Ogata Kōrin was a Japanese painter and designer of the Rinpa school. Ogata is best known for his byōbu folding screens, such as Irises and Red and White Plum Blossoms, his paintings on ceramics and lacquerware produced by his brother Kenzan. A prolific designer, he worked with a variety of decorative and practical objects, such as round fans, makie writing boxes or inrō medicine cases, he is credited with reviving and consolidating the Rinpa school of Japanese painting, fifty years after its foundation by Hon'ami Kōetsu and Tawaraya Sōtatsu. In fact the term "Rinpa", coined in the Meiji period, means "school of rin". In particular he had a lasting influence on Sakai Hōitsu, who replicated many of his paintings and popularized his work, organizing the first exhibition of Kōrin's paintings at the hundredth anniversary of his death. Ogata was born in Kyoto into a wealthy merchant family, dedicated to the design and sale of fine textiles; the family business, named Karigane-ya, catered the aristocratic women of the city.
His father, Ogata Sōken, a noted calligrapher in the style of Kōetsu and patron of Noh theater, introduced his sons to the arts. Ogata was the second son of Sōken, his younger brother Kenzan was a celebrated potter and painter in his own right, with whom he collaborated frequently. Ogata studied under Yamamoto Soken of the Kanō school, Kano Tsunenobu and Sumiyoshi Gukei, but his biggest influences were his predecessors Hon'ami Kōetsu and Tawaraya Sōtatsu. Sōken died in 1687, the elder brother took over the family business, leaving Ogata and Kenzan free to enjoy a considerable inheritance. After this, Ogata led a active social life, but his spendings run him into financial difficulties the following years due to loans made to feudal lords; this forced him to pawn some of his treasured possessions. A letter sent by him to a pawnbroker in 1694 regarding "one writing box with deer by Kōetsu" and "one Shigaraki ware water jar with lacquer lid" survives. Ogata established himself as an artist only late in life.
In 1701 he was awarded the honorific title of hokkyō, the third highest rank awarded to Buddhist artists, in 1704 he moved to Edo, where lucrative commissions were more available. His early masterpieces, such as his Irises are dated to this period. During this time he had the opportunity to study the ink paintings of medieval monk painters Sesshū Tōyō and Sesson Shukei; these are seen as important influences in his work from that period, the Rough Waves painting for example. In 1709 he moved back to Kyoto, he built a house with an atelier in Shinmachi street in 1712 and lived there the last five years of his life. His masterpieces from that last period, such as the Red and White Plum Blossoms screens, are though to have been painted there. Ogata died famous but impoverished on 2 June 1716, at the age of 59, his grave is located at the Myōken-ji temple in Kyoto. His chief pupils were Tatebayashi Kagei, Watanabe Shiko and Fukae Roshu, but the present knowledge and appreciation of his work are due to the early efforts of his brother Kenzan and Sakai Hōitsu, who brought about a revival of Ogata's style.
Irises is a pair of six-panel byōbu folding screens made circa 1701–05, using ink and color on gold-foiled paper. The screens are among the first works of Ogata as a hokkyō, it depicts abstracted blue Japanese irises in bloom, their green foliage, creating a rhythmically repeating but varying pattern across the panels. The similarities of some blooms indicate; the work shows influence of Tawaraya, it is representative of the Rinpa school. It is inspired by an episode in the Heian period text The Tales of Ise. Irises Each screen measures 150.9 by 338.8 centimetres. They were made for the Nijō family, were presented to the Nishi Honganji Buddhist temple in Kyoto, where they were held for over 200 years, they were sold by the temple in 1913, are now held by the Nezu Museum, where they are exhibited occasionally. They are listed as a National Treasure of Japan. Kōrin made a similar work about five to twelve years another pair of six-panel screens, known as Irises at Yatsuhashi, it is a more explicit reference to the "Yatsuhashi" episodes from The Tales of Ise, including the depiction of an angular bridge that sweeps diagonally across both screens.
The screens were made using ink and color on gold-foiled paper and measure 163.7 by 352.4 centimetres each. They have been held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City since 1953, were last displayed in 2013. Both Irises screens were displayed together for the first time in a century in 2012 at the "Korin: National Treasure Irises of the Nezu Museum and Eight-Bridge of the Metropolitan Museum of Art" exhibition at the Nezu Museum. Wind God and Thunder God is a pair of two-folded screens made using ink and color on gold-foiled paper, it is a replica of an original work by Tawaraya which depicts Raijin, the god of lightning and storms in the Shinto religion and in Japanese mythology, Fūjin, the god of wind. Sakai Hōitsu, another prominent member of the Rinpa school, painted his own version of the work. All three versions of the work were displayed together for the first time in seventy-five years in 2015, at the Kyoto National Museum exhibition Rinpa: The Aesthetics of the Capital. Wind God and Thunder God The screens measure 421.6 by 464.8 centimetres each.
Keihan Electric Railway
Keihan Electric Railway Co. Ltd. is a Japanese railway operator in Osaka and Shiga Prefectures. It is known as "Keihan", "Keihan Dentetsu" or "Keihan Densha", it is subsidiary of Keihan Holdings, Ltd.. Keihan started its operation between Osaka and Kyoto in 1910, it was the first electric railway to connect these two cities, the first line on the left bank of Yodo River. Keihan purchased the lines in the Ōtsu area. In the 1920s, Keihan built another Osaka-Kyoto line through its subsidiary Shinkeihan Railway, which merged into Keihan in 1930; this line is now known as Hankyu Kyoto Line. In 1943, with the power given by the Land Transport Business Coordination Act, the wartime government of Japan forced Keihan to merge with Hanshin Kyūkō Railway to form Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway. In 1949, the pre-war Keihan operations, except for Shinkeihan lines, restored independence under the original corporate name. Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway changed the name to present Hankyu Railway; the lines operated by Keihan are grouped into Ōtsu Lines.
The former operates between Osaka with long formation of larger rolling stock. The latter runs Ōtsu with more tram-like cars; the entire network has 1,435 mm standard gauge double track. Keihan Main Line: Yodoyabashi - Sanjo Ōtō Line: Sanjo - Demachiyanagi Nakanoshima Line: Nakanoshima - Temmabashi Katano Line: Hirakatashi - Kisaichi Uji Line: Chushojima - Uji Keishin Line: Misasagi - Biwako-hamaotsu Ishiyama Sakamoto Line: Ishiyamadera - Sakamoto-hieizanguchi Cable Line called Otokoyama Cable Keishin Line: Keishin-Sanjo - Misasagi Umeda Line As of 1 April 2016, Keihan owns a fleet of 693 vehicles, as follows. 1000 series 7-car EMUs x 6 2200 series 7-car EMUs x 7 2400 series 7-car EMUs x 6 2600 series 7-car EMUs x 7 3000 series 8-car EMUs x 6 5000 series 7-car EMUs x 7 6000 series 7/8-car EMUs x 14 7000 series 7-car EMUs x 4 7200 series 7/8-car EMUs x 3 8000 series 8-car EMUs x 10 9000 series 7/8-car EMUs x 5 10000 series 4/7-car EMUs x 6 13000 series 4/7-car EMUs x 8 600 series 2-car EMUs x 10 700 series 2-car EMUs x 5 800 series 4-car EMUs x 8 1900 series 5-car EMUs 8030 series 8-car EMU Train fare varies based on travel distance.
As of January 1, 2009, IC cards are accepted on the Keihan Lines and the Otsu Lines, but not on the Cable Line. The fare rate was changed on April 1, 2014 to reflect the change in the rate of consumption tax from 5% to 8%. Additional fare when taking or passing the following linesOto Line: 60 yen Nakanoshima Line: 60 yenWhen using commutation tickets, Naniwabashi Station is treated as the same station as Kitahama Station, Oebashi Station as that as Yodoyabashi Station. 200 yen The name Keihan is derived from the words Osaka in Japanese. The characters for Kyoto are 京都 and Osaka's are 大阪; the first character from Kyoto and the second from Osaka make 京阪, which can be read "Keihan". Keihan operates other businesses such as bus, water bus, department store and amusement park in the area along its railway system. Keihan Cable Line Keihan Electric Railway Keihan Electric Railway
The Osaka Metro Tanimachi Line is a rapid transit line of Osaka Metro, running from Dainichi Station in Moriguchi to Yaominami Station in Yao through Osaka City. Its official name is Rapid Electric Tramway Line No. 2, while the Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau refers to it as Osaka City Rapid Railway Line No. 2, in MLIT publications, it is written as Line No. 2. On line maps, stations on the Tanimachi Line are indicated with the letter T; the central part of the line runs underneath Tanimachi-suji, a broad north-south thoroughfare lined with prefectural government buildings and Buddhist temples. Its only above-ground segment is the vicinity of Yaominami Station; the line color on maps, station signs and train livery is royal purple, derived from the kasaya robes worn by Buddhist monks. As noted above, the Tanimachi Line is "Line No. 2", but it was the fourth to open, after Line No. 3 during World War II and Line No. 4 in the early 1960s. The line was opened from the late 1960s to the early 1980s.
Ridership, though less than half the numbers of the Midōsuji Line, is still the second-highest of all lines in the Osaka subway network, thanks to the large number of government buildings in eastern Chūō-ku and schools around Tennōji. It is the second-most profitable subway line in Osaka; the Tanimachi Line has the longest operating distance in the Osaka subway network, after the Midōsuji Line. It runs underground from Dainichi to just before Yaominami, was known as the longest continuously underground subway line in Japan for a long time after the opening of Yaominami Station. Now, it is fourth in Japan after the Toei Ōedo Line, Saitama Rapid Railway Line/Tokyo Metro Namboku Line/Tōkyū Meguro Line, Nagoya Municipal Subway Meijō Line/Meikō Line. If one considers Higashi-Umeda and Nishi-Umeda stations as the same station, the Tanimachi Line has connections to all other subway lines in Osaka. Above-ground section: vicinity of Yaominami Blocking system: Automatic Train protection system: WS-ATC Cars per train: 6 Maximum possible cars per train: 8For the purposes of fare calculation, the Higashi-Umeda–Tennōji segment is adjusted to the same length as Umeda–Tennōji on the Midōsuji Line.
All trains stop at every station along their route. During the day, trains alternate between Dainichi and Yaominami, between Miyakojima and Fuminosato, with additional trains starting or terminating at Kire-Uriwari during rush hour; as the line is quite long and goes through the center of Osaka, express service was planned, but never implemented. Since 1976, all trains have had 6 cars. Platforms are long enough to accommodate 8-car trainsets. Women-only cars were introduced on the line from 15 December 2003. There is one such designated car in each train, the use of, restricted on weekdays from the first train until 9 a.m. The women-only restriction is lifted after 9 a.m. 22 series 6-car EMUs 30000 series 6-car EMUs Train maintenance and inspection is carried out by the same group in charge of Chūō Line trains, at the Morinomiya depot and workshop, accessible through a spur located before Tanimachi Rokuchōme Station on the Tanimachi Line and after Tanimachi Yonchōme Station on the Chūō Line. In 2006, in preparation for the opening of the Kintetsu Keihanna Line extension of the Chūō Line, nine 20-series trainsets of the Tanimachi Line were exchanged for nine 22-series trainsets from the Chūō Line.
50 series 5700 series 5800 series 5900 series 10 series 20 series 30 series According to the original plan laid out for the Tanimachi Line in 1927, it was to follow Matsuyamachi-suji. It was intended to interface directly with the Midōsuji Line directly at Umeda, similar to the cross-platform interchange between the Yotsubashi Line and the Midōsuji Line at Daikokuchō. A second tunnel was dug at Umeda for this purpose, but the connection southwards was plagued by collapses and other accidents; the tunnel at Umeda reserved for the Tanimachi Line went unused for decades before being adapted for the southbound track of the Midōsuji Line in 1989, allowing for expanded platforms to cope with overcrowding. Over the course of tunnel construction for the line, the underground waterways in Osaka were altered, causing a number of incidents in which famous wells dried up. In 1970, during the construction of the underground Tenjimbashi Rokuchōme Station, there was a
Ninsei was a Japanese potter, who lived in the Edo Period between the 1640s to the 1690s. He was born Nonomura Seisuke, received the first name Seiemon, he was bestowed the artistic name Ninsei with a seal. Little is known directly about his life, he is believed to have had a son, nicknamed "Ninsei II", who attempted to succeed him in his work, but failed. He is associated with Kyō ware being credited as one of the key founders and influencers of the "Kyo-Yaki" pottery movement. Media related to Ninsei at Wikimedia Commons https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ninsei http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/29.100.668/
Keihan Main Line
The Keihan Main Line is a railway line in Japan operated by Keihan Electric Railway. The line runs between Yodoyabashi Station in Osaka. There are through services to the Keihan Nakanoshima Line. Trains from Kyoto to Osaka are treated as "down" trains, from Osaka to Kyoto as "up" trains; as of August 20, 2017, the following services are operated. Liner All cars reserved seating Rapid Limited Express "Rakuraku" Premium car is reserved seating only Limited Express Premium car is reserved seating only Commuter Rapid Express - "down" trains only, on weekday mornings Rapid Express Midnight Express - "up" trains only A train departs from Yodoyabashi for Kuzuha at 0:20 a.m. and passes Moriguchishi and Hirakata-kōen. Express Commuter Sub-express - "down" trains only, on weekday mornings Trains are operated from Demachiyanagi, Hirakatashi to Yodoyabashi or Nakanoshima in the morning and pass Moriguchishi. Sub-express Semi-express Local Trains stop at all stations. Operation in non-rush hours per hour Limited express: 6 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Demachiyanagi Express: 3 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Kuzuha Sub. express: 3 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Demachiyanagi Local: 6 round trips between Nakanoshima and Kayashima, of which 3 extend to Demachiyanagi S: Trains stop.
S: limited stop |, ↑, ↓: Trains pass. ↑, ↓: Only one direction.: Stations using melodies composed by musician Minoru Mukaiya in train departure announcements. For train abbreviations, see above; the Temmabashi to Kiyomizu-Gojo section opened as dual track, electrified at 1,500 V DC, in 1910, was extended to Sanjo in 1915. The Temmabashi to Yodoyabashi section opened in 1963. List of railway lines in Japan This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Christie's is a British auction house. It was founded in 1766 by James Christie, its main premises are on King Street, St James's, in London and in the Rockefeller Center in New York City. The company is owned by the holding company of François-Henri Pinault. Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion. In 2017 the Salvator Mundi was sold for $450.3 million at Christie's, which at that time was the highest price paid for a single painting at an auction. The official company literature states that founder James Christie conducted the first sale in London, England, on 5 December 1766, the earliest auction catalogue the company retains is from December 1766. However, other sources note that James Christie rented auction rooms from 1762, newspaper advertisements for Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been traced. Christie's was a public company, listed on the London Stock Exchange, from 1973 to 1999. In 1974, Jo Floyd was appointed chairman of Christie's, he served as chairman of Christie's International plc from 1976 to 1988, until handing over to Lord Carrington, was a non-executive director until 1992.
Christie's International Inc. held its first sale in the United States in 1977. Christie's growth was steady since 1989, when it had 42 % of the auction market. In 1990, the company reversed a long-standing policy and guaranteed a minimum price for a collection of artworks in its May auctions. In 1996, sales exceeded those of Sotheby's for the first time since 1954. However, profits did not grow at the same pace. In 1993, Christie's paid $12.7 million for the London gallery Spink & Son, which specialised in Oriental art and British paintings. The company bought Leger Gallery for $3.3 million in 1996, merged it with Spink to become Spink-Leger. Spink-Leger closed in 2002. To make itself competitive with Sotheby's in the property market, Christie's bought Great Estates in 1995 the largest network of independent estate agents in North America, changing its name to Christie's Great Estates Inc. In December 1997, under the chairmanship of Lord Hindlip, Christie's put itself on the auction block, but after two months of negotiations with the consortium-led investment firm SBC Warburg Dillon Read it did not attract a bid high enough to accept.
In May 1998, François Pinault's holding company, Groupe Artémis S. A. first bought 29.1 percent of the company for $243.2 million, subsequently purchased the rest of it in a deal that valued the entire company at $1.2 billion. The company has since not been reporting profits, its policy, in line with UK accounting standards, is to convert non-UK results using an average exchange rate weighted daily by sales throughout the year. In 2002, Christie's France held its first auction in Paris. Like Sotheby's, Christie's became involved in high-profile private transactions. In 2006, Christie's offered a reported $21 million guarantee to the Donald Judd Foundation and displayed the artist's works for five weeks in an exhibition that won an AICA award for "Best Installation in an Alternative Space". In 2007 it brokered a $68 million deal that transferred Thomas Eakins's The Gross Clinic from the Jefferson Medical College at the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia to joint ownership by the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
In the same year, the Haunch of Venison gallery became a subsidiary of the company. On 28 December 2008, The Sunday Times reported that Pinault's debts left him "considering" the sale of Christie's and that a number of "private equity groups" were thought to be interested in its acquisition. In January 2009, the company employed 2,100 people worldwide, though an unspecified number of staff and consultants were soon to be cut due to a worldwide downturn in the art market. With sales for premier Impressionist and contemporary artworks tallying only US$248.8 million in comparison to US$739 million just a year before, a second round of job cuts began after May 2009. Guy Bennett resigned just before to the beginning of the summer 2009 sales season. Although the economic downturn has encouraged some collectors to sell art, others are unwilling to sell in a market which may yield only bargain prices. On 1 January 2017, Guillaume Cerutti was appointed chief executive officer. Patricia Barbizet was appointed chief executive officer of Christie's in 2014, the first female CEO of the company.
She replaced Steven Murphy, hired in 2010 to develop their online presence and launch in new markets, such as China. In 2012, Impressionist works, which dominated the market during the 1980s boom, were replaced by contemporary art as Christie's top category. Asian art was the third most-lucrative area. With income from classic auctioneering falling, treaty sales made £413.4 million in the first half of 2012, an increase of 53% on the same period last year. The company has promoted curated events, centred on a theme rather than an art classification or time period; as part of a companywide review in 2017, Christie's announced the layoffs of 250 employees, or 12 percent of the total work force, based in Britain and Europe. From 2008 until 2013, Christie's charged 25 percent for the first $50,000. From 2013, it charged 25 percent for the first $75,000. Christie's main London salesroom is on