Kij Johnson is an American writer of fantasy. She is a faculty member at the University of Kansas. Kij Johnson was born in Iowa, she received her BA from St. Olaf College in 1982, studied creative writing and literature at the University of Minnesota and at University of Kansas earned an MFA in Creative Writing from North Carolina State University in 2012, she joined the University of Kansas English Department as Assistant Professor of Fiction Writing in Fall 2012, where she is associate director of The Center for the Study of Science Fiction. Johnson has worked extensively in publishing: managing editor for Tor Books and TSR, collections editor for Dark Horse Comics, content manager working on the Microsoft Reader. In her time at Wizards of the Coast, she was continuity manager for Magic: The Gathering and creative director for AD&D settings Greyhawk and Forgotten Realms. Johnson serves as a final judge for the Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award. Johnson is more than 50 short works of fiction, she is the winner of the 1994 Theodore Sturgeon Award for "Fox Magic", the 2001 Crawford Award from the International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts for best new fantasist, the 2008 World Fantasy Award for "26 Monkeys, Also the Abyss", the 2009 Nebula Award for "Spar", the 2010 Nebula for "Ponies", the 2012 Nebula and Hugo awards for best novella for "The Man Who Bridged the Mist".
She was a finalist for the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Hugo Awards. In January 2013, Johnson gave the inaugural Tolkien Lecture at Pembroke College, speaking on the topic of fantasy literature. "Roadkill" "FERATA" "Wolf Trapping" "Solving the Homeless Problem" "Hera's Madness" "I my " "Ursula Redux" "Canine Intervention" "Questing" "Last Dance at Dante's" "The Emperor's New Prose" "Schrödinger's Cathouse" "Fox Magic", Winner, 1994 Theodore Sturgeon Award "The Renaissance Fair" "Myths" "What Dogs Hunt in Their Dreams" Dragon's Honor "The Heart of a Minotaur" "The Knife's Edge" "Old Wars" "Crovax's Tale" "Chenting, in the Land of the Dead" "The Horse Raiders" The Fox Woman Winner, 2001 Crawford Award Tales for the Long Rains "The Snow Wife" "The Knife Birds" "Dia Chjerman's tale" Fudoki Finalist, 2004 World Fantasy Award Shortlisted, 2004 James Tiptree, Jr. Award "At the Mouth of the River of Bees" "Elfrithe's Ghost" "The Empress Jingū Fishes" "Coney World" "The Evolution of Trickster Stories Among the Dogs of North Park After the Change" Finalist, 2007 Nebula Award Finalist, 2008 Theodore Sturgeon Award Finalist, 2008 World Fantasy Award Final ten stories, 2008 Hugo Award "26 Monkeys, Also the Abyss" 2008 Asimov Magazine Reader's Choice Winner, 2008 World Fantasy Award Finalist, 2008 Nebula Award Finalist, 2009 Theodore Sturgeon Award Finalist, 2009 Hugo Award "The Cat Who Walked a Thousand Miles" "Spar" Winner, 2009 Nebula Award for Best Short Story Finalist, 2010 Hugo Award Finalist, 2010 Locus Award Finalist, 2010 Theodore Sturgeon Award "Names for Water" Finalist, 2010 Locus Award "Ponies" Winner, 2010 Nebula Award "Story Kit" "The Man Who Bridged the Mist" Winner 2012 Nebula Award for Best Novella Winner 2012 Hugo Award for Best Novella Finalist Locus Award "Mantis Wives" Finalist 2013 Hugo Award At the Mouth of the River of Bees: Stories Finalist 2013 World Fantasy Award "Spar" "The Apartment Dweller's Bestiary" (Clarkesworld Magazine, January
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
World Fantasy Award
The World Fantasy Awards are a set of awards given each year for the best fantasy fiction published during the previous calendar year. Organized and overseen by the World Fantasy Convention, the awards are given each year at the eponymous annual convention as the central focus of the event, they were first given in 1975, at the first World Fantasy Convention, have been awarded annually since. Over the years that the award has been given, the categories presented; the awards have been described by book critics such as The Guardian as a "prestigious fantasy prize", one of the three most prestigious speculative fiction awards, along with the Hugo and Nebula Awards. World Fantasy Award nominees and winners are decided by attendees of the convention and a panel of judges made up of fantasy authors. Winners receive a small trophy; the bust was retired following that year amid complaints about Lovecraft's history of racism. The 2018 awards were presented at the 44th World Fantasy Convention in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 4, 2018, the 2019 awards will be presented at the 45th World Fantasy Convention in Los Angeles, California, on November 3, 2019.
The World Fantasy Awards were established at the first World Fantasy Convention, an annual convention of professionals and others interested in the field of fantasy, held that first year in horror writer H. P. Lovecraft's home city of Providence, Rhode Island in 1975. Winners were presented with a trophy in the form of a bust of an elongated caricature of Lovecraft designed by cartoonist Gahan Wilson, nicknamed the "Howard", which matched the theme of the first convention, "The Lovecraft Circle"; as stated by Wilson in First World Fantasy Awards: An Anthology of the Fantastic, "The point of the awards was, is, shall be to give a visible usable, sign of appreciation to writers working in the area of fantastic literature, an area too distinguished by low financial remuneration and indifference". At the start of the awards in 1975, seven categories were presented: Best Novel, Best Short Fiction, Best Collection, Best Artist, Special Award—Professional, Special Award—Non-professional, Life Achievement.
Only a few categories have changed since and no changes have been made to the rules. 1978 saw the addition of the Convention Award, a special award given for general contributions to the genre, the only award not given every year since the beginning. The Short Fiction award was split into Short Story and Novella awards in 1982, in 1988 the multi-author anthologies eligible for the Collection award, were split into their own Best Anthology category. No changes have been made since. Winners were presented with the H. P. Lovecraft bust through the 2015 awards. Although controversy had arisen in recent years over Lovecraft's history of racism, no explicit reason was given for the change. A new statuette, designed by Vincent Villafranca, was announced in April 2017 to be used for the 2016 awards on; the new award, which depicts a tree in front of a full moon, was intended to evoke the use of trees and night imagery in mythology and horror works. World Fantasy Award nominees and winners are decided by judges and attendees of the World Fantasy Convention.
A ballot is posted in June for attendees of the current and previous two conferences to determine two of the finalists, with the two most-nominated selected, a panel of five judges adds three or more nominees before voting on the overall winner. The panel of judges is made up of fantasy authors, as well as other fantasy professionals and is chosen each year by the World Fantasy Awards Administration, which has the power to break ties if the judges are deadlocked; the awards administration is a subgroup of the World Fantasy Convention Board, which selects sites for upcoming World Fantasy Conventions. Both the board and the judges panel are made up of professionals in the field of fantasy; the judges for the 2014 awards, for example, were authors Andy Duncan, Kij Johnson, Oliver Johnson, Liz Williams, editor John Klima. The nominees are announced in July, final results are presented at the World Fantasy Convention around the end of October; the Life Achievement and Convention Awards do not list nominees, instead have the winner announced along with the other categories' nominees.
The Life Achievement winner is decided by the judges panel, while the Convention award winner, not given every year, is selected by the convention organizers. The World Fantasy Convention itself is a multi-day event with several hundred attendees taking place in a different city each year in the United States but sometimes in Canada or the United Kingdom. In addition to the awards ceremony, the conventions include an art show, a dealer's room, autograph receptions, numerous panels and discussions; the World Fantasy Awards are split into ten categories, including both awards for written works and for professionals in the field. Eligibility requirements are loosely defined: works must have been published in the prior calendar year, professionals must still be living. All types of fantasy works are accepted, regardless of subgenre or style, though whether a given work is considered to be fantasy is left up to the discretion of the nomina
Emperor Sutoku was the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Sutoku's reign spanned the years from 1123 through 1142. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Akihito. Note: Although the Roman alphabet-spelling of the name of this twelfth-century emperor is the same as that of the personal name of the current sovereign of Japan, the kanji are dissimilar. Emperor Sutoku Prince Akihito His Imperial Majesty Prince Akihito Sutoku was the eldest son of Emperor Toba; some old texts say he was the son of Toba's grandfather, Emperor Shirakawa. Chūgū: Fujiwara no Kiyoko Kōkamon'in, Fujiwara Tadamichi’s daughter Hyounosuke-no-Tsubone, Minamoto Masamune's adopted daughter First son: Imperial Prince Shigehito. Mikawa-dono, Minamoto Morotsune's daughter Fifth Son: Kakue Karasuma-no-Tsubone February 25, 1123: In the 16th year of Emperor Toba's reign, he abdicated. Hōan 4, in the 2nd month: Emperor Sutoku is said to have acceded to the throne.
1124: Former-Emperor Shirakawa and former-Emperor Toba went in carriages to outside the city where they could all together enjoy contemplating the flowers. Taiken-mon'in, Toba's empress and Sutoku's mother, joined the procession along with many other women of the court, their cortege was colorful. A great many men of the court in hunting clothes followed the ladies in this parade. Fujiwara Tadamichi followed in a carriage, accompanied by bands of musicians and women who were to sing for the emperors. 1124: Shirakawa visited Mount Kōya. 1125: The emperor visited Iwashimizu Shrine and the Kamo Shrines. 1128: Taiken-mon'in ordered the construction of Enshō-ji in fulfillment of a sacred vow. This was one in a series of "sacred vow temples" built by imperial command following a precedent established by Emperor Shirakawa's Hosshō-ji. 1128: Fujiwara Tadamichi is relieved of his responsibilities and duties as sesshō. August 17, 1135: Former-Emperor Shirakawa died at the age of 77. 1141: The former emperor Toba accepted the tonsure in becoming a monk at the age of 39.
In 1151, Sutoko ordered Waka imperial anthology Shika Wakashū. In 1156, after failing to put down the Hōgen Rebellion, he was exiled to Sanuki Province. Emperor Sutoku's reign lasted for 19 years: 2 years in the nengō Tenji, 5 years in Daiji, 1 year in'Tenshō, 3 years in Chōshō, 6 years in Hōen, 1 year in Eiji; the site of Sutoku's grave is settled. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kagawa, he was enshrined in Shiramine shrine and Kotohira-gū in Kagawa Prefecture. The former is associated with the god of football, worshipped by Kuge clan Asukai in times of yore, while the latter enshrined Ō-mono-nushi-no-mikoto, a god known to have restaured harmony in Yamato in exchange for worship and nepotism; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Sutoku's mausoleum. It is formally named Shiramine no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time.
These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Sutoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sesshō, Fujiwara Tadamichi, 1097–1164. Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Tadamichi. Sadaijin Udaijin Nadaijin, Fujiwara Yorinaga, 1120–1156. Dainagon The years of Sutoku's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Hōan Tenji Daiji Tenshō Chōshō Hōen Eiji After Sutoku's abdication and exile, he devoted himself to monastic life, he offered them to the court. Fearing that the scriptures were cursed, the court refused to accept them. Snubbed, Sutoku was said to have resented the court and, upon his death, became an onryō. Everything from the subsequent fall in fortune of the Imperial court, the rise of the samurai powers and internal unrests were blamed on his haunting. Along with Sugawara no Michizane and Taira no Masakado, he is called one of the “Three Great Onryō of Japan.”. Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds..
Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 _____________.. Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 36655 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Fudoki are ancient reports on provincial culture and oral tradition presented to the reigning monarchs of Japan known as local gazetteers. They contain agricultural and historical records as well as mythology and folklore. Fudoki manuscripts document local myths and poems that are not mentioned in the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki chronicles, which are the most important literature of the ancient national mythology and history. In the course of national unification, the imperial court enacted a series of criminal and administrative codes called ritsuryō and surveyed the provinces established by such codes to exert greater control over them. In the narrower sense, Fudoki refer to the oldest records written in the Nara period called Kofudoki. Compilation of Kofudoki was completed over a 20-year period. Following the Taika Reform in 646 and the Code of Taihō enacted in 701, there was need to centralize and solidify the power of the imperial court; this included accounting for lands under its control.
According to the Shoku Nihongi, Empress Genmei issued a decree in 713 ordering each provincial government to collect and report the following information: Names of districts and townships Natural resources and living things Land fertility Etymology of names for geographic features, such as mountains and rivers Myths and folktales told orally by old people Empress Genmei ordered in 713 that place names in the provinces and townships should be written in two kanji characters with positive connotations. This required name changes. For example, Hayatsuhime became Ishinashi no Oki became Ishii. At least 48 of the Gokishichidō provinces contributed to their records but only that of Izumo remains nearly complete. Partial records of Hizen, Bungo and Hitachi remain and a few passages from various volumes remain scattered throughout various books; those of Harima and Hizen are designated National Treasures. Below is a list of scattered passages. In 1966 the Agency for Cultural Affairs called on the prefectural governments to build open-air museums and parks called Fudoki no Oka near historic sites such as tombs and provincial temples.
These archaeological museums preserve and exhibit cultural properties to enhance public understanding of provincial history and culture. Japanese Historical Text Initiative Akimoto, Kichirō. Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 2: Fudoki. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 4-00-060002-8. Sakamoto, Masaru. Zusetsu Chizu to Arasuji de Wakaru! Fudoki. Seishun Publishing. ISBN 978-4-413-04301-4. Kojima, Noriyuki. Nihon no Koten wo Yomu 3 Nihon Shoki Ge • Fudoki. Shogakukan. ISBN 978-4-09-362173-1. 風土記 texts of the remaining Fudoki & scattered passages in other books. Manuscript scans at Waseda University Library: Hizen, 1800,Bungo, 1800, unknown Tsukamoto, Tetsuzō. Kojiki, Fudoki. Yūhōdō Shoten. Pp. 383–586. Scan at the Internet Archive. 風土記 国土としての始原史～風土記逸文
Publishers Weekly is an American weekly trade news magazine targeted at publishers, librarians and literary agents. Published continuously since 1872, it has carried the tagline, "The International News Magazine of Book Publishing and Bookselling". With 51 issues a year, the emphasis today is on book reviews; the magazine was founded by bibliographer Frederick Leypoldt in the late 1860s, had various titles until Leypoldt settled on the name The Publishers' Weekly in 1872. The publication was a compilation of information about newly published books, collected from publishers and from other sources by Leypoldt, for an audience of booksellers. By 1876, Publishers Weekly was being read by nine tenths of the booksellers in the country. In 1878, Leypoldt sold The Publishers' Weekly to his friend Richard Rogers Bowker, in order to free up time for his other bibliographic endeavors; the publication expanded to include features and articles. Harry Thurston Peck was the first editor-in-chief of The Bookman, which began in 1895.
Peck worked on its staff from 1895 to 1906, in 1895, he created the world's first bestseller list for its pages. In 1912, Publishers Weekly began to publish its own bestseller lists, patterned after the lists in The Bookman; these were not separated into fiction and non-fiction until 1917, when World War I brought an increased interest in non-fiction by the reading public. Through much of the 20th century, Publishers Weekly was guided and developed by Frederic Gershom Melcher, editor and co-editor of Publishers' Weekly and chairman of the magazine's publisher, R. R. Bowker, over four decades. Born April 12, 1879, in Malden, Melcher began at age 16 in Boston's Estes & Lauriat Bookstore, where he developed an interest in children's books, he moved to Indianapolis in 1913 for another bookstore job. In 1918, he read in Publishers' Weekly, he applied to Richard Rogers Bowker for the job, was hired, moved with his family to Montclair, New Jersey. He remained with R. R. Bowker for 45 years. While at Publishers Weekly, Melcher began creating space in the publication and a number of issues dedicated to books for children.
In 1919, he teamed with Franklin K. Mathiews, librarian for the Boy Scouts of America, Anne Carroll Moore, a librarian at the New York Public Library, to create Children’s Book Week; when Bowker died in 1933, Melcher succeeded him as president of the company. In 1943, Publishers Weekly created the Carey–Thomas Award for creative publishing, naming it in honor of Mathew Carey and Isaiah Thomas. In 2008, the magazine's circulation was 25,000. In 2004, the breakdown of those 25,000 readers was given as 6000 publishers. Subject areas covered by Publishers Weekly include publishing, marketing and trade news, along with author interviews and regular columns on rights, people in publishing, bestsellers, it attempts to serve all involved in the creation, production and sale of the written word in book, audio and electronic formats. The magazine increases the page count for four annual special issues: Spring Adult Announcements, Fall Adult Announcements, Spring Children's Announcements, Fall Children's Announcements.
The book review section of Publishers Weekly was added in the early 1940s and grew in importance during the 20th century and through the present time. It offers prepublication reviews of 9,000 new trade books each year, in a comprehensive range of genres and including audiobooks and e-books, with a digitized archive of 200,000 reviews. Reviews appear two to four months prior to the publication date of a book, until 2014, when PW launched BookLife.com, a website for self-published books, books in print were reviewed. These anonymous reviews are short, averaging 200–250 words, it is not unusual for the review section to run as long as 40 pages, filling the second half of the magazine. In the past, a book review editorial staff of eight editors assigned books to more than 100 freelance reviewers; some are published authors, others are experts in specific genres or subjects. Although it might take a week or more to read and analyze some books, reviewers were paid $45 per review until June 2008 when the magazine introduced a reduction in payment to $25 a review.
In a further policy change that month, reviewers received credit as contributors in issues carrying their reviews. There are nine reviews editors listed in the masthead. Now titled "Reviews", the review section began life as "Forecasts." For several years, that title was taken literally. Genevieve Stuttaford, who expanded the number of reviews during her tenure as the nonfiction "Forecasts" editor, joined the PW staff in 1975, she was a Saturday Review associate editor, reviewer for Kirkus Reviews and for 12 years on the staff of the San Francisco Chronicle. During the 23 years Stuttaford was with Publishers Weekly, book reviewing was increased from an average of 3,800 titles a year in the 1970s to well over 6,500 titles in 1997, she retired in 1998. Several notable PW editors stand out for making their mark on the magazine. Barbara Bannon was the head fiction reviewer during the 1970s and early 1980s, becoming the magazine’s executive editor during that time and retiring in 1983, she was, the first reviewer to insist that her name be appended to any blur