The Matsu Islands are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China. It is the smallest county in the ROC free area. Only a small area of what is Lienchiang County is under the control of the ROC; the People's Republic of China administers the part of the historical county on mainland China as Lianjiang County, which claims the entire archipelago to be its Mazu Township. The ROC controls two other archipelagos along the coast of Fujian, namely the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands, which together make up Kinmen County; the Lienchiang name is derived from the original Lianjiang County of Fujian province in Mainland China. In April 2003, the county government started considering changing the name to Matsu County to avoid confusion with the county of the same name on the mainland; some local people opposed the name change because they felt it reflected the pro-independence viewpoint of the Democratic Progressive Party.
Mainlanders from Fujian and Zhejiang started migrating to the islands during the Yuan Dynasty. Most of the people on Matsu came from Houguan; the popular net fishing industry had established the base for development of Fuao settlement and industrial development of the region over several hundred years. Some crewmen of Zheng He temporarily stayed on the islands. During the early Qing Dynasty, pirates gathered here and the residents left temporarily. In contrast with Taiwan and Penghu, the Matsu Islands were not ceded to the Japanese Empire via the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Neither were they occupied by Japanese troops during World War II because they were not important militarily. Due to its strategic location for the only route for spice road, the British established the Dongyong Lighthouse in Dongyin Island in 1912 to facilitate ships navigation. In 1911, the Qing Dynasty was toppled after the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911 and the Republic of China was established on 1 January 1912.
Matsu Islands was subsequently governed under the administration of Fukien Province of the ROC. On 1 August 1927, the Nanchang Uprising broke out between the ruling Nationalist Party of China and Communist Party of China which marked the beginning of Chinese Civil War. After years of war, the CPC managed to take over mainland China from KMT and established the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949 which covers the Lianjiang County of Fujian; the KMT subsequently retreated from mainland China to Taiwan in end of 1949. After their retreat, the KMT retained the offshore part from the original Lianjiang County located on Matsu Islands, all of Kinmen County. In July 1958 the PRC began massing forces opposite the two islands and began bombarding them on 23 August, triggering the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. On 4 September 1958, the PRC announced the extension of its territorial waters by 20 kilometres to include the two islands. However, after talks were held between the USA and PRC in Warsaw, Poland that month, a ceasefire was agreed and the status quo reaffirmed.
The phrase "Quemoy and Matsu" became part of American political language in the 1960 U. S. presidential election. During the debates, both candidates, Vice-President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy, pledged to use American forces if necessary to protect Taiwan from invasion by the PRC, which the United States did not recognize as a legitimate government, but the two candidates had different opinions about whether to use American forces to protect Taiwan's forward positions and Matsu, also. In fact, Senator Kennedy stated that these islands - as little as 9 kilometres off the coast of China and as much as 170 kilometres from Taiwan - were strategically indefensible and were not essential to the defense of Taiwan. On the contrary, Vice-President Nixon maintained that since Quemoy and Matsu were in the "area of freedom," they should not be surrendered to the Communists as a matter of "principle."Self governance of the county resumed in 1992 after the normalization of the political warfare with the mainland and the abolishment of Battle Field Administration on 7 November 1992.
Afterwards, the local constructions progressed tremendously. In 1999, the islands were designated under Matsu National Scenic Area Administration. In January 2001, direct cargo and passenger shipping started between Matsu and Fujian Province of the PRC. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Matsu Islands; this privilege applies to Penghu and Kinmen as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The Matsu Islands comprise 19 islands and islets, which include five major islands, which are Nangan and Xiju, Beigan and Dongyin. Minor islands include Liang, Gaodeng and Xiaoqiu, which are all belong to the Beigan Township. Dongyin is the northernmost and Dongjyu is the southernmost. Dongyin is 100 nautical miles from Keelung, Taiwan, 180 to the Penghu islands, over 10 nautical miles from the Chinese Mainland; the soil is not ideal for farming. The highest point is on 298 metres. Areas: Nangan: 10.43 km2 Beigan: 8.86 km2 Dongyin: 4.35 km2 Juguang islands: see Juguang Average annual temperature is 18.6 °C, with the average low being at 13 °C and average high at 29 °C.
The daily temperature varies during day a
Fuzhou romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area. Fuzhou lies on the north bank of the estuary of the Min River. All along its northern border lies Ningde, Ningde's Gutian County lies upriver, its population was 7,115,370 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 4,408,076 inhabitants are urban representing around 61.95%, while rural population is at 2,707,294 representing around 38.05%. In 2015, Fuzhou was ranked as the 10th Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas in the world by Brookings Institution. Fuzhou is listed as No.20 in China Integrated City Index 2016's total ranking, a study conducted by National Development and Reform Commission. Fuzhou in Chinese is "有福之州", meaning "a city with good luck." The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, a Chinese geographical treatise published in the 9th century, says that Fuzhou's name came from Mount Futo, a mountain northwest of the city.
The mountain's name was combined with -zhou, meaning "settlement" or "prefecture," in a manner similar to many other Chinese cities. During the Warring States period, area of Fuzhou was sometimes referred to as Ye, Fuzhou was incorporated into China proper during Qin dynasty; the city's name was changed numerous times between the 3rd and 9th centuries before settling on Fuzhou in 948. In Chinese, the city is sometimes referred to by the poetic nickname Rongcheng, literally:'The Banyan City'. In older English publications, the name is variously romanized as Foochow, Foo-Chow, Fuchow, Fūtsu, Fuh-Chow, Hock Chew, Hokchew; the remains of two Neolithic cultures—the Huqiutou Culture, from around 5000 BC, the Tanshi Mountain Culture, from around 3000 BC—have been discovered and excavated in the Fuzhou area. During the Warring States period, Han Chinese began referring to the modern Fujian area as Min Yue, suggesting that the native inhabitants of the area were a branch of the Yue peoples, a family of non-Han tribes who once inhabited most of southern China.
In 306 BC, the Yue Kingdom fell to the state of Chu. Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian wrote that the surviving members of the Yue royal family fled south to what is now Fujian, where they settled alongside the native Yue people, joining Han and Yue culture to create Minyue, their major centre was not at Fuzhou's modern location, but further up the Min watershed near Wuyishan City. The First Emperor of Qin unified ancient China in 221 BC and desired to bring the southern and southeast regions under Chinese rule; the Qin dynasty organized its territory into "Commanderies" —roughly equivalent to a province or prefecture—and the Fujian area was organized as Minzhong Commandery. The area seems to have continued independent of Chinese control for the next century; the Han dynasty followed the short-lived Qin, Emperor Gaozu of Han declared both Minyue and neighboring Nanyue to be autonomous vassal kingdoms. In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu enfeoffed a leader named Wuzhu as King of Minyue, a walled city called Ye was built.
The founding of Ye in 202 BC has become the traditional founding date of the city of Fuzhou. In 110 BC, the armies of Emperor Wu of Han defeated the Minyue kingdom's armies during the Han–Minyue War and annexed its territory and people into China. Many Minyue citizens were forcibly relocated into the Jiangnan area, the Yue ethnic group was assimilated into the Chinese, causing a sharp decline in Ye's inhabitants; the area was re-organized as a county in 85 BC. During the Three Kingdoms Period, southeast China was nominally under the control of Eastern Wu, the Fuzhou area had a shipyard for the coastal and Yangtze River fleets. In 282, during the Jin dynasty, two artificial lakes known as the East Lake and West Lake were constructed in Ye, as well as a canal system; the core of modern Fuzhou grew around these three water systems, though the East and West Lakes no longer exist. In 308, during the War of the Eight Princes at the end of the Jin dynasty, the first large-scale migration of Han Chinese immigrants moved to the south and southeast of China began, followed by subsequent waves during periods of warfare or natural disaster in the Chinese heartland.
The administrative and economic center of the Fujian area began to shift to the Ye area during the Sui dynasty. In 725, the city was formally renamed "Fuzhou". Throughout the mid-Tang dynasty, Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions developed; the years of the Tang saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to the modern-day Fujian and Guangdong areas. In 879, a large part of the city was captured by the army of Huang Chao during their rebellion against the Tang government. In 893, the warlord brothers Wang Chao and Wang Shenzhi captured Fuzhou in a rebellion against the Tang dynasty gaining control of the entire Fujian Province and proclaiming their founding of an independent kingdom they called the Min Kingdom in 909; the Wang brothers enticed more immigrants from the north, though their kingdom only survived until 945. In 978, Fuzhou was incorporated into the newly founded Song dynasty, though their control of the mountainous regions was tenuous.
Fuzhou prospered during the Tang dynasty. Buddhism was adopted by the citizens who built many Buddhist temples in the area. Fuzhou underwent a major dramatic surge in i
Time in Taiwan
National Standard Time is the official time zone in Taiwan defined by an UTC offset of +08:00. This standard is known as Taiwan Time, Taipei Time and as Chungyuan Standard Time until the early 2000s; the first time zone standard in Taiwan was enforced in 1 January 1896, the second year of Taiwan under Japanese rule. The standard is called Western Standard Time with time offset of UTC+08:00, based on 120°E longitude. In 1 October 1937, the Western Standard Time zone is abolished and the Central Standard Time, with time offset of UTC+09:00, was enforced in the entire country of Japan including Taiwan; this time was used until the end of the Second World War. In 21 September 1945, the Governor-General of Taiwan announced to revoke the order in 1937. After the war's end, Taiwan was annexed to the five time zones system of the Republic of China and was classified in the Chungyuan Standard Time with time offset of UTC+08:00. After the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Central Government of the Republic of China retreated to Taiwan and lost nearly all the territory of mainland China.
From this time, the five time zones system was no longer implemented except Chungyuan Standard Time on Taiwan. After the 1990s, the democratization movement brought more localization thinking in Taiwan; the term Chungyuan, which means the Central Plain of China, is considered as Sinocentrism. Thus the government on Taiwan now favors the term National Standard Time as official use. Along with the governmental standard, popular alternatives include Taiwan Standard Time, TST, Taipei Time and Formosan Time. Daylight saving time was implemented in Taiwan after the Second World War on the summer of 1946–1961, 1974, 1975, 1979. In October 2017, a petition took place to change the offset to UTC+09:00, responded by an assessment of potential impact by the government. National Standard Time is now managed by the Bureau of Standards and Inspection under the Ministry of Economic Affairs; the time is released according to the caesium atomic clocks aggregated by National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory under Chunghwa Telecom after consulting the data provided by Bureau International des Poids et Measures.
National Standard Time used in Taiwan is the same as Brunei, P. R. China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore; the IANA time zone database contains one zone for Taiwan, named Asia/Taipei. Bureau of Standards and Inspection, Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Republic of China National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory
Fujian Provincial Government
The Fujian Provincial Government was the government that governs Fujian Province of the Republic of China. Its duties have been transferred to the Kinmen-Matsu Joint Service Center, the National Development Council, other ministries of the Executive Yuan. After the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Fujian provincial government was moved from Foochow to Kinmen; the provincial government was relocated to Hsintien Township, Taipei County within Taiwan Province in 1956. On 15 January 1996, the provincial government moved back to Kinmen County. On July 1, 2018, by a resolution passed during the 3606th meeting of the Executive Yuan, all the remaining duties were transferred to the National Development Council and other ministries of the Executive Yuan; the transformations are scheduled to be done before the end of year 2018. However, the government will keep the position of Governor of Fujian Province to comply with the requirement set by the Additional Articles of the Constitution; the only official who serves in the provincial government is the Governor of Fujian Province.
The Governor is also a minister without portfolio in Executive Yuan. The provincial government does not have any physical building or office space after all its functionalities were handed to the central government in 2018; the provincial government was located in Jincheng, Kinmen from 1949 to 1956, in Hsintien, Taipei County from 1956 to January 1996, in Jincheng, Kinmen again from January 1996 to 2018. The Governor of Fujian Province is the Chairperson of the Fujian Provincial Government. Fujian Province, Republic of China Taiwan Provincial Government
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Kinmen or Quemoy Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres to the northeast, it is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres east of the mainland city of Xiamen, their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city. Kinmen was given its name in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming dynasty appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou attacks.
The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties. Quemoy is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization, it began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi. This form of the islands' name was used exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".
Kinmen is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government, the islands' airport, the national park use this spelling. Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard. Jinmen is the hanyu pinyin form of the island's name used in sources from the People's Republic of China; the Kinmen County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen itself. People began settling down in Kinmen during the Tang Dynasty, changing the original name from Wuzhou to Kinmen. During the Ming Dynasty, more migrants came to settle down in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen as a base to liberate Kinmen and Penghu from the Dutch.
He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen vulnerable to soil erosion. The Prince of Lu, a member of the Southern Ming Dynasty, resisted the invading Manchu Qing Dynasty forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663. After the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, Kinmen became part of Fukien Province. Japan did however occupy Kinmen during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, it was claimed by both the ROC and PRC; the People's Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan Strait crises in 1954–1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC. Kinmen was a military reserve, which led to the tragedy of 1987 Lieyu massacre; the island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed.
Direct travel between mainland China and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links, there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists. Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS outbreak, but has since resumed. Many Taiwanese businessmen use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businessmen relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC. On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen.
This privilege applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The people of Kinmen see themselves as Kinmenese, Mínnánrén, or Chinese, but not so much as Taiwanese; the strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China when Kinmen was under military administration. In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law wa
Minhou County is a county in eastern Fujian Province, China. It is under the administration of Fuzhou; the county has 8 towns and 6 townships. Subdistrict：Ganzhe subdistrict Town：Baisha Town, Nanyu town 、Shanggan Town 、Xiangqian Town 、Qingkou Town 、Nantong Town、Shangjie Town, JingxiTown Township：Zhuqi township 竹岐乡、Pengwei Township 鸿尾乡、Yangli township 、Dahu township 、Tingping Township 、Xiaoruo Township In August 2014, 396 villagers from Qingpuling of Qingkou Town won a court case against a waste management company, they were awarded 6,000,000 RMB in compensation. The waste company set up their medical waste incineration facility back in 2000; the pollution caused black dust or ash to contaminate the surrounding environment trees, plants and households. Residents had long suspected the cancer rates was due to the environmental pollution from the incineration plant; the government has offered relocation for the affected residents. Minhou County government website