Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
The Emishi or Ebisu constituted an ethnic group of people who lived in northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region, referred to as michi no oku in contemporary sources. The first mention of them in literature dates to AD 400, in which they are mentioned as "the hairy people" from the Chinese records; some Emishi tribes resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors during the late Nara and early Heian periods. The origin of the Emishi is disputed, they are thought to have descended from some tribes of the Jōmon people. Some historians believe that they were related to the Ainu people, but others disagree with this theory; the Emishi were represented by different tribes, some of whom became allies of the Japanese and others of whom remained hostile. The Emishi in northeastern Honshū relied on their horses in warfare, they developed a unique style of warfare in which horse archery and hit-and-run tactics proved effective against the slower contemporary Japanese imperial army that relied on heavy infantry.
Their livelihood was based on hunting and gathering as well as on the cultivation of grains such as millet and barley. It has been thought that they practiced rice cultivation in areas where rice could be grown; the first major attempts to subjugate the Emishi in the 8th century were unsuccessful. The imperial armies, which were modeled after the mainland Chinese armies, were no match for the guerrilla tactics of the Emishi, it was the development of horse archery and the adoption of Emishi tactics by the early Japanese warriors that led to the Emishi defeat. The success of the gradual change in battle tactics came at the end of the 8th century in the 790s under the command of the general Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, they either submitted themselves to imperial authority as fushu and ifu or migrated further north, some to Hokkaidō. By the mid-9th century, most of their land in Honshū was conquered, they ceased to be independent. However, they continued to be influential in local politics as subjugated, though powerful, Emishi families created semi-autonomous feudal domains in the north.
In the two centuries following the conquest, a few of these domains became regional states that came into conflict with the central government. The record of Emperor Jimmu in the Nihon Shoki mentions the "Emishi" with ateji—whom his armed forces defeated before he was enthroned as the Emperor of Japan. According to Nihon Shoki, Takenouchi no Sukune in the era of Emperor Keikō proposed that they should subjugate Emishi of Hitakami no Kuni in eastern Japan; the first mention of Emishi from a source outside Japan was in the Chinese Book of Song in 478 which referred to them as "hairy people". The book refers to "the 55 kingdoms of the hairy people of the East" as a report by King Bu—one of the Five kings of Wa. Most by the 7th century AD, the Japanese used this kanji to describe these people, but changed the reading from kebito or mōjin to Emishi. Furthermore, during the same century, the kanji character was changed to 蝦夷, composed of the kanji for "shrimp" and for "barbarian"; this is thought to refer to the long whiskers of a shrimp.
The barbarian aspect described an outsider, living beyond the border of the emerging empire of Japan, which saw itself as a civilizing influence. This kanji was first seen in the T'ang sources that describe the meeting with the two Emishi that the Japanese envoy brought with him to China; the kanji character may have been adopted from China, but the reading "Ebisu" and "Emishi" were Japanese in origin and most came from either the Japanese "yumishi" which means bowman or "emushi", sword in the Ainu tongue. Other origins—such as the word enchiu for "man" in the Ainu tongue—have been proposed. However, the way it sounds is phonetically identical to emushi so it may most have had an Ainoid origin. "Ainoid" distinguishes the people who are related to, or who are ancestors of, the Ainu, who first emerge as "Ezo" in Hokkaido in the Kamakura period and become known as Ainu in the modern period. The Nihon Shoki's entry for Emperor Yūryaku known as Ohatsuse no Wakatakeru, records an uprising, after the Emperor's death, of Emishi troops, levied to support an expedition to Korea.
Emperor Yūryaku is suspected to be King Bu, but the date and the existence of Yūryaku are uncertain, the Korean reference may be anachronistic. However, the compilers felt that the reference to Emishi troops was credible in this context. In 658, Abe no Hirafu's naval expedition of 180 ships reaches Watarishima. An alliance with Aguta Emishi, Tsugaru Emishi and Watarishima Emishi was formed by Abe who stormed and defeated a settlement of Mishihase a people of unknown origin; this is one of the earliest reliable records of the Emishi people extant. The Mishihase may have been another ethnic group who competed with the ancestors of the Ainu for Hokkaidō; the expedition happens to be the furthest northern penetration of the Japanese Imperial army until the 16th century, that settlement was from a local Japanese warlord, independent of any central control. In 709, the fort of Ideha was created close to present day Akita; this was a bold move since the intervening territory between Akita and the northwestern countries of Japan was not under government control.
The Emishi of Akita in alliance with Michinoku attacked Japanese settlements in response. Saeki no Iwayu was appointed Sei Echigo Emishi shōgun, he used 100 ships from the Japan sea side countries along with soldi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after modern Kyōto, it is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art poetry and literature. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan, a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family. Many emperors had mothers from the Fujiwara family. Heian means "peace" in Japanese; the Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 CE after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō, by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu Kanmu first tried to move the capital to Nagaoka-kyō, but a series of disasters befell the city, prompting the emperor to relocate the capital a second time, to Heian. A rebellion occurred in China in the last years of the 9th century, making the political situation unstable.
The Japanese missions to Tang China was suspended and the influx of Chinese exports halted, a fact which facilitated the independent growth of Japanese culture called kokufu bunka. Therefore, the Heian Period is considered a high point in Japanese culture that generations have always admired; the period is noted for the rise of the samurai class, which would take power and start the feudal period of Japan. Nominally, sovereignty lay in the emperor but in fact, power was wielded by the Fujiwara nobility. However, to protect their interests in the provinces, the Fujiwara, other noble families required guards and soldiers; the warrior class made steady political gains throughout the Heian period. As early as 939 CE, Taira no Masakado threatened the authority of the central government, leading an uprising in the eastern province of Hitachi, simultaneously, Fujiwara no Sumitomo rebelled in the west. Still, a true military takeover of the Japanese government was centuries away, when much of the strength of the government would lie within the private armies of the shogunate.
The entry of the warrior class into court influence was a result of the Hōgen Rebellion. At this time Taira no Kiyomori revived the Fujiwara practices by placing his grandson on the throne to rule Japan by regency, their clan, the Taira, would not be overthrown until after the Genpei War, which marked the start of the Kamakura shogunate. The Kamakura period began in 1185 when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the emperors and established the shogunate in Kamakura; when Emperor Kanmu moved the capital to Heian-kyō, which remained the imperial capital for the next 1,000 years, he did so not only to strengthen imperial authority but to improve his seat of government geopolitically. Nara was abandoned after only 70 years in part due to the ascendancy of Dōkyō and the encroaching secular power of the Buddhist institutions there. Kyōto had good river access to the sea and could be reached by land routes from the eastern provinces; the early Heian period continued Nara culture. Kanmu endeavored to improve the Tang-style administrative system, in use.
Known as the ritsuryō, this system attempted to recreate the Tang imperium in Japan, despite the "tremendous differences in the levels of development between the two countries". Despite the decline of the Taika–Taihō reforms, imperial government was vigorous during the early Heian period. Kanmu's avoidance of drastic reform decreased the intensity of political struggles, he became recognized as one of Japan's most forceful emperors. Although Kanmu had abandoned universal conscription in 792, he still waged major military offensives to subjugate the Emishi, possible descendants of the displaced Jōmon, living in northern and eastern Japan. After making temporary gains in 794, in 797, Kanmu appointed a new commander, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, under the title Sei-i Taishōgun. By 801, the shōgun had defeated the Emishi and had extended the imperial domains to the eastern end of Honshū. Imperial control over the provinces was tenuous at best, however. In the ninth and tenth centuries, much authority was lost to the great families, who disregarded the Chinese-style land and tax systems imposed by the government in Kyoto.
Stability came to Japan, but though succession was ensured for the imperial family through heredity, power again concentrated in the hands of one noble family, the Fujiwara which helped Japan develop more. Following Kanmu's death in 806 and a succession struggle among his sons, two new offices were established in an effort to adjust the Taika–Taihō administrative structure. Through the new Emperor's Private Office, the emperor could issue administrative edicts more directly and with more self-assurance than before; the new Metropolitan Police Board replaced the ceremonial imperial guard units. While these two offices strengthened the emperor's position temporarily, soon they and other Chinese-style structures were bypassed in the developing state. In 838 the end of the imperial-sanctioned missions to Tang China, which had begun in 630, marked the effective end of Chinese influence. Tang China was in a state of decline, Chinese Buddhists were persecuted, undermining Japanese respect for Chinese institutions.
Japan began to turn inward. As the Soga clan had taken control of the throne in the sixth century, the Fujiwara by the ninth century had intermarried with the imperial family, one of their members was the first head of the Emperor's Private O
Ōshū is a city located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 April 2017, the city had an estimated population of 119,325, a population density of 120 persons per km² in 44,924 households; the total area of the city is 993.30 square kilometres. Ōshū is famous for its Maesawa Beef, numerous festivals, historic temples and shrines and Fujiwara no Sato, a theme park and movie lot based on the exploits of the Northern Fujiwaras in the 12th century. Many famous people have claimed Ōshū as their home including Ichiro Ozawa, the long-time leader of the Democratic Party of Japan. Ōshū is located in the south-central portion of Iwate Prefecture, bordered by the Akita Prefecture to the west. At 993.35 square kilometers, Ōshū is the second largest community in Iwate Prefecture in terms of land area. The city lies in a fertile plain straddling the Kitakami River and rises to the Ōu Mountains in the west and the Kitakami Mountains to the east; the city's highest point is Mt. Yakeishi-dake at 1,548 meters in the Ōu Mountains.
The northern boundary is marked by the Isawa River while the Koromogawa River marks the southern border. Ishibuchi Dam creates a reservoir on the upper reaches of the Isawa River near Mt. Yakeishi-dake. Iwate Prefecture Hanamaki Kitakami Ichinoseki Tōno Hiraizumi Sumita Nishiwaga Kanegasaki Akita Prefecture Higashinaruse Per Japanese census data, the population of Ōshū peaked at around the year 2000, has been in decline since. Ōshū has a humid climate with cold winters. The average annual temperature in Ōshū is 10.4 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1278 mm with September as the wettest month and January as the driest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 24.2 °C, lowest in January, at around -2.5 °C. The area of present-day Ōshū was part of ancient Mutsu Province, has been settled since at least the Japanese Paleolithic period. Isawa is rich in Kofun Period remains from the 5th century. By the Nara period, Japanese hunters, trappers and itinerant missionaries were visiting and settling in this area, coming into contact with the native Emishi people.
In 729 Kokuseki-ji temple was said to have been established by the Buddhist priest Gyōki in a mountainous area to the east of the Kitakami River in what is now Mizusawa. In 776 two separate attacks were launched by the Yamato dynasty against the Emishi with little success. In June 787 Emishi cavalry led by Aterui and More surprised and routed a larger force of Japanese infantry in the Battle of Subuse. Despite these successes the Emishi could not hold out against the Japanese and in 802 Aterui and More surrendered and were beheaded; that same year Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, established Isawa Castle in an attempt to keep the peace. Despite the victory the Japanese found. Six semi-autonomous districts were established along the Kitakami River; these came under the control of a powerful Emishi clan from Appi, the Abe clan. Early in the 11th century Abe no Yoritoki refused to pay taxes to the central government, led raiding parties south of the Koromo River, ruled as an independent monarch; this led to the Zenkunen War or Early Nine-Years War, in which Minamoto no Yoriyoshi reinforced by Kiyohara no Takenori from Dewa Province defeated the Abe clan.
The area came under the rule of the Kiyohara clan. Corrupt administration by the Kiyohara led to the Gosannen War or Latter Three Years' War in which Minamoto no Yoshiie subdued the Kiyohara. Fujiwara no Kiyohira, the founder of the Ōshū Fujiwara dynasty, was born in Fort Toyota, now in the Iwayado area of Esashi. Around 1100, he moved to Hiraizumi where his descendants ruled for nearly a hundred years. In 1348, a Zen Buddhist priest named Mutei Ryōshō founded the temple of Shōbō-ji near Kokuseki-ji temple in Mizusawa, it is the third head temple of the Sōtō sect of Zen Buddhism and boasts the largest thatched roof in Japan. In the 16th century, all of Ōshū became a part Sendai Domain under the Date clan, starting with Date Masamune. One of his retainers was a certain Juan Gotō who commanded Date Masamune's gun regiment at Osaka in 1614 and 1615, he was a Christian and established a church in the Fukuwara area of Mizusawa. After Christianity was outlawed in 1623 he went into hiding to escape capture.
Many foreign missionaries visited the area but in December 1623 a Jesuit Padre Diogo de Carvalho from Portugal was captured on the upper reaches of the Isawa River, sent to Sendai and forced to stand in the frozen Hirose River until he died in the early hours of what was New Year's Day, namely February 19, 1624. There is a memorial to Juan Gotō in the Fukuwara area and many crypto-Christian remains can still be seen there; the modern city of Ōshū was established on February 20, 2006, from the merger of the cities of Esashi and Mizusawa, the towns of Isawa and Maesawa, the village of Koromogawa. Ōshū has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 28 members. Graduate University for Advanced Studies – Iwate campus Iwate University – Ōshū campus Ōshū has 27 public elementary schools and 12 public middle schools operated by the city government and eight public high schools operated by the Iwate Prefectural Board of Education; the prefecture operates one special education school.
East Japan Railway Company – Tōhoku Shinkansen Mizusawa-Esashi East Japan Railway Company – Tōhoku Main Line Maesawa - Rikuchū-Orii - Mizusawa Tōhoku Expressway – Maesawa SA, Mizusawa IC Japan National Route 4 Japan National Route 107 Japan National Route 343 Japan National Ro