Souda is an islet in Souda Bay on the northwest coast of Crete. In ancient times this islet was one of two islets; the second islet is known today as Leon. The island was fortified by the Venetians due to its strategic location, controlling the entrance to the anchorage of Souda Bay. Although the rest of Crete fell to Ottoman control in the Cretan War, the fortress of Souda remained in Venetian hands until 1715, when they too fell to the Ottomans. During this time, the island served as a refuge for Cretan insurgents. On the northwest side of the islet, a small distance away, there is another islet, round in shape, which used to be referred to on medieval Venetian maps as Rabbit Island. In ancient times these two islets were referred to as Leukai, their name came from the ancient Greek myth about a musical contest between the Sirens and the Muses. Out of their anguish from losing the competition, writes Stephanus of Byzantium, the Muses plucked their rivals' feathers from their wings. List of islands of Greece
Pontikonisi is an uninhabited islet off the coast of western Crete. Administratively, it is part of the municipality Kissamos, in Chania regional unit. There is a small islet close to Pontikonisi called Pontikaki. List of islands of Greece
Gramvousa Grampousa refers to two small uninhabited islands off the coast of a peninsula known Gramvousa Peninsula in north-western Crete in the regional unit of Chania. The Gramvousa Peninsula forms the westernmost of the two pairs of peninsulae in north-western Crete and is the western part of Kissamos Bay; the Gramvousa islands are administered from the municipality of Kissamos. Imeri Gramvousa, which translates to Tame Gramvousa, hosts the remains of a Venetian fort and the remains of buildings left behind by Cretan insurgents, who were compelled to live as pirates during the Greek War of Independence. Today, Imeri Gramvousa is a popular tourist attraction. Agria Gramvousa, which translates to Wild Gramvousa, is much less hospitable and is located due north of Imeri Gramvousa, it has been named False Gramvousa. In ancient times the larger island was known as Korykos; the island was name "Gramvousa" in honour of Vousa, the wife of a pirate chief and the only inhabitant of the island to evade capture when the pirates were forcibly removed.
The fort at Imeri Gramvousa was built between 1579 and 1584 during Venetian rule over Crete to defend the island from the Ottoman Turks. The fort remained in Venetian hands throughout the prolonged Cretan War, in the treaty of 16 September 1669, which surrendered Crete to the Ottomans, along with the fortresses of Souda and Spinalonga, was retained by Venice; these three forts defended Venetian trade routes and were strategic bases in the event of a new Ottoman–Venetian war for Crete. On 6 December 1691, during the Morean War, the Neapolitan Captain de la Giocca betrayed the Venetians by surrendering Gramvousa to the Ottoman Turks for a generous bribe, he lived the rest of his life in Constantinople and was well known by the nickname "Captain Grambousas". Not long after the start of Turkish rule, Cretan insurgents used to gather at the three coastal forts which included Gramvousa. With the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, the fort fell to the insurgents' hands. In 1823, Emmanouil Tombazis, the Greek provisional government's commissioner for Crete, failed to strengthen the defences at Gramvousa when he had the opportunity, soon after his arrival on the island.
Towards the summer of 1825, a body of three to four hundred Cretans, who had fought with other Greeks in the Peloponnese, journeyed to Crete. On 9 August 1825, led by Dimitrios Kallergis and Emmanouil Antoniadis, this group of Cretans, disguised as Turks, captured the fort at Gramvousa, which became their base; these and subsequent actions revitalized the Cretan insurgency, ushering the so-called "Gramvousa period". Although the Ottomans did not manage to retake the fort, they were successful in blocking the spread of the insurgency to the islands' western provinces; the insurgents were besieged in Gramvousa for more than two years and they had to resort to piracy to survive. Gramvousa became a hive of piratical activity that affected Turkish-Egyptian and European shipping in the region. During that period the population of Gramvousa became organised and they built a school and a church; the church was called Panagia i Kleftrina and was dedicated to the wives of the klephts, namely the pirates.
In 1828, the new Governor of Greece, Ioannis Kapodistrias, sent Alexander Mavrocordatos with British and French ships to Crete to deal with the pirates. This expedition resulted in the destruction of all pirate ships at Gramvousa and the fort came under British control. On 5 January 1828, on Kapodistrias' orders Hatzimichalis Dalianis landed at Gramvousa with 700 men. During the Cretan revolt of 1878, only the forts at Gramvousa, Spinalonga, Rethymnon, Izeddin and Kissamos could not be captured by the insurgents because they did not have the necessary artillery. There is a lagoon, named the Balos lagoon, between the coast of Crete. There is an islet which forms part of a cape, through the lagoon, called Cape Tigani. North of Balos, at the Korykon cape, are the ruins of the small ancient Roman city of Agnion, with a temple to the god Apollo. List of islands of Greece Maltezou, Chrysas A.. "Η Κρήτη κατα τη Βενετοκρατία". In Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. Crete and Civilization. II. Vikelea Library, Association of Regional Associations of Regional Municipalities.
Pp. 105–162. Detorakis, Theocharis. "Η Τουρκοκρατία στην Κρήτη". In Panagiotakis, Nikolaos M. Crete and Civilization. II. Vikelea Library, Association of Regional Associations of Regional Municipalities. Pp. 333–436. Severin, The Ulysses Voyage: Sea Search for the Odyssey
Gavdos is the southernmost Greek island, located to the south of its much larger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the regional unit of Chania. It was part of the former Selino Province; the island is situated at the southern tip of Greece, thus making it the southernmost point of the entire European continent. Gavdos has been known by a wide variety of names. For example, it appears in the biblical account of Paul's journey to Rome in Acts 27 as "Clauda" or "Cauda"; the island was referred to as "Cauda" by Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, as "Gaudos" by Pliny. Ptolemy called Gavdos "Claudos"; the Venetians called it "Gotzo" in imitation of the Maltese island "Gozo". From the 17th to the 19th centuries, the island was known as "Gondzo". A Turkish name of Godzo was "Bougadoz"; the island is 26 nautical miles south of Chora Sfakion. The area of the municipality, which includes the small island Gavdopoula, is 32.424 square kilometres. The island is triangular in shape, its highest point is 345 metres.
The southeastern corner is a rocky peninsula with a natural arch carved by the elements, called Trypiti. A sculpture of an oversized chair sits on top of Trypiti. There is an islet called Gavdopoula to the north west of Gavdos. Gavdos and Gavdopoula are covered with low-lying shrubs. Both are important stops for migrating birds. Local birds include the European shag. Gavdos has a variety of other vegetation, such as maquis as well as forests of pines and junipers. Gavdos is the southernmost island in Greece and all of Europe, with a warm Mediterranean subtropical climate typical of the Greek islands, summers are hot with daily temperatures reaching 32 ° C in August and mild winters by European standards, the coldest month has an average temperature of 17 ° C; the Mediterranean Sea is an important thermal regulator that surrounds it island in all its directions, while maintaining the high temperature of the sea in summer passing from 26 ° C. The mild climate is aided by hot winds blowing from the Sahara Desert.
The countless mountains of the Balkans protect from the cold, continental air, in addition to its island condition. As a result of the Subtropical High of the Azores precipitation is concentrated in winter, making summers dry with no precipitation days during June and August months, it is the sunniest place in Europe and with the highest number of radiation: between 1800 and 1900 kWh/m², values closer to North Africa and the Middle East. There are only a small number of year-round residents of services for tourists are basic; as of 2011, the total population of Gavdos was 152. In reality, fewer than 50 people live permanently on the island. In the summer the total people on the island can reach over 3,500, most of whom are campers and tourists; the largest man-made harbour for ferries is Karave. The island's capital is Kastri; the southernmost populated village is Vatsiana, with a total permanent population of 31 people. Gavdos has supported a permanent population since Neolithic times. However, the island has few permanent residents.
Gavdos has been identified as a possible site of the mythical Ogygia where Kalypso held Odysseus prisoner. Archaeological evidence showed. During that time the flora of the island was overexploited and that started a process of erosion which has continued to this day. Gavdos had 8,000 inhabitants by 900 AD. During the Ottoman Empire's reign on the island, which lasted from 1665 until 1895, Gavdos was known as Gondzo. During this period the population decreased to only 500 by 1882. A reference to Saracens on the island survives: the beach Sarakiniko. In the 1930s the island was used as a place of exile of communists. During World War II, allied forces evacuated some forces to Gavdos following the German victory in the battle of Crete. On, the general phase of urbanization that started in other parts of Greece in the 1960s took place in the 1950s on Gavdos. During that period the islanders exchanged their land on Gavdos with ex-Turkish land on Crete, which had now become exchangeable via the state.
Upon settling in Crete they created a community known as Gavdiotika, part of the town of Paleochora. There are many abandoned terraces on Gavdos. There still is some agriculture on Gavdos. During the summer, the population of the island swells to a few thousand because of tourists, although there are few facilities for tourists. There is one year-round cafe in Carave on Gavdos run by Evangelina Tsigonakis. There is a modern non-functioning reproduction lighthouse tower on Gavdos which now serves as a cafe during the summer season. Gavdos has an FM radio station, Gavdos FM 88.8, available online. Following years of isolation, in 1996 the island came to media prominence. In a NATO exercise Gavdos was the focal point of a confrontation between Turkey. Following that, Prime Minister Costas Simitis visited Gavdos and announced a five-year, €1.5 million plan for the island's development. In 2001, Costis Stephanopoulos, the Greek President, inaugurated a telemedicine centre on Gavdos, an
Glaronisi (Greek: Γλαρονήσι, "seagull island" known as Petalidi, is an islet off the northwest coast of the island Dia, north of the Greek island of Crete. Glaronisi is administered from Gouves in Heraklion regional unit. List of islands of Greece
Trachylinae is a subclass of hydrozoans. It is placed at order rank in many older classifications, limited to contain the Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae, but the Actinulidae considered an independent order, also the Limnomedusae which were traditionally placed in the paraphyletic "Hydroida", belong to this group too. It is not clear whether the Limnomedusae and the Trachymedusae as conventionally circumscribed are monophyleticThe freshwater jelly Craspedacusta sowerbyi is a well-known member of the Limnomedusae and might thus belong here. Schuchert, Peter: The Hydrozoa Directory - Hydrozoan Phylogeny and Classification. Retrieved 2008-JUL-08
Dia pronounced locally Ntia, is an uninhabited island off the northern coast of the Greek island of Crete. The island is 7 nautical miles north of Heraklion. Administratively, Dia is part of the community of Elaia within the municipal unit of Gouves, Heraklion regional unit, by the municipality of Elias; the island was known as Standia, by juncture loss in the phrase στήν Δία. It was the principal port of Crete for centuries; the islet looks. There is a legend that a giant lizard tried to destroy the island of Crete, but Zeus turned it in to stone with a thunderbolt, thus creating the island; the island is visible from Crete's capital city of Heraklion, as it would have been in the time of the Minoan kingdom, from the capital of Knossos. Because of this, it was sometimes identified as the island that Theseus escaped to after killing the Minotaur. On Dia there are a number of protected creatures including: the snail Albinaria retusa, the lizard Podarcis erchardii schiebeli, the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus cnossius, Eleonora's falcon, known as mavropetritis in Greek.
Dia is a protected hunting ground. There are a number of protected plants such as Carlina diae. In 1976, Jacques Cousteau carried out underwater exploration around Dia and found the remains of an ancient port in the waters between Heraklion and Dia. List of islands of Greece