Municipalities of Spain
The municipalities of Spain are the basic level of Spanish local government. There are a total of 8,118 municipalities in Spain, including the cities of Ceuta. In the Principality of Asturias, municipalities are officially named concejos, the area of the municipal territory usually ranges 2–40 km², but municipalities such as Tremp cover more than 300 km². The organisation of the municipalities is governed by a 2 April 1985 law, the Statutes of Autonomy of the various autonomous communities contain provisions concerning the relations between the municipalities and the autonomous governments. In general, municipalities enjoy a degree of autonomy in their local affairs, many of the functions of the comarcas. Each municipality is a corporation with independent legal personality, its body is called the ayuntamiento. The ayuntamiento is composed of the mayor, the deputy mayors, the mayor and the deputy mayors are elected by the plenary assembly, which is itself elected by universal suffrage on a list system every four years.
The plenary assembly must meet publicly at least every three months at the seat of the ayuntamiento, many ayuntamientos have a governing commission, named by the mayor from among the councillors, it is required for municipalities of more than 5,000 inhabitants. The governing commission, whose role is to assist the mayor between meetings of the assembly, may not include more than one third of the councillors. List of municipalities of Spain Political divisions of Spain
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his career was a commentator. Immensely successful in his lifetime, Goya is often referred to as both the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns and he was one of the great portraitists of modern times. He was born to a modest family in 1746 in the village of Fuendetodos in Aragon and he studied painting from age 14 under José Luzán y Martinez and moved to Madrid to study with Anton Raphael Mengs. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773, the couples life together was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages, Goya was a guarded man and although letters and writings survive, little is known about his thoughts. He suffered a severe and undiagnosed illness in 1793 which left him completely deaf, after 1793 his work became progressively darker and more pessimistic. His easel and mural paintings and drawings appear to reflect a bleak outlook on personal and political levels and he was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France.
In 1799 Goya became Primer Pintor de Cámara, the then-highest rank for a Spanish court painter, in the late 1790s, commissioned by Godoy, he completed his La maja desnuda, a remarkably daring nude for the time and clearly indebted to Diego Velázquez. In 1801 he painted Charles IV of Spain and His Family, in 1807 Napoleon led the French army into Spain. Goya remained in Madrid during the Peninsular War, which seems to have affected him deeply. Although he did not vocalise his thoughts in public, they can be inferred from his Disasters of War series of prints and his 1814 paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808. Goya eventually abandoned Spain in 1824 to retire to the French city of Bordeaux, accompanied by his much younger maid and companion, Leocadia Weiss, there he completed his La Tauromaquia series and a number of other, canvases. Following a stroke left him paralyzed on his right side. His body was re-interred in Spain, Francisco Goya was born in Fuendetodos, Aragón, Spain, on 30 March 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador.
The family had moved that year from the city of Zaragoza, José was the son of a notary and of Basque origin, his ancestors being from Zerain, earning his living as a gilder, specialising in religious and decorative craftwork. He oversaw the gilding and most of the ornamentation during the rebuilding of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, Francisco was their fourth child, following his sister Rita, brother Tomás and second sister Jacinta. There were two sons and Camilo. His mothers family had pretensions of nobility and the house, a modest brick cottage, was owned by her family and, perhaps fancifully, about 1749 José and Gracia bought a home in Zaragoza and were able to return to live in the city
Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta was a Basque painter, born in Eibar, near the monastery of Loyola. He was the son of metalworker and damascener Plácido Zuloaga and grandson of the organizer and his great-grandfather who was the royal armourer was a friend and contemporary of Goya. In his youth, he drew and worked in the workshop of his father. His first painting was exhibited in Paris in 1890 At the age of 18 he moved to Paris, settling in Montmartre, to find work and training as a painter. He was nearly destitute, and lived off some meager contributions by his mother and the benevolence of fellow Spaniards, including Francisco Durrio, Pablo de Uranga, after only six months work he completed his first picture, which was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1890. He painted portraits of attired bullfighters and flamenco dancers, or portraits of family members and he painted village dwarves (El enano Gregorio el Botero, and beggars, often as stark figures in a dreary landscape with a traditional landscape or town in the background.
He painted some village-scape scenes and he favored earth or muted tones, including maroon and grey, with the exception of colorful folk attire or the bright red cassock in some paintings. Zuloaga and his patrons felt slighted in 1900, when his painting of Before the Bull-fight was rejected for inclusion into the Spanish representation at the Universal Exposition in Brussels, in 1899, one of his paintings exhibited in Paris had been purchased for the Luxembourg Palace. However, he did exhibit the painting at the Exposition of the Libre Esthetique in Brussels and he was accepted into the Venice Biennale in 1901 and 1903, and displayed 34 canvases at the Barcelona International exposition of 1907. Among one of the more prominently displayed works is his Cristo de la Sangre or Hermandad del Cristo Crucificado and he painted a similarly painting of individuals undergoing a traditional mortification of the flesh and a bleeding crucified Christ called The Flagellants. These paintings were praised by Unamuno in his book on De Arte Pictorico as being honest representation of Spain, a Spain religious and tragic, rooted in the particularly Spanish Catholic fascination with mutilating penance.
In this zealous quest of congenial models he hesitates at nothing, One of the American collections to feature Zuloagas work is the Johns Hopkins Universitys Evergreen Museum & Library, Maryland. An Iberia Airbus A340-642, EC-IZX is named after him, Zuloaga was fervently attached to the nationalist Falangist forces during the Spanish Civil War and the dictatorial regime of the Generalissimo Franco, whose portrait he painted in 1940. This siege, and other such as the death of General Moscardos son. The nationalist content of such a work was allied to Zuloagas celebration of folk traditions, however, in Spain, over the centuries, this anti-cosmopolitan nationalist focus had been used to deport groups such as Jews and Gypsies. Francos forces allied it with the Fascist urge to distill countries into unitary aggregates, the directness of the Siege painting avoids modernitys challenge to realistic depictions, falangism was not endeared to complex symbolism such as found in works such as Guernica.
In an April,1939 letter to his patron, Mrs Garret, Zuloaga stated, Thanks to God, and over, despite the goodwill of those so-called democratic countries – what a farce, what shame, when those countries learn the truth of this drama. We all will work with all our strength to rebuild a new Spain to Spanishize Spain, I hate fads One must be oneself, and not ape the style of anyone else
Lavandula is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia to southeast India. The most widely cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is referred to as lavender. The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, and shrub-like perennials, leaf shape is diverse across the genus. They are simple in some commonly cultivated species, in other species they are pinnately toothed, or pinnate, sometimes multiple pinnate, in most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which normally contain the essential oils. Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, some species produce coloured bracts at the apices. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species, the corolla is tubular, usually with five lobes. L. stoechas, L. pedunculata and L.
dentata were known in Roman times, from the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera and Lavandula, until Linnaeus combined them. He only recognised five species in Species Plantarum, L. multifida and L. dentata and L. stoechas, L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas. By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised, the latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, and by 1848 eighteen species were known, one of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew. The six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not easily be assigned and her sections included Stoechas, Subnudae, Pterostoechas and Dentatae. However all the cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas. There were four species within Stoechas while Spica had three and she believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender.
More recently, work has been done by Upson and Andrews, subgenus Lavandula is mainly of woody shrubs with entire leaves. It contains the species grown as ornamental plants and for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to northeast Africa and western Arabia, subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, and it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India. Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are distinct from the other species
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
The Spanish Socialist Workers Party, is a social-democratic political party in Spain. PSOE formed the government in democratic Spain between 1982 and 1996, and between 2004 and 2011 and it is the currently the oldest political party in Spanish history. The party, under Felipe González, formed a majority government after its victory in the 1982 general election, the party formed a minority government until 1996. PSOE has had ties with the General Union of Workers. For decades, UGT membership was a requirement for PSOE membership, since the 1980s, UGT has frequently criticized the economic policies of PSOE, even calling for a general strike on 14 December 1988. PSOE was last in power between 2004 and 2011 general elections, with José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero serving as leader of the government, the PSOE is a member of the Party of European Socialists, Progressive Alliance and the Socialist International. In the European Parliament, PSOEs 14 Members of the European Parliament sit in the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group, PSOE was founded with the purpose of representing and defending the interests of the working class formed during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.
The ideology of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party has evolved throughout the 20th Century according to relevant historical events and this allowed for the consolidation of the leftist forces in PSOE. Currently, PSOE defines itself as democratic, center-left and progressive. Concerning the territorial model of the realm, PSOE supports asymmetric federalism and it is grouped with other self-styled socialists, social democrats and labour parties in the Party of European Socialists. PSOE was founded on the 2nd of May,1879 in the Casa Labra Pub by the historical Spanish workers leader Pablo Iglesias, the first program of the new political party was passed in an assembly of 40 people, on 20 July of that same year. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1923 and 1940, PSOE formed part of the Spanish Government during the Second Spanish Republic and as part of the Spanish Popular Front, elected to government in February 1936. The dictator Francisco Franco banned PSOE in 1939, and the party was legalized again in 1977, during Francos rule members of PSOE were persecuted, with many leaders and supporters being imprisoned or exiled and even executed.
Its 25th Congress was held in Toulouse in August 1972, in 1974 at its 26th Congress in Suresnes, Felipe González was elected Secretary General, replacing Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz. González was from the wing of the party, and his victory signaled a defeat for the historic. The direction of the party shifted from the exiles to the people in Spain who hadnt fought the war. Their standing was further boosted in 1978 when the 6 deputies of the Popular Socialist Party agreed to merge with the party, in their 27th congress in May 1979, González resigned because the party would not abandon its Marxist character. In September of that year, the extraordinary 28th congress was called in which González was re-elected when the party agreed to move away from Marxism, European social-democratic parties supported Gonzálezs stand, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany granted them money
Second Siege of Zaragoza
The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza during the Peninsular War. It was particularly noted for its brutality, as a part of the Dos de Mayo uprising the city had already successfully resisted a first siege from 15 June 1808 to 14 August 1808. This was one of the first times in history that an army was defeated by irregulars in street fighting. The Spanish at this point missed their best chance to defeat the French and they did not appoint a Supreme Commander, so all the armies continued to operate independently. The main armies consisted of those of General Blake on the north coast, General Castaños around Tudela, Blake was the most active, but he was defeated at Zornoza on 31 October 1808. Napoleons plan was to attack in strength towards Burgos in between the armies of Blake and Castaños, once they broke through they were to swing both north and south to envelope the remaining armies. In order to achieve this, Napoleon wanted the exposed Spanish armies to remain in their current advanced positions, to achieve this Marshal Monceys 3rd Corps opposite General Castaños remained inactive from late October to 21 November.
The Spanish armies, moved constantly to no discernible effect, castanos was ill much of the time, leaving Palafox in command. He seemed reluctant to adopt a course of action. On 21 November 1808 the French 3rd Corps crossed the Ebro River at Logrono, Marshal Neys column reached the Upper Douro valley and headed for Tudela. These movements developed into the Battle of Tudela and this battle was a major victory for the French, but the armies of the Spanish generals were able to flee to Saragossa, escaping with the large majority of their war chests and cannons. The stage was now set for a second siege, considerable changes occurred in the defences of Saragossa after the first siege in June–August. In that siege, the city had few fortifications, except for the walls that could not withstand the French artillery bombardment. The defenders consisted of only a handful of troops and gunners. They had, been able to inflict casualties on the French at the barricades in the narrow winding streets. Since September 1808, Colonel San Genis had been working on a number of modern fortifications and these were overlooked by the city walls.
To the west, a solid rampart had been built outside the city walls and this provided a central gun battery, as well as a ditch that was 14-metres deep. San Lazaro was fortified with a protected by waterways and the two convents on the north side of the Ebro River had been made into fortresses
Little Ice Age
The Little Ice Age was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period. Although it was not an ice age, the term was introduced into scientific literature by François E. Matthes in 1939. It has been defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of the period, which varied according to local conditions. The NASA Earth Observatory notes three particularly cold intervals, one beginning about 1650, another about 1770, and the last in 1850, at most, there was modest cooling of the Northern Hemisphere during the period. Hemispherically, the Little Ice Age can only be considered as a modest cooling of the Northern Hemisphere during this period of less than 1°C relative to late twentieth century levels. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of 2007 discusses more recent research and it states that when viewed together, the currently available reconstructions indicate generally greater variability in centennial time scale trends over the last 1 kyr than was apparent in the TAR.
Given that the confidence levels surrounding all of the reconstructions are wide, the major differences between the various proxy reconstructions relate to the magnitude of past cool excursions, principally during the twelfth to fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. There is no consensus regarding the time when the Little Ice Age began, in the 13th century, pack ice began advancing southwards in the North Atlantic, as did glaciers in Greenland. Anecdotal evidence suggests expanding glaciers almost worldwide, in contrast, a climate reconstruction based on glacial length shows no great variation from 1600 to 1850 but strong retreat thereafter. The Little Ice Age ended in the half of the 19th century or early in the 20th century. The Little Ice Age brought colder winters to parts of Europe and villages in the Swiss Alps were destroyed by encroaching glaciers during the mid-17th century. Canals and rivers in Great Britain and the Netherlands were frequently frozen deeply enough to support ice skating, freezing of the Golden Horn and the southern section of the Bosphorus took place in 1622.
In 1658, a Swedish army marched across the Great Belt to Denmark to attack Copenhagen, Sea ice surrounding Iceland extended for miles in every direction, closing harbors to shipping. The population of Iceland fell by half, but that may have been caused by skeletal fluorosis after the eruption of Laki in 1783, Iceland suffered failures of cereal crops and people moved away from a grain-based diet. Greenland was largely cut off by ice from 1410 to the 1720s, in Lisbon, snowstorms were much more frequent than today, one winter in the 17th century produced eight snowstorms. Many springs and summers were cold and wet but with great variability between years and groups of years, crop practices throughout Europe had to be altered to adapt to the shortened, less reliable growing season, and there were many years of dearth and famine. According to Elizabeth Ewan and Janay Nugent, Famines in France 1693–94, Norway 1695–96, in Estonia and Finland in 1696–97, losses have been estimated at a fifth and a third of the national populations, respectively
Spanish Civil War
Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. Sanjurjo was killed in an accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal. The coup was supported by units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, and Málaga—did not gain control, Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country, the Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated a policy of non-intervention. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west and they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists, with the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, organized purges occurred in territory captured by Francos forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain and those in favour of reforming Spains government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain, the reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.
Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874, until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of an industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful, a number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon, two distinct factors led to the uprisings, a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabellas replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing pressure. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy, alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with ideas about the nature of materials. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, more recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art. Matisses two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting, analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé, the notion of modern art is closely related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier.
The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of art is 1863. Earlier dates have proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H, harvard Arnason, Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning. A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years, the strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and even to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant the first real Modernist but drew a distinction, The Enlightenment criticized from the outside. The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and this gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper. The pioneers of art were Romantics and Impressionists.
By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in art had begun to emerge. The advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the academic art that enjoyed public. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters unions, while governments regularly held exhibitions of new fine
Acer monspessulanum is a medium-sized deciduous tree or densely branched shrub that grows to a height of 10–15 m. The trunk is up to 75 cm diameter, with smooth, dark bark on young trees. The leaves fall very late in autumn, typically in November, the flowers are produced in spring, in pendulous, yellow to white corymbs 2–3 cm long. The samaras are 2–3 cm long with rounded nutlets and it is variable, and a number of subspecies and varieties have been described, but few are widely accepted as distinct. The most widely accepted as distinct is Acer monspessulanum subsp, microphyllum Bornmueller, from Turkey and Lebanon, with smaller leaves not over 3 cm broad. Among maples not endemic to Japan, A. monspessulanum are popular among bonsai enthusiasts, in both cases, the smallish leaves and shrubby habit of the maple respond well to techniques to encourage leaf reduction and ramification. These bonsai have a distinct from those created from maples such as Acer palmatum whose leaves are more frilly.
Otherwise, Acer monspessulanum is rarely seen in cultivation outside of arboreta, in the United States, a mature specimen may be seen at Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts. A specimen can be found in the arboretum of the Montreal Botanical Gardens, Acer monspessulanum - genetic conservation units and related resources
The genus is present in the fossil record at least since the Miocene of Europe, and Paleocene of North America and eastern Asia. Previously included either in the elm family or a family, Celtidaceae. The generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder to the unrelated Ziziphus lotus, Celtis species are generally medium-sized trees, reaching 10–25 m tall, rarely up to 40 m tall. The leaves are alternate, simple, 3–15 cm long, ovate-acuminate, Celtis can be very similar to trees in Rosaceae and other rose motif families. Small monoecious flowers appear in spring while the leaves are still developing. Male flowers are longer and fuzzy, female flowers are greenish and more rounded. The fruit is a small drupe 6–10 mm in diameter, edible in many species, with a dryish but sweet, sugary consistency, – white stinkwood Celtis australis L. – European hackberry, European nettle tree or lote tree Celtis balansae Planch, Celtis bungeana L. – Bunges hackberry Celtis caucasica L. – Caucasian hackberry Celtis conferta Planch.
Conferta – New Caledonia Celtis conferta subsp, amblyphylla – Lord Howe Island Celtis durandii Engl. – spiny hackberry, granjeno Celtis hypoleuca Planch, Celtis iguanaea Sarg. – iguana hackberry Celtis integrifolia L. – African hackberry Celtis jessoensis Koidz. – Japanese hackberry Celtis koraiensis L. – Korean hackberry Celtis labilis L. – Hubei hackberry Celtis laevigata Willd, – southern or sugar hackberry, sugarberry Celtis lindheimeri Engelm. Ex K. Koch – Lindheimers hackberry Celtis loxensis C. C. Berg Celtis luzonica Warb, Celtis occidentalis L. – common or northern hackberry, false elm Celtis pallida Torr. – desert or shiny hackberry Celtis paniculata Planch, Celtis reticulata Torr. – netleaf hackberry Celtis schippii Standl. – Chinese or Japanese hackberry, Chinese nettle tree Celtis tala Gillet ex Planch, – dwarf hackberry Celtis tetranda Roxb. Celtis timorensis Span. – kayu busok Celtis tournefortii L. – Oriental hackberry Celtis triflora Ruiz ex Miq, Celtis trinervia Lam. – almex additional list source Trema cannabina Lour.
Trema lamarckiana Blume Trema orientalis Blume Trema tomentosa H. Hara Several species are grown as ornamental trees and they are a regular feature of arboreta and botanical gardens, particularly in North America. Chinese hackberry is suited for culture, while a magnificent specimen in Daegu-myeon is one of the natural monuments of South Korea. Some, including common hackberry and C. brasiliensis, are honey plants, hackberry wood is sometimes used in cabinetry and woodworking