" and the society favored the public school. At this second meeting, the first money appropriated by the society was paid to the doorkeeper for a sum of 25 cents. At this second meeting, the treasurer was instructed to purchase a book for use by the secretary, three candlesticks, one pair of snuffers, three pounds of candles.
On February 26, t