A double eagle is a gold coin of the United States with a denomination of $20. The coins are made from a 90% gold and 10% copper alloy and have a total weight of 1.0750 troy ounces. The "eagle", "half eagle", "quarter eagle" were given these names in the Act of Congress that authorized them; the double eagle was created as such by name in the Coinage Act of 1849. Prior to 1850, eagles with a denomination of $10 were the largest denomination of US coin; the $10 eagles were produced beginning in 1795, just two years after the first U. S. mint opened. Since the $20 gold piece had twice the value of the eagle, these coins were designated "double eagles"; the first double eagle was minted in 1849. In that year, the mint produced two pieces in proof; the first resides in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C.. The second was presented to Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith and was sold as part of his estate—the present location of this coin remains unknown. In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt sought to beautify American coinage, proposed Augustus Saint-Gaudens as an artist capable of the task.
Although the sculptor had poor experiences with the Mint and its chief engraver, Charles E. Barber, Saint-Gaudens accepted Roosevelt's call; the work was subject to considerable delays, due to Saint-Gaudens's declining health and difficulties because of the high relief of his design. Saint-Gaudens died in 1907, after designing the eagle and double eagle, but before the designs were finalized for production; the new coin became known as the Saint-Gaudens double eagle. Regular production continued until 1933, when the official price of gold was changed to $35/oz by the Gold Reserve Act; the 1933 double eagle is among the most valuable of U. S. coins, with the sole example known to be in private hands selling in 2002 for $7,590,020. Regular issue double eagles come in two major types and six minor varieties as follows: Liberty head 1849–1907 Liberty head, no motto, value "twenty D." 1849–1866 Liberty head, with motto, value "twenty D." 1866–1876 Liberty head, with motto, value "twenty dollars" 1877–1907 Saint Gaudens' 1907–1933 Saint Gaudens', high relief, Roman numerals, no motto 1907 Saint Gaudens', low relief, Arabic numerals, no motto 1907–1908 Saint Gaudens', low relief, Arabic numerals, with motto 1908–1933 Due to the less desirable artwork and therefore lower demand, liberty coronet $20 gold pieces are less encountered, the common subtype commands less than the St.-Gaudens' type.
In 1866, the motto "In God We Trust" was added to the liberty coronet double eagle, creating a second subtype. In 1877, the coin's denomination design on the reverse was changed from "twenty D" to "twenty dollars" creating a third and final subtype for the series. An 1879 pattern coin was made for the quintuple stella using a design combining features of the liberty head double eagle and stella pattern coin and using the same alloy as the stella; however this coin was stolen in July 2008. The Saint-Gaudens double eagle is named for the designer, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, one of the premier sculptors in American history. Theodore Roosevelt imposed upon him in his last few years to redesign the nation's coinage at the beginning of the 20th century. Saint-Gaudens' work on the high-relief $20 gold piece is considered to be one of the most extraordinary pieces of art on any American coin; the mint insisted on a low-relief version, as the high-relief coin took up to eleven strikes to bring up the details and did not stack for banking purposes.
Only 12,367 of these coins were struck in 1907. These coins top the $10,000 price in circulated grades, but can reach nearly a half million dollars in the best states of preservation. There were several changes in the early years of this design; the first coins issued in 1907 design featured a date in Roman numerals, but this was changed that year to the more convenient Arabic numerals. The motto "In God We Trust" was omitted from the initial design, as Roosevelt felt that putting the name of God on money that could be used for immoral purposes was inappropriate. By act of Congress, the motto was added in mid-1908; the design of the Saint-Gaudens coin was changed once more when New Mexico and Arizona became states in 1912, the number of stars along the rim was accordingly increased from 46 to 48. Double eagles were minted through 1933, although few of the last years' coinages were released before the gold recall legislation of that year. Accordingly, these issues bring high prices; the Saint-Gaudens obverse design was reused in the American eagle gold bullion coins that were instituted in 1986.
The early 1907 double eagles and the 1986-1991 gold American eagles are the only instances of Roman numerals denoting the date on American coinage. On January 22, 2009, the U. S. Mint released ultra-high relief double eagles using the deep design that Saint-Gaudens envisioned, so that the U. S. Mint could, as its web site states "fulfill Augustus Saint-Gaudens' vision of an ultra high relief coin that could not be realized in 1907 with his legendary Double Eagle liberty design." Despite that claim, the mint reaffirmed just what doomed the first attempts in 1907. The coin's abradable 0.9999 fine gol
Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, political theorist, freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.
Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the 1750s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a soaper and candlemaker. Josiah was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin, Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689 in the Old South Meeting House by Samuel Willard. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, when King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in 1635, her father was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.
Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling e
The copper-nickel three-cent piece called a three-cent nickel piece or three-cent nickel, was designed by US Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre and struck by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1865 to 1889, it was popular, but its place in commerce was supplanted by the five-cent piece, or nickel. With precious metal federal coinage hoarded during the economic turmoil of the American Civil War, including the silver three-cent piece, the copper-nickel cent commanding a premium, Congress issued paper money in denominations as small as three cents to replace the hoarded coins in commerce; these small slips of paper became ragged and dirty, the public came to hate "shinplasters". After the issuance in 1864 of a lighter bronze cent and a two-cent piece of that metal, both of which circulated there were proposals for a three-cent piece in copper-nickel to replace the three-cent note; the advocates were led by Pennsylvania industrialist Joseph Wharton, who controlled the domestic supply of nickel ore.
On the last legislative day of the congressional session, March 3, 1865, a bill for a three-cent piece in copper-nickel alloy was introduced in Congress, passed both houses without debate, was signed by President Abraham Lincoln. The three-cent nickel piece circulated well, but became less popular when the five-cent nickel was introduced in 1866, a larger, more convenient coin, with a value of five cents better fitting the decimal system. After 1870, most years saw low annual mintages for the three-cent nickel, in 1890 Congress abolished it; the last were struck in 1889. The issue is not collected, prices for rare dates remain low by the standards of American collectible coinage; the great influx of bullion from the California Gold Rush and other finds caused the price of silver relative to gold to increase starting in 1848, silver coins were hoarded or exported for melting. In 1851, a bill for a three-cent piece in 75% silver and 25% copper was introduced in Congress by New York Senator Daniel S. Dickinson, who wanted to lower postage rates from five to three cents.
This percentage of silver was less than the normal 90% so that the coins would circulate at a time of hoarding. The copper large cent did not circulate in the Pacific Coast region or South due to prejudice against coins that did not contain precious metal, some means of allowing the purchase of a postage stamp without the use of copper cents was necessary. Dickinson's bill passed on March 3, 1851, in addition to authorizing the new three-cent silver, lowered rates for most domestic mails. By 1854, the imbalance had abated, Congress increased the silver content of the three-cent piece to the standard 90% for silver coins, though its weight was reduced; the large cent was replaced by a smaller version made of 88% copper and 12% nickel in 1857. In 1861, the Civil War began, when efforts to finance the war via borrowing failed, the Treasury stopped paying out gold in December 1861; the United States shifted to a paper money-based economy with little disruption. By June 1862, the price of silver had risen to the point where coins of that metal vanished from circulation, many exported to Canada, where they were both acceptable in circulation, could be exchanged for gold.
This departure of low-value coins was far more disruptive to commerce than the loss of the high-denomination gold coins, change in transactions was made by a variety of makeshifts. These included currency issues by cities and businesses, encased postage stamps, federally issued fractional currency—paper notes in denominations as small as three cents; the low-value paper currency, whether issued by government or business, were called shinplasters by the public, which disliked them. On the Pacific Coast, where paper money was not favored and gold continued to circulate. Since fractional currency in three-cent denominations did not appear until late 1864, the cent was the only means circulating of making change from the five-cent note, came, in 1862 and 1863, to command a premium when sold in lots, of about 4%; the Philadelphia Mint tried to keep up with demand, limiting public purchases of cents to five dollars, sending shipments to major cities. Despite these attempts, Mint Director James Pollock noted in his annual reports that cents were unobtainable, hoarded despite the fact that their metallic value remained less than one cent each.
Numismatist Neil Carothers theorized that they were put aside by the public as the only circulating federal coinage, made of metal at a time when the public was forced to accept flimsy pieces of paper instead of silver and gold. With cents from the Philadelphia Mint selling at a premium, many private token issues were issued in 1863, passed as cents in commerce. Mint officials took notice that the tokens made of bronze rather than the copper-nickel alloy being used in the cent, were not hoarded and began to consider issuing bronze coins; when Pollock proposed legislation for bronze one-, two-, three-cent pieces, it was opposed by industrialist Joseph Wharton, owner of the major source of nickel in the United States at the time, a mine at Gap, Pennsylvania. Pollock's bill, as introduced, provided for one- and two-cent pieces of bronze, the Wharton interests opposed it. According to Carothers, Congress declined to compromise with the nickel interests... In the House, its opponents managed to delay its passage for a month.
Thaddeus Stevens, one of the most influential men in the House, fought it bitterly, however, that he objected to it because it adversely affected Wharton's interests. The Coinage Act of 1864 passed into law on April 22 of that year. After entering circulation several months the bronze cent an
Coins of the United States dollar
Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually since and they make up a valuable aspect of the United States currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢, 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, $1.00. Minted are bullion and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint; the coins are sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the country's economy. Today, four mints operate in the United States producing billions of coins each year; the main mint is the Philadelphia Mint, which produces circulating coinage, mint sets and some commemorative coins. The Denver Mint produces circulating coinage, mint sets and commemoratives; the San Francisco Mint produces regular and silver proof coinage, produced circulating coinage until the 1970s. The West Point Mint produces bullion coinage. Philadelphia and Denver produce the dies used at all of the mints.
The proof and mint sets are manufactured each year and contain examples of all of the year's circulating coins. The producing mint of each coin may be identified, as most coins bear a mint mark; the identifying letter of the mint can be found on the front side of most coins, is placed near the year. Unmarked coins are issued by the Philadelphia mint. Among marked coins, Philadelphia coins bear a letter P. Denver coins bear a letter D, San Francisco coins bear a letter S, West Point coins bear a letter W. S and W coins are if found in general circulation, although S coins bearing dates prior to the mid-1970s are in circulation; the CC, O, C, D mint marks were used on gold and silver coins for various periods in the mid-nineteenth century until the early twentieth century by temporary mints in Carson City, Nevada. The mass and composition of the cent changed to the current copper plated zinc core in 1982. Both types were minted in 1982 with no distinguishing mark. Cents minted in 1943 were struck on planchets punched from zinc coated steel which left the resulting edges uncoated.
This caused many of these coins to rust. These "steel pennies" are not to be found in circulation today, as they were intentionally removed from circulation for recycling the metal. However, cents minted from 1944 to 1946 were made from a special salvaged WWII brass composition to replace the steel cents, but still save material for the war effort, are more common in circulation than their 1943 counterparts; the wheat cent was common during its time. Some dates are rare; this is due to the fact that unlike the silver denominations, the composition of the pre-1982 cent, nearly pure copper, is not so much more valuable over face value for it to be hoarded to the extreme extent of the silver denominations. Nickels produced from mid-1942 through 1945 were manufactured from 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese; this allowed the saved nickel metal to be shifted to industrial production of military supplies during World War II. Few of these are still found in circulation. Prior to 1965 and passage of the Coinage Act of 1965 the composition of the dime, half-dollar and dollar coins was 90% silver and 10% copper.
The half-dollar continued to be minted in a 40% silver-clad composition between 1965 and 1970. Dimes and quarters from before 1965 and half-dollars from before 1971 are not in circulation due to being removed for their silver content. In 1975 and 1976 bicentennial coinage was minted. Regardless of date of coining, each coin bears the dual date "1776-1976"; the Quarter-Dollar, Half-Dollar and Dollar coins were issued in the copper 91.67% nickel 8.33% composition for general circulation and the Government issued 6-coin Proof Set. A special 3-coin set of 40% silver coins were issued by the U. S. Mint in both Uncirculated and Proof. Use of the half-dollar is not as widespread as that of other coins in general circulation; when found, many 50¢ coins are hoarded, spent, or brought to banks. The Presidential Dollar series features portraits of all deceased U. S. Presidents with four coin designs issued each year in the order of the president's inauguration date; these coins began circulating on February 15, 2007.
Starting 2012, these coins have been minted only for collectible sets because of a large stockpile. The Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was minted from 1979–1981 and 1999; the 1999 minting was in response to Treasury supplies of the dollar becoming depleted and the inability to accelerate the minting of the Sacagawea dollars by a year. 1981 Anthony dollars can sometimes be found in circulation from proof sets that were broken open, but these dollars were not minted with the intent that they circulate. Non-circulating bullion coins have been produced each year since 1986, they can be found in gold and silver, since 1997 platinum. In 2017, the Mint introduced palladium bullion; the face value of these coins is legal as tender, but does not reflect the value of the precious metal contained therein. On May 11, 2011, Utah became the first state to accept these coins as the value of the precious metal in common transactions; the Utah State Treasurer assigns a numerical precious metal value to these coins each week based on the spot metal prices.
Modern commemoratives have been minte
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
E pluribus unum
E pluribus unum —Latin for "Out of many, one" —is a 13-letter traditional motto of the United States, appearing on the Great Seal along with Annuit cœptis and Novus ordo seclorum, adopted by an Act of Congress in 1782. Never codified by law, E pluribus unum was considered a de facto motto of the United States until 1956 when the United States Congress passed an act, adopting "In God We Trust" as the official motto; the meaning of the phrase originates from the concept that out of the union of the original Thirteen Colonies emerged a new single nation. It is emblazoned across the scroll and clenched in the eagle’s beak on the Great Seal of the United States; the thirteen-letter motto was suggested in 1776 by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere to the committee responsible for developing the seal. At the time of the American Revolution, the exact phrase appeared prominently on the title page of every issue of a popular periodical, The Gentleman's Magazine, which collected articles from many sources into one magazine.
This in turn can be traced back to the London-based Huguenot Peter Anthony Motteux, who used the adage for his The Gentleman's Journal, or the Monthly Miscellany. The phrase is similar to a Latin translation of a variation of Heraclitus's tenth fragment, "The one is made up of all things, all things issue from the one". A variant of the phrase was used in "Moretum", a poem belonging to the Appendix Virgiliana, describing the making of moretum, a kind of herb and cheese spread related to modern pesto. In the poem text, color est e pluribus. St Augustine used a variant of ex pluribus unum, in his Confessions, but it seems more that the phrase refers to Cicero's paraphrase of Pythagoras in his De Officiis, as part of his discussion of basic family and social bonds as the origin of societies and states: "When each person loves the other as much as himself, it makes one out of many, as Pythagoras wishes things to be in friendship."While Annuit cœptis and Novus ordo seclorum appear on the reverse side of the great seal, E pluribus unum appears on the obverse side of the seal, the image of, used as the national emblem of the United States, appears on official documents such as passports.
It appears on the seal of the President and in the seals of the Vice President of the United States, of the United States Congress, of the United States House of Representatives, of the United States Senate and on the seal of the United States Supreme Court. The first coins with E pluribus unum were dated 1786 and struck under the authorization of the State of New Jersey by Thomas Goadsby and Albion Cox in Rahway, New Jersey; the motto had no New Jersey linkage but was an available die, created by Walter Mould the previous year for a failed federal coinage proposal. Walter Mould was authorized by New Jersey to strike state coppers with this motto and did so beginning in early 1787 in Morristown, New Jersey. Lt. Col. Seth Read of Uxbridge, Massachusetts was said to have been instrumental in having E pluribus unum placed on U. S. coins. Seth Read and his brother Joseph Read had been authorized by the Massachusetts General Court to mint coppers in 1786. In March 1786, Seth Read petitioned the Massachusetts General Court, both the House and the Senate, for a franchise to mint coins, both copper and silver, "it was concurred".
E pluribus unum, written in capital letters, is included on most U. S. currency, with some exceptions to the letter spacing. It is embossed on the edge of the dollar coin.. According to the U. S. Treasury, the motto E pluribus unum was first used on U. S. coinage in 1795, when the reverse of the half-eagle coin presented the main features of the Great Seal of the United States. E pluribus unum is inscribed on the Great Seal's scroll; the motto was added to certain silver coins in 1798, soon appeared on all of the coins made out of precious metals. In 1834, it was dropped from most of the gold coins to mark the change in the standard fineness of the coins. In 1837, it was dropped from the silver coins. An Act of February 12, 1873 made the inscription a requirement of law upon the coins of the United States. E pluribus unum appears on all coins being manufactured, including the Presidential dollars that started being produced in 2007, where it is inscribed on the edge along with "In God We Trust" and the year and mint mark.
After the revolution, New Jersey became the home of the first national mint to create a coin bearing the inscription E pluribus unum. In a quality control error in early 2007 the Philadelphia Mint issued some one-dollar coins without E pluribus unum on the rim; the 2009 and new 2010 penny features a new design on the back, which displays the phrase E pluribus unum in larger letters than in previous years. The motto appears on the logo of the Shire of Boulia, Australia; the motto E pluribus unum is used by Portuguese multi-sport club S. L. Benfica; this motto has been used in the Eden novel of Stanislaw Lem. This motto has been used by the Scoutspataljon, a professional infantry battalion of the Estonian Defence Forces, since 1918; the motto appears on the coat of arms of the city of Mongaguá in Brazil. A