Districts of Lebanon
The 8 governorates of Lebanon are subdivided into 26 districts. The Beirut Governorate is not subdivided. Akkar Governorate Akkar Baalbek-Hermel Governorate Baalbek Hermel Beirut Governorate BeirutBeqaa Governorate Rashaya Western Beqaa Zahle Mount Lebanon Governorate Aley Baabda Chouf Jbeil Keserwan Matn Nabatieh Governorate Bint Jbeil Hasbaya Marjeyoun Nabatieh North Governorate Batroun Bsharri Koura Miniyeh-Danniyeh District Tripoli Zgharta South Governorate Sidon Jezzine Tyre The districts are further divided into municipalities. Governorates of Lebanon List of municipalities of Lebanon Subdivisions of Lebanon
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Camille Nimr Chamoun was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War. Camille Nimr Chamoun was born at Deir el-Qamar on 3 April 1900 into a prominent Maronite family, he received a law degree from St. Joseph University, he was first elected to the Lebanese parliament in 1934, was reelected in 1937 and 1943. A champion of independence from France, he was arrested on 11 November 1943, was imprisoned in Rashaïa castle, where he was held for eleven days, along with Bishara el-Khoury and Riad Al Solh, who were to become the first President and Prime Minister of the new republic. Massive public protests led to their release on 22 November, which has since been celebrated as the Lebanese Independence Day. Chamoun was reelected to parliament called the National Assembly, in 1947 and 1951, he was absent, however, as he served as ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1944 to 1946, as ambassador to the United Nations thereafter.
In 1930, he married Zelpha Tabet with whom he had two sons and Dany. When President Bishara el-Khoury was forced to resign amid corruption allegations in 1952, Chamoun was elected to replace him. Near the end of his term, Pan-Arabists and other groups backed by Nasser, with considerable support in Lebanon's Muslim community, attempted to overthrow Chamoun's government in June 1958 after Chamoun tried to illegally seek another term as president; this mood may have been itself indicative of the fact that nine Prime Ministers formed cabinets under the six years of Chamoun's Presidency, hence Sunni politicians were not always able to justify their association with his politics to their constituencies and popular power base. This fact was evident in the pressures that faced the El-Bizri political base in Sidon while the longstanding parliamentarian Dr. Nazih El-Bizri served as a cabinet minister during Chamoun's term. Facing unrest in the country, with its epicentre in Sidon at the start of the protests, Chamoun appealed to the United States for help under the new Eisenhower Doctrine, American marines landed in Beirut.
Moreover, Naim Moghabghab, a close friend and political ally and led a military group to reinforce Chamoun's position. Many battles occurred in Beirut and in the Chouf district, where clashes between Naim Moghabghab and Kamal Jumblatt's men led to bloody fights; the revolt was squashed, but to appease Muslim anger, General Fuad Chehab who claimed that he was a Christian enjoying considerable popularity in the Muslim community, was elected to succeed Chamoun. The American diplomat Robert D. Murphy, sent to Lebanon as personal representative of President Eisenhower, played a significant role in allowing Chamoun to finish his mandate term and Chehab be elected according to the constitutional procedures. On his retirement from the presidency, Chamoun founded the National Liberal Party; as the leader of this party, Chamoun was elected to the National Assembly again in 1960, much to the consternation of President Chehab. He was defeated in 1964, due to changes to the boundaries of his electoral district, which he and his supporters protested as deliberate gerrymandering.
He was reelected to the National Assembly, however, in 1968, again in 1972—Lebanon's last parliamentary election held in his lifetime. Following the election of 1968, the National Liberal Party held 11 seats out of 99, becoming the largest single party in the notoriously fractured National Assembly, it was the only political party to elect representatives from all of Lebanon's major religious confessions. In the 1970s and 1980s, Chamoun served in a variety of portfolios in the Cabinet, including interior minister; this was during the Lebanese Civil War, in which Chamoun and the NLP participated through the party's militia, the "Tigers". In the early stages of the war, he helped found the Lebanese Front, a coalition of Christian politicians and parties, whose united militia—dominated by the Kataeb Party — became known as the Lebanese Forces. Chamoun was chairman of the Front from 1976 to 1978. In a 1976 diplomatic cable from Beirut, special U. S. envoy L. Dean Brown stated, "If I got nothing else from my meeting with Frangie and Gemayel, it is their clear and unmistakable belief that their principal hope for saving Christian necks is Syria.
They sound like Assad is the latest incarnation of the Crusaders."Though aligned with Syria, inviting its army to intervene against the leftist Lebanese National Movement and its Palestinian allies in 1976, Chamoun gravitated towards opposition to the Syrian presence. In 1980, the NLP's Tigers militia was destroyed by a surprise attack from Chamoun's Christian rival, Bashir Gemayel. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Chamoun decided to enter a tactical cooperation with Israel, in order to oppose what he considered a Syrian occupation. At 1984, Chamoun agreed to join the National Unity government as deputy prime minister, a post he held until his death on 7 August 1987 at the age of 87, he died of a heart attack at Saint Georges Hospital in Beirut. He spent his last months in the care of his protégé Aida Yahchouchi and her husband Joseph Wehbe, he is remembered as one of the main Christian nationalist leaders, one of the last significant figures of Lebanon's pre-war generation of politicians whose political influence was eclipsed during the war by that of younger militia commanders..
Camille Chamoun had two sons and Dory, both of whom became politicians in the NLP. List of Presidents of Lebanon
Hezbollah —also transliterated Hizbullah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General; the group, along with its military wing is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the United Kingdom and the European Union. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon State, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict.
Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government". Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers. Hezbollah's military strength has grown so that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.
Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state", has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda. Hezbollah finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds. Hezbollah receives military training and financial support from Iran, political support from Syria. Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War. After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests and clashes, a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power. In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands".
Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel. It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS. Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world, this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, controlled by the South Lebanon Army, a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran to harass the Israeli occupation, its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, in occupation of Lebanon at the time.
Scholars differ as to. Various sources list the official formation of the group as early as 1982 whereas Diaz and Newman maintain that Hezbollah remained an amalgamation of various violent Shi'a extremists until as late as 1985. Another version states that it was formed by supporters of Sheikh Ragheb Harb, a leader of the southern Shia resistance killed by Israel in 1984. Regardless of when the name came into official use, a number of Shi'a groups were assimilated into the organization, such as Islamic Jihad, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth and the Revolutionary Justice Organization; these designations are considered to be synonymous with Hezbollah by Israel and Canada. Hezbollah emerged in South Lebanon during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. Hezbollah played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982–83 and opposing Amal and Syria during the 1985–88 War of the Camps. However, Hezbollah's early primary focus was ending Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon following Israel's 1982 invasion and siege of Beirut.
Amal, the main Lebanese Shia political group, initiated guerrilla warfare. In 2006, former Israe
Nabih Berri is a Lebanese politician, the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon since 1992. He heads the Amal Movement, he was born in Bo, Sierra Leone to Lebanese Shia parents on 28 January 1938. Berri went to school in Tebnine and Ain Ebel in southern Lebanon continued his education in Bint Jbeil and Jaafariya supplementary schools in southern Lebanon and studied at the Makassed and the Ecole de la Sagesse in Beirut, he graduated with a Law degree from the Lebanese University in 1963, where he had served as the student body president, became a lawyer at the Court of Appeals. During 1963, Berri was elected as president of the National Union of Lebanese Students, participated to student and political conferences. During his early career he became a lawyer at the Court of Appeals. In the early 1970s, Berri worked in Beirut as a lawyer for several companies. In 1980, Berri was elected leader of the Amal Movement, led the resistance against the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and Beqaa and the most famous battle was the battle of khalde in 1982.
He was the key player of the Intifada of 6 February 1984 with his ally Walid Jumblatt leader of the Progressive Socialist Party against the Lebanese sectarian government of Amin Gemayel, where officers and soldiers were called to defect from the Lebanese Army and made ground for the Taif agreement that ended the civil war. Berri joined the National Unity government as minister of state for South Lebanon and reconstruction under Prime Minister Rashid Karami in May 1984, he served as the minister of housing and co-operatives. Berri served as a cabinet minister from 1984 till 1992: 30 April 1984 to 22 September 1988: Minister of Justice in the government of Rashid Karami. 25 November 1989 to 24 December 1990: Minister of Hydraulic & Electric Resources in the government of Selim Hoss. 25 November 1989 to 24 December 1990: Minister of Housing & Cooperatives in the government of Selim Hoss. 16 May 1992 to 31 October 1992: Minister of state in the government of Rachid Solh. Due to strong Syrian backing and to Berri's proximity to Syrian officials in Lebanon, he was reported to have the biggest influence in the Lebanese government formed after the Taif Accord.
Berri headed the list of "Liberation" in the parliamentary elections that took place in southern Lebanon on 6 September 1992, won in full. The other lists he headed were "Liberation and Development" in the parliamentary elections on 8 September 1996, won in full. Since 1992 he has chaired the Development parliamentary bloc. Berri headed the list of "Resistance and Development" in the parliamentary elections that took place in southern Lebanon on 3 September 2000, won in full, he headed the list of Liberation and Development in the parliamentary elections which took place in June 2005, won in full. Berri heads the list of "Liberation and Development" in the parliamentary elections on 7 June 2009. All the members of the Bloc won the elections in 2009. Speaker Nabih Berri was always and is still a major supporter of the dialogue between all Lebanese parties and sects. During the last national dialogue session in May 2014, Speaker Nabih Berri stressed that "power-sharing between Christians and Muslims in Lebanon would not change under any circumstance," adding that he spoke on behalf of Shiites and the Druze.
He was elected Speaker of the parliament of Lebanon for the first time on 20 October 1992. He was re-elected for a second time on 22 October 1996, he was elected to the same post three more times on 17 October 2000 unanimously, on 28 June 2005 and on 25 June 2009 Since 1999, he has chaired the Arab Parliament Committee in charge of disclosing Israeli crimes against Arab civilians. On 3 June 2003, he was elected president of the Arab Parliament and handed the presidency in Damascus on 1 March 2004 for a period of two years, he was elected president of the Council of the Parliamentary Union of the Member States. On 9 March 2004, Nabih Berri was elected President of the Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States in Dakar-Senegal until 9 March 2006. In 2013 and 2014 he supported the UCC, the teachers, public employees, the armed forces in Lebanon, in their fight to increase their salaries, has held many meeting with political leaders in an effort to attain his goal. Since 1993, he has chaired the Union of Parliamentarians of Lebanese Descent, including 156 members of parliament and senators from 19 countries.
Nabih Berri is married to Randa Assi Berri
Gebran Gerge Bassil is a Lebanese politician, as of 20 September 2015, the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement. Bassil was an activist for the Free Patriotic Movement from 1998 to 2005. In 2009, he served as the Minister of Telecommunications as the Minister of Water and Energy in 2011 and is the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants. In September 2015, he became the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement taking over the position, occupied by his father-in-law, founder of the FPM and Lebanese President, Michel Aoun. Bassil was born in a Maronite Christian family. Bassil received a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in civil engineering from the American University of Beirut in 1992 and 1993 respectively, he was a member of a number of associations: the Lebanese Red Cross and Rotary Club of Batroun, Lebanon. Between the years of 1998 and 2005, Gebran Bassil was an activist for various positions in the Free Patriotic Movement in Lebanon. In 2005, he became a candidate in the general elections in the district of Batroun.
He didn't succeed at getting elected. From 2005 to 2008, Bassil became the head of the Free Patriotic Movement, he served as the Minister of telecommunications in the Lebanese cabinet led by Fouad Siniora from May 2008 to June 2009, as the minister of energy in the cabinet headed by Saad Hariri Bassil lost the general elections held in 2009. He has been serving as the Minister of Energy and Water in the cabinet headed by Najib Mikati since June 2011, assumed the role of Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants as of February 2014. In the general election of 2018, Bassil was elected as a Member of Parliament for the Batroun-Koura-Zgharta-Bsharri electoral district. On 12 January 2011, the government collapsed after Bassil announced that all ten opposition ministers had resigned following months of warnings by Hezbollah that it would not remain inactive should there be indictments against the group; the New York Times suggested the resignations came after the collapse of talks between Syria and Saudi Arabia to ease tensions in Lebanon.
Lebanon's president Aoun and some Lebanese officials including Bassil believed that the abrupt resignation of Prime Minister Saad Hariri was made under coercion by Saudis and have claimed that the Saudis have kept him hostage. This led Bassil to visit multiple European countries and meet with senior EU leaders to rally diplomatic support for Lebanon and its stability. During his European tour, he met with High Representative/Vice-President of the European Union Federica Mogherini in Brussels, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Minister of Foreign Affairs Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, German FM Sigmar Gabriel, Russian FM Sergei Lavrov and French President Emmanuel Macron. Bassil and his wife Chantal Michel Aoun have three children, his father in law is the current Lebanese president and the former leader and the founder of the Free Patriotic Movement, Michel Aoun. In a meeting with FPM supporters in Batroun district, Bassil accused Speaker of the Parliament Nabih Berri of seeking to derail a diaspora conference organized by the Foreign Ministry in Abidjan by forcing Shiite businessmen to boycott the gathering.
Bassil accused Berri of threatening to have Shiite businessmen participating in the conference fired from their jobs and the bank funding the diaspora gathering closed. Bassil's comments were revealed in a leaked video, broadcast by Al Jadeed local TV station; the video sparked an outcry on social media with Finance Minister Ali Hassan Khalil, Berri's top political aide, blasting Bassil for crossing a red line and describing him as a "political dwarf" with sectarian motives. The leaked video triggered a wave of street protests by the Berri's supporters, who responded by blocking a number of Beirut’s major roads and vital arteries with burning tires. Bassil’s “thug” remark was the tip of the iceberg of long-simmering tension between the FPM and the Amal Movement that started with a decree that sought to promote a number of Army officers who has served under Aoun in the late 1980s when he was Army commander. Bassil was criticized by many Lebanese politicians after an interview in December 2017 with Al-Mayadeen in which he stated that Lebanon does not have an ideological problem with Israel.
He said in that interview that he was not against Israel "living in security". In March 2018 Bassil proposed amending Lebanese naturalization laws to allow citizenship to be passed from mothers onto their children; the bill drew criticism for not applying to women in marriages with men from neighbouring countries which activists argue is a violation of their rights. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers Free Patriotic Movement Michel Aoun
Lebanese Armed Forces
The Lebanese Armed Forces or Forces Armées Libanaises in French known as the Lebanese Army, is the military of the Lebanese Republic. It consists of three branches, the army, the air force, the navy; the motto of the Lebanese Armed Forces is "Honor, Loyalty". The Lebanese Armed Forces symbol consists of a Lebanon cedar tree surrounded by two laurel leaves, positioned above the symbols of the three branches: the ground forces represented by the two bayonets, the navy represented by an anchor, the air force represented by two wings; the Lebanese Armed Forces' primary missions include defending Lebanon and its citizens against external aggression, maintaining internal stability and security, confronting threats against the country's vital interests, engaging in social development activities and undertaking relief operations in coordination with public and humanitarian institutions. The armed forces consist of 72,000 active personnel with the ground force consisting of 65,000 troops, the air force 2,000 personnel and 5,000 in the naval force.
The remaining personnel are commanders, advisors and members of the special forces. All three branches are coordinated by the LAF Commander; the current commander in chief of the Lebanese Armed Forces is General Joseph Aoun. The LAF is ranked sixth in the world in terms of growth, with the number of military personnel doubling over the period between 1985 and 2000; the country has six military schools. Lebanese officers are sent to other countries such as the US, Russia or other parts of Europe to receive additional training; the equipment of the LAF is outdated due to lack of funds, political bickering and until the 2000s, the presence of foreign forces. The Lebanese government is working with its partners to improve the armed forces' capabilities. After the conclusion of the Lebanese Civil War, the LAF decided to repair as much of its equipment as it could, while being aided by modest donations from other nations; the United States remains a key partner for Lebanon in this improvement process.
About 85% of the LAF's equipment is American-made, with the remaining being British and Soviet-made. Being the crossroads of the ancient world and the modern world, Lebanon have been inhabited and defended by various different empires and nations be it natives or invaders. Notably, the Phoenicians who were the natives of Lebanon, constituted the first notion of defenders of Lebanon, as recorded by various historical sources, the Phoenicians brutally rebelled and fought different empires such as the Egyptians and Assyrians and Greeks... After, Lebanon became a part of the Roman empire for 5 centuries, the veterans of two Roman legions under Augustus were established in the city of Beirut. However, The Lebanese Army finds its original local roots in the armed forces that were first formed under Prince Fakher el-Din II the Great in the early 17th-century during the Principality of Lebanon; the first major victory came on October 31, 1622 against the Ottoman Empire Army under the lead of the Pasha of Damascus in the Battle of Majdel Anjar.
Outnumbered, Fakher el-Din was victorious and was able to capture the Pasha of Damascus himself and take over Syria and parts of Transjordan. During the period of the semi-autonomous province period of Mount Lebanon between 1861 and 1914, no Turkish troops were allowed to station within its boundary. Lebanon established its own army made up of volunteer militias; the beginnings of the modern Lebanese Army arose during 1916, when the French government established the "Legion of the Orient", which included Lebanese soldiers. After a post World War I League of Nations mandate was established over Lebanon in April 1920, France formed the Army of the Levant, reorganized into the "Troupes Spéciales du Levant"; these troops were composed of Lebanese and Syrian enlisted personnel, but were commanded predominantly by French officers. In 1926, the Lebanese First Sharp Shooters Unit was created out of the Special Troops of the Levant. During World War II, Lebanese troops fought in Lebanon with the Vichy French forces against Free French and British forces.
After the Vichy forces in the Middle East surrendered in July 1941, volunteers from the Troupes Spéciales du Levant enlisted in the Free French forces and participated in combat in Italy, North Africa, southern France. In 1943, prior to the declaration of Lebanese independence, all the military units were combined in one brigade, the Fifth Brigade, under the command of General Fouad Chehab. On the day Lebanon declared independence, the Lebanese Third Sharp Shooters Regiment was placed at the disposal of the Lebanese government in order to maintain security. In June of the same year, the French reconstituted units of the Troupes Spéciales du Levant, which were attached to the British forces in the Middle East; the majori