Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario.
Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.
Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions
Scalpay, Outer Hebrides
Scalpay is an island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Scalpay is around 4 kilometres long and rises to a height of 104 metres at Beinn Scorabhaig, the area of Scalpay is 653 hectares. The main settlement on the island is at the north, near the bridge, the island is peppered with small lochans. The largest of these is Loch an Duin which has an island in it. Eilean Glas, a peninsula on Scalpays eastern shore, is home to the first lighthouse to be built in the Outer Hebrides. Scalpays nearest neighbour, Harris, is just 300 metres away across the narrows of Caolas Scalpaigh, in 1997, a bridge from Harris to Scalpay was built, replacing a ferry service. Mac an Tàilleir suggests the name derives from ship island from the Norse, Haswell-Smith states that the Old Norse name was Skalprøy, meaning scallop island. The vast majority of the locals in Scalpay are Protestants, the island is home to two Presbyterian churches, the Free Church of Scotland and the Free Church of Scotland. Like most places in the Outer Hebrides, Sunday is a day that use to rest from work.
Respect for the Sabbath is appreciated by the islanders and they welcome all visitors to meet with them during the services. In 2001, the island had 322 people, whose employment was fish farming. By 2011 the population had declined by 9% to 291 whilst during the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702, Scalpay is home to many Gaelic singers and psalm presenters. The island used to have more than 10 shops over 30 years ago but due to lack of people and work, there used to be a salmon factory, which was a major local employer from 2001 until its closure in 2005. In the spring of 2009, local newspapers reported that the factory was to reopen as a net washing facility to support the fish farming industry. In 2012, the Scalpay community bought and opened a community shop/café, photographer Marco Secchi lived on Scalpay for few years between 2002-2008 and documented life and landscape of the Outer Hebrides. In 2011 the islands owner, Fred Taylor, announced that he proposed handing over the land to the local population.
One proposal was that the island would be owned by a development trust, under another proposal it would form part of the larger North Harris Trust. Islanders voted to accept the gift and assume community ownership of the island and they will go into partnership with the North Harris Community Trust to run the island
Killegray is an island in the Sound of Harris in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Situated in the Sound of Harris, a channel of water between North Uist and the Isle of Harris, Killegray is approximately 1 1⁄2 miles long, the south end of the island is nearly all deep uncultivated moss. There is better cultivated land at the north, rubha Claidhe in the north is the site of a ruined chapel, Teampull na h-Annait, which may be the origin of the islands name. Currently uninhabited, the island was occupied by a family of three to five people from 1861 to 1931. Two people were living on the island when the 1971 census was taken. The 19th-century Killegray House, the house on the island was renovated as holiday accommodation in 1991. The shallow waters and reefs are a breeding ground for velvet crabs. Jacobs Babtie has investigated building a combination of bridges and causeways across the Sound of Harris, wind turbines and tidal generators could be incorporated in the scheme from Berneray via Killegray and Ensay to Harris.
The estimated cost of £75 million could rise to £145 million with the renewable energy devices
A cairn is a human-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic, càrn, cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are often erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. Cairns are used as markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts. They vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, cairns may be painted or otherwise decorated, whether for increased visibility or for religious reasons. An ancient example is the inuksuk, used by the Inuit, Kalaallit, inuksuit are found from Alaska to Greenland. This region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks, different types of cairns exist from rough piles of stones to interlocking dry stone round cylinders. The most important cairns commonly used around the world are interlocking stone survey cairns constructed around a central survey mark about every 30 km on the tallest peaks across a nation.
These physical survey mark cairn systems by surveyors as the basis for national survey grids to interconnect individual land survey measurements for entire nations, on occasion these permanent interlocking stone cairns were taken down reconstructed for survey mark for measurements to increase the accuracy of the national survey grid. They can be used in unpopulated country as emergency location points, for example, the extensive trail network maintained by the DNT, the Norwegian Trekking Association, extensively uses cairns in conjunction with T-painted rock faces to mark trails. Other examples of these can be seen in the fields of Volcanoes National Park to mark several hikes. Placed at regular intervals, a series of cairns can be used to indicate a path across stony or barren terrain, such cairns are often placed at junctions or in places where the trail direction is not obvious. They may be used to indicate an obscured danger such as a sudden drop, most trail cairns are small, usually being a foot or less in height.
However, they may be built taller so as to protrude through a layer of snow, hikers passing by often add a stone, as a small bit of maintenance to counteract the erosive effects of severe weather. North American trail marks are sometimes called ducks or duckies, because they sometimes have a beak pointing in the direction of the route. The expression two rocks do not make a duck reminds hikers that just one rock resting upon another could be the result of accident or nature rather than intentional trail marking. The building of cairns for recreational purposes along trails, to ones personal passage through the area. This distracts from cairns used as navigational guides, and conflicts with the Leave No Trace ethic
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic.
About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic.
An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria
Eilean Liubhaird or Eilean Iubhard is an island in the Outer Hebrides, to the east of Lewis. The rock is gneiss bedrock with some basaltic intrusion, the island is oblong in shape with several inlets on its south coast, lying on an east–west axis in Loch Sealg, and shelters the harbour of Lemreway on the mainland of Lewis nearby. There are two peaks at either end of the island, with the low ground in the middle, there are two lochans in the west, and three in the east as well as a number of burns. The placename Dùnan on the south coast may be a reference to a fort of some antiquity. Although Haswell-Smith suggests that the name means yew island, the preponderance of Norse names in the Outer Hebrides suggests that the element of Iubhard may be a corruption of fjord/firth. Dean Munro visited the island in 1549, and reported pasture and schielling of store, on 4 May 1746, Bonnie Prince Charlie hid on the island with some of his men for four days. Royal Navy vessels were patrolling in the Minch at the time and they camped under a sail stretched over a low pitiful hut while it rained torrentially.
In the early 19th century, five families were living here, presumably they had moved there in the past few decades, as the story of the Jacobite visit mentions no inhabitants. Seanna-Bhaile was the settlement, and there was the lone house known as Taigh a Gheumpaill
Lewis and Harris
Lewis and Harris is a Scottish island in the Outer Hebrides. It is the largest island in Scotland and the third largest in the British Isles, after Great Britain, the northern part of the island is called Lewis, the southern is Harris and both are frequently referred to as if they were separate islands. The boundary between Lewis and Harris is where the narrows between Loch Resort on the west and Loch Seaforth on the east. The island does not have a name in either English or Scottish Gaelic and is referred to as Lewis and Harris, Lewis with Harris, Harris with Lewis etc. Rarely used is the name of the Long Island, although this is normally applied to the entire Outer Hebrides. Most of Harris is very hilly, with more than thirty peaks above 1,000 ft high and it has an area of 841 square miles – slightly under one per cent of the area of Great Britain. It is 24 miles from the nearest point of the mainland, Lewis is comparatively flat, save in the south-east, where Ben More reaches 1,874 ft, and in the south-west, where Mealasbhal 1,885 ft is the highest point.
Until 1975, Lewis belonged to the county of Ross and Cromarty, the entire island group now belongs to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, the Western Isles Council. Other nearby inhabited islands in the Lewis and Harris group are Beàrnaraigh and Sgalpaigh, tarasaigh and An Sgarp are now-uninhabited islands close to the shore of Harris. Lewis and Harris is the most populous of the Scottish islands, and had just over 20,500 residents in 2011, the civil parish of Stornoway, including the main town of the island itself and various nearby villages, has a population of approximately 12,000. Stornoway has ferry links to Ullapool and air services to Benbecula, Aberdeen, Glasgow, an Tairbeart is the ferry terminal in Harris with connections to Skye and North Uist. Lewis is the home of Clan Morrison. The Lewis chessmen are a collection of 12th-century chess pieces, carved from walrus ivory and mostly in the form of human figures. A major industry on the island is the production of Harris tweed fabric, the Lewis Trilogy of novels by Peter May, is set on Lewis and Harris.
Johnstone, Brown and Bennet, Donald The Corbetts, ISBN 0-907521-29-0 Google map hebrides. ca Home of the Quebec–Hebridean Scots who were cleared from Lewis to Quebec, 1838–1920s
The Outer Hebrides, known as the Western Isles, Innse Gall or the Long Isle or Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coextensive with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority. Most of the islands have a formed from ancient metamorphic rocks. The 15 inhabited islands have a population of 27,100. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres, There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, control of the islands was held by clan chiefs, principal of whom were the MacLeods, MacDonalds and MacNeils.
The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had an effect on many communities. Much of the land is now under control and commercial activity is based on tourism, fishing. Sea transport is crucial and a variety of services operate between the islands and to mainland Scotland. Modern navigation systems now minimise the dangers but in the past the stormy seas have claimed many ships, religion and sport are important aspects of local culture, and there are numerous designated conservation areas to protect the natural environment. The islands form an archipelago whose major islands are Lewis and Harris, North Uist, South Uist, and Barra. Lewis and Harris has an area of 217,898 hectares and is the largest island in Scotland and it incorporates Lewis in the north and Harris in the south, both of which are frequently referred to as individual islands, although they are connected by land. The island does not have a name in either English or Gaelic. The largest islands are deeply indented by arms of the sea such as Loch Ròg, Loch Seaforth, There are more than 7,500 freshwater lochs in the Outer Hebrides, about 24% of the total for the whole of Scotland.
North and South Uist and Lewis in particular have landscapes with a percentage of fresh water. Harris has fewer large bodies of water but has innumerable small lochans, Loch Langavat on Lewis is 11 kilometres long, and has several large islands in its midst, including Eilean Mòr. Although Loch Suaineabhal has only 25% of Loch Langavats surface area, of Loch Sgadabhagh on North Uist it has been said that there is probably no other loch in Britain which approaches Loch Scadavay in irregularity and complexity of outline
The Highland Clearances was the eviction, mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries, of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands. It resulted from enclosures of common lands and a change from farming to sheep raising, the Clearances were a complex series of events occurring over more than a hundred years. A Highland Clearance has been defined as an enforced simultaneous eviction of all living in a given area such as an entire glen. The Clearances relied on the insecurity of tenure of most tenants under the Scottish legal system, there was no equivalent of the English system of copyhold, which provided a heritable tenancy for many English counterparts of the Scots who were cleared from their farms. The Clearances resulted in significant emigration of Highlanders to the coast, the Scottish Lowlands, in the early 21st century, many times more descendants of Highlanders are found in these diaspora destinations than in Scotland. The enclosures in rural England in the British Agricultural Revolution started much earlier, similar developments in Scotland have lately been called the Lowland Clearances by historians such as Tom Devine.
But in the Highlands, the impact on a Goidelic -speaking semi-feudal culture, there has been a lingering bitterness among the descendants of those forced to emigrate or to remain in crofting townships on very small areas of poor farming land. From the late 16th century, laws required clan leaders to appear in Edinburgh regularly to provide bonds for the conduct of anyone in their territory and this created a tendency among chiefs to identify as landlords, rather than leaders of men. The lesser clan-gentry increasingly took up droving, taking cattle along the old unpaved drove roads to sell in the Lowlands and this brought wealth and land ownership within the clan, though the Highlands continued to be overpopulated and poor. The Jacobite Risings brought repeated government efforts to curb those clans who supported James VII of Scotland and II of England and James Francis Edward Stuart and Charles Edward Stuart. The government of the day responded with repression after the 1746 Battle of Culloden, the 1746 Act of Proscription, incorporating the Dress Act, required all swords to be surrendered to the government, it prohibited the traditional wearing of clan tartans and kilts.
The Heritable Jurisdictions Act 1746 removed the virtually sovereign power which the chiefs held over their clans, the governments enforcement of the prohibitions varied and often related to the degree of a clans support during the rebellion. But, overall these actions led to the destruction of the clan system. From about 1725, in the aftermath of the first Jacobite Rising, under the Disarming Act of 1746 and the Clan Act of 1715, the Crown made ineffectual attempts to subdue the Scottish Highlands, and eventually sent in troops. These had the effect of limiting organisational travel and choking off news, social conditions remained unsettled for the whole decade. What became known as the Clearances were regarded by the landlords as necessary improvements to make agriculture viable and they are thought to have been begun by Admiral John Ross of Balnagowan Castle in 1762. MacLeod of MacLeod began experimental work on Skye in 1732, chiefs hired Lowland, or sometimes English, factors with expertise in more profitable sheep farming.
They encouraged, sometimes forcibly, the population to move off land judged suitable for raising sheep, to landlords and clearance did not initially mean depopulation