A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are cwm. A cirque may be a shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion; the concave shape of a glacial cirque is open on the downhill side, while the cupped section is steep. Cliff-like slopes, down which ice and glaciated debris combine and converge, form the three or more higher sides; the floor of the cirque ends up bowl-shaped as it is the complex convergence zone of combining ice flows from multiple directions and their accompanying rock burdens: hence it experiences somewhat greater erosion forces, is most overdeepened below the level of the cirque's low-side outlet and its down slope valley. If the cirque is subject to seasonal melting, the floor of the cirque most forms a tarn behind a dam which marks the downstream limit of the glacial overdeepening: the dam itself can be composed of moraine, glacial till, or a lip of the underlying bedrock; the fluvial cirque or makhtesh, found in karst landscapes, is formed by intermittent river flow cutting through layers of limestone and chalk leaving sheer cliffs.
A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant upper structures overlying materials which are more eroded. Glacial cirques are found amongst mountain ranges throughout the world. Situated high on a mountainside near the firn line, they are partially surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs; the highest cliff is called a headwall. The fourth side forms the lip, threshold or sill, the side at which the glacier flowed away from the cirque. Many glacial cirques contain tarns dammed by a bedrock threshold; when enough snow accumulates it can flow out the opening of the bowl and form valley glaciers which may be several kilometers long. Cirques form in conditions; these areas are sheltered from heat. The process of nivation follows, whereby a hollow in a slope may be enlarged by ice segregation weathering and glacial erosion. Ice segregation erodes the rock vertical rock face and causes it to disintegrate, which may result in an avalanche bringing down more snow and rock to add to the growing glacier.
This hollow may become large enough that glacial erosion intensifies. The enlarging of this open ended concavity creates a larger leeward deposition zone, furthering the process of glaciation. Debris in the ice may abrade the bed surface; the hollow may become a large bowl shape in the side of the mountain, with the headwall being weathered by ice segregation, as well as being eroded by plucking. The basin will become deeper as it continues to be eroded by ice abrasion. Should ice segregation and abrasion continue, the dimensions of the cirque will increase, but the proportion of the landform would remain the same. A bergschrund forms when the movement of the glacier separates the moving ice from the stationary ice forming a crevasse; the method of erosion of the headwall lying between the surface of the glacier and the cirque’s floor has been attributed to freeze-thaw mechanisms. The temperature within the bergschrund changes little, studies have shown that ice segregation may happen with only small changes in temperature.
Water that flows into the bergschrund can be cooled to freezing temperatures by the surrounding ice allowing freeze-thaw mechanisms to occur. If two adjacent cirques erode toward one another, an arête, or steep sided ridge, forms; when three or more cirques erode toward one another, a pyramidal peak is created. In some cases, this peak will be made accessible by one or more arêtes; the Matterhorn in the European Alps is an example of such a peak. Where cirques form one behind the other, a cirque stairway results as at the Zastler Loch in the Black Forest; as glaciers can only originate above the snowline, studying the location of present-day cirques provides information on past glaciation patterns and on climate change. Although a less common usage, the term cirque is used for amphitheatre-shaped, fluvial-erosion features. For example, an 200 square kilometres anticlinal erosion cirque is at 30°35′N 34°45′E on the southern boundary of the Negev highlands; this erosional cirque or makhtesh was formed by intermittent river flow in the Makhtesh Ramon cutting through layers of limestone and chalk, resulting in cirque walls with a sheer 200 metres drop.
The Cirque du Bout du Monde is another such a feature, created in karst terraine in the Burgundy region of the department of Côte-d'Or in France. Yet another type of fluvial erosion formed cirque is found on Réunion island, which includes the tallest volcanic structure in the Indian Ocean; the island consists of an active shield-volcano and an extinct eroded volcano. Three cirques have eroded there in a sequence of agglomerated, fragmented rock and volcanic breccia associated with pillow-lavas overlain by more coherent, solid lavas. A common feature for all fluvial-erosion cirques is a terrain which includes erosion resistant
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Right of way
Right of way is "the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route through grounds or property belonging to another", or "a path or thoroughfare subject to such a right". This article is about access by foot, by bicycle, horseback, or along a waterway, Right-of-way focusses on highways, pipelines, etc. A footpath is a right of way. A similar right of access exists on some public land in the United States. In Canada and New Zealand, such land may alternatively be called Crown land. In some countries in Northern Europe, where the freedom to roam has taken the form of general public rights, a right of way may not be restricted to specific paths or trails; when one person owns a piece of land, bordered on all sides by lands owned by others, a court will be obliged to grant that person a right of way through the bordering land. A further definition, chiefly in American transport, is that it is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, this can be for a highway, public footpath, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines and gas pipelines.
As well this phrase describes priority of traffic flow. The New Oxford Dictionary defines it as "the legal right of a pedestrian, vehicle, or ship to proceed with precedence over others in a particular situation or place", in hiking etiquette, where when two groups of hikers meet on a steep trail, a custom has developed in some areas whereby the group moving uphill has the right of way. There is extensive public access in New Zealand, including waterways and the coast, but it is "often fragmented and difficult to locate". In the Republic of Ireland, pedestrian rights of way to churches, known as mass paths, have existed for centuries. In other cases, the modern law is unclear. Opposing these, those claiming general rights of way hark back to an anti-landed gentry position that has endured since the Land War of the 1880s. Rights of way can be asserted by Adverse possession. A case heard in 2010 concerning claims over the Lissadell House estate was based on the historical laws, since amended by the Land and Conveyancing Law Reform Act, 2009.
The 2009 Act abolished the doctrine of lost modern grant, allows a user to claim a right of way after 12 year of use across private land owned by another, 30 years on state land and 60 years on the foreshore. The claim must be duly registered, an expensive process; the user must prove "enjoyment without force, without secrecy and without the oral or written consent of the owner", a restatement of the centuries-old principle of Nec vi, nec clam, nec precario. In England and Wales, other than in the 12 Inner London Boroughs and the City of London, public rights of way are paths on which the public have a protected right to pass and re-pass; the law in England and Wales differs from that in Scotland in that rights of way only exist where they are so designated whereas in Scotland any route that meets certain conditions is defined as a right of way, in addition there is a general presumption of access to the countryside. Private rights of way or easements exist. Footpaths and other rights of way in most of England and Wales are shown on definitive maps.
A definitive map is a record of public rights of way in Wales. In law it is the definitive record of; the highway authority has a statutory duty to maintain a definitive map, though in national parks the national park authority maintains the map. Definitive maps of public rights of way have been compiled for all of England and Wales as a result of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, except the twelve Inner London boroughs which, along with the City of London, were not covered by the Act. To protect the existing rights of way in London, the Ramblers launched their "Putting London on the Map" in 2010 with the aim of getting "the same legal protection for paths in the capital as exists for footpaths elsewhere in England and Wales. Legislation allows the Inner London boroughs to choose to produce definitive maps if they wish, but none do so; the launch event of "Putting London on the Map" took place at the British Library, since "the Inner London Area of the Ramblers has been working with Ramblers Central Office staff to try to persuade each of the Inner London boroughs on the desirability of producing definitive maps of rights of way".
In 2011 Lambeth Council passed a resolution to work towards creating a definitive map for their borough, but this does not yet exist. The City of London has produced a Public Access Map. Definitive maps exist for the Outer London boroughs; some landowners allow access over their land without dedicating a right of way. These are physically indistinguishable from public rights of way, but they are may be subject to restrictions; such paths are closed at least once a year, so that a permanent right of way cannot be established in law. In Scotland, a right of way is a route over which the public has been able to pass unhindered for at least 20 years; the route must link two "public places", such as churches or roads. Unlike in England and Wales there is no obligation on Scottish local authorities to signpost rights of way; however the charity Scotways, formed in 1845 to protect rights of way, recor
Beinn Liath Mhòr
Beinn Liath Mhòr is a Scottish mountain situated in the mountainous area between Strath Carron and Glen Torridon in Wester Ross in the Highland region. Geologically Beinn Liath Mhòr is made up of Cambrian quartzite scree and Torridonian sandstones giving the mountain a distinctive colour contrast of light and dark; the mountain's other main characteristic is its two kilometre long undulating summit ridge which does not drop below 800 metres for its entire length. This culminates at the summit at its far western end at a height of 926 metres making Beinn Liath Mhòr the 258th highest Munro; the most common approach to Beinn Liath Mhòr starts at Achnashellach on the A890 road and goes by the right of way to Glen Torridon. This follows the impressive Coire Lair, a rugged corrie surrounded by three imposing mountains, the other two being Sgorr Ruadh and Fuar Tholl, ranked as one of the finest Corbetts by mountain writers; the Coire Lair path is followed for two kilometres until the path forks, here the right hand fork is taken across moorland for 0.5 kilometre until reaching the steep climb of Beinn Liath Mhòr’s south east ridge, which leads directly to the summit plateau.
The summit ridge consists of light coloured quartzite stones, whilst the highest point at the far end is crowned by a quartzite cairn. It is possible to climb Beinn Liath Mhòr from Glen Torridon starting at the car park at grid reference NG957568 and following the Ling path to its termination and ascending the mountain by its western ridge; the prospect from the summit gives splendid views of the Torridon mountains to the west including a unique side on view of Liathach and its pinnacles, there are many small lochans well seen below the mountain, as is Upper Loch Torridon. Many walkers will continue from Beinn Liath Mhòr to take in the accompanying Munro of Sgorr Ruadh and strong walkers will take in Fuar Tholl giving a top class high level walk around Coire Lair. Torridon, A Walker's Guide: Peter Barton: Cicerone Press: ISBN 1-85284-022-6 The Munros, SMC Guide: Donald Bennett et al.: Scottish Mountaineering Trust: ISBN 0-907521-13-4
Torridon is a small village in the Northwest Highlands of Scotland. However the name is applied to the area surrounding the village the Torridon Hills, mountains to the north of Glen Torridon, it lies on the shore of Loch Torridon. Torridon is on the west coast of Scotland, 109 miles north of Fort William and 80 miles west of Inverness. Situated in an area well known to climbers, wildlife enthusiasts and countless visitors from around the world, the surrounding mountains rise steeply to 3,500 feet from the deep sea lochs. There is a large hotel, The Torridon, which holds 3 AA Rosettes as well as 4 red stars and is Scottish Hotel of The Year 2011, a popular public bar, a youth hostel within walking distance; the Torridon area is acknowledged as having some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the whole of the British Isles. From 1925 until 1931 John McQueen Johnston served as GP to the area; the loch is surrounded by numerous mountains to the north, including Liathach, Beinn Alligin and Beinn Eighe, all of which are over 3000 feet in height.
They are: Liathach Beinn Eighe Beinn AlliginHills between Glen Torridon and Strath Carron share much of the splendour and character of the main hills, although less of the drama: Beinn Liath Mhòr Sgorr Ruadh Maol Cheann-dearg Beinn Damh An Ruadh-stac Fuar Tholl Torridon hosts the annual CELTMAN! Extreme Scottish Triathlon since June 2011; the 3.4 km swim takes place in Loch Shieldaig while the 202 km bike leg is notable for the strong winds affecting competitors. The 42 km run takes in two Munros during the race over the Beinn Eighe range. Shieldaig Torridon.org is listing accommodation and useful information. Torridon walks gives comprehensive information on walks and places to stay in the area, including Gaelic pronunciations and OS maps. CELTMAN! Triathlon is the website for the CELTMAN! Triathlon
Ice climbing is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations. Ice climbing refers to roped and protected climbing of features such as icefalls, frozen waterfalls, cliffs and rock slabs covered with ice refrozen from flows of water. For the purposes of climbing, ice can be broadly divided into alpine ice and water ice. Alpine ice is found in a mountain environment requires an approach to reach, is climbed in an attempt to summit a mountain. Water ice is found on a cliff or other outcropping beneath water flows. Alpine ice is frozen precipitation. Most alpine ice is one component of a longer route and less technical, having more in common with standard glacier travel, while water ice is selected for its technical challenge. Technical grade is, independent of ice type and both types of ice vary in consistency according to weather conditions. Ice can be soft, brittle or tough. Mixed climbing is ascent involving both ice rock climbing. A climber chooses equipment according to the texture of the ice.
For example, on flat ice any good hiking or mountaineering boot will suffice, but for serious ice climbing double plastic mountaineering boots or their stiff leather equivalent are used, which must be crampon compatible and stiff enough to support the climber and maintain ankle support. On short, low angled slopes, one can use an ice axe to chop steps. For longer and steeper slopes or glacier travel, crampons are mandatory for a safe climb. Vertical ice climbing is done with crampons and ice axes; this technique is known as front pointing. The strength of the ice is surprising. If a climber is leading, they will need to place ice screws as protection on the way up. Most mountaineers would only consider the last scenario true ice climbing; some important techniques and practices common in rock climbing that are employed in ice climbing include knowledge of rope systems, tying in, leading and lowering. Beginners should learn these techniques before attempting to ice climb, it is recommended that one acquire knowledge from experts and experienced ice climbers.
There are three primary rope systems used in ice climbing: double rope and twin rope. The single rope system, suited for straight climbing routes, is the most used rock climbing system in the world. Used in climbing is the double rope system, a more flexible system than the single rope system. Lastly, the twin rope system, which uses two twin ropes in a single rope system, is used for longer multi-pitch routes. Double and twin rope technique is used more in ice climbing because these systems are more redundant, an important consideration given the number of sharp edges the ice climber carries with him. Impact force on ice is an issue, with double ropes gaining popularity over twins. Tying in entails attaching the rope to the climbing harness; this technique is a must when leading a climb or belaying. A used tie-in knot is the Figure-of-eight follow through, but the Bowline and Thumb knot is preferred, since it is easier to untie when frozen; this technique should be done properly to ensure your safety.
In this climbing technique, either running belays or fixed belays are used. A running belay on ice is similar to a running belay on rock as well as snow; the leader of the climb puts protection and clips the rope through it. The next climber puts away the protection. There should be at least two points of protection between the next climber. Fixed belays, on the other hand, require a belayer, belay anchor, points of protection. A belay anchor is attached to a cliff in supporting a toprope. In using either a running- or fixed belay, it is necessary that you have enough knowledge on boot/ice-screw belay techniques. Leading refers to the act of leading a climb and thus, requires a leader and a follower; this ice climbing technique entails putting protection while ascending. In doing so, leading is done in sections; the leader places. At the top, the leader builds a belay anchor with. While the second climbs, he/she removes the protection placed by the leader; when the second climber finishes, they both proceed to the second pitch.
Called rappelling, abseiling uses a fixed rope to descend. In distinction to being lowered, abseiling allows the climber to control his or her own speed and rate of descent; this technique may be used not only after a climb, but when trying new climbing routes and when the climb can only be accessed from the top. Careful execution is important. Climbers can use an auto block for extra protection while abseiling. Lowering is one of the most common methods of getting down. A belayer at the base of the vertical wall ensures; this climbing technique is used. This is used when you want to go down faster; these are the different techniques used in climbing activities. Keep in mind, that it is crucial to learn these skills from expert climbers bef
The Highlands is a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands; the term is used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not defined to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands; the Scottish Gaelic name of A' Ghàidhealtachd means "the place of the Gaels" and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region, includes the highest mountain in the British Isles, Ben Nevis. Before the 19th century the Highlands was home to a much larger population, but from circa 1841 and for the next 160 years, the natural increase in population was exceeded by emigration and migration to the industrial cities of Scotland and England.
The area is now one of the most sparsely populated in Europe. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the population density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotland's as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia and Russia. The Highland Council is the administrative body for much of the Highlands, with its administrative centre at Inverness. However, the Highlands includes parts of the council areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Bute, North Ayrshire and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire; the Scottish highlands is the only area in the British Isles to have the taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest: see Caledonian Forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, although the language is now confined to The Hebrides; the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages.
Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent. The "Highland line" distinguished the two Scottish cultures. While the Highland line broadly followed the geography of the Grampians in the south, it continued in the north, cutting off the north-eastern areas, Eastern Caithness and Shetland, from the more Gaelic Highlands and Hebrides; the major social unit of the Highlands was the clan. Scottish kings James VI, saw clans as a challenge to their authority. Following the Union of the Crowns, James VI had the military strength to back up any attempts to impose some control; the result was, in 1609, the Statutes of Iona which started the process of integrating clan leaders into Scottish society. The gradual changes continued into the 19th century, as clan chiefs thought of themselves less as patriarchal leaders of their people and more as commercial landlords; the first effect on the clansmen who were their tenants was the change to rents being payable in money rather than in kind.
Rents were increased as Highland landowners sought to increase their income. This was followed in the period 1760-1850, by agricultural improvement that involved clearance of the population to make way for large scale sheep farms. Displaced tenants were set up in crofting communities in the process; the crofts were intended not to provide all the needs of their occupiers. Crofters came to rely on seasonal migrant work in the Lowlands; this gave impetus to the learning of English, seen by many rural Gaelic speakers to be the essential "language of work". Older historiography attributes the collapse of the clan system to the aftermath of the Jacobite risings; this is now thought less influential by historians. Following the Jacobite rising of 1745 the British government enacted a series of laws to try to suppress the clan system, including bans on the bearing of arms and the wearing of tartan, limitations on the activities of the Scottish Episcopal Church. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided.
There was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Tartan had been abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe; the international craze for tartan, for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, further popularised by the works of Walter Scott. His "staging" of the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 and the king's wearing of tartan resulted in a massive upsurge in demand for kilts and tartans that could not be met by the Scottish woollen industry. Individual clan tartans were designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity; this "Highlandism", by which all of Scotland was identified with the culture of the Highlands, was cemented by Queen Victoria's interest in the country, her adoption of Balmoral as a major royal retreat, her interes