Minamoto no Tsunemoto
Minamoto no Tsunemoto was a samurai and Imperial Prince during Japan's Heian period, the progenitor of the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan. He was the son of grandson of Emperor Seiwa. In his childhood, Tsunemoto was called Rokuson'o. Tsunemoto took part in a number of campaigns for the Imperial Court, including those against Taira no Masakado in 940 and against Fujiwara no Sumitomo the following year, he held the title of Chinjufu-shōgun, or Commander-in-chief of the Defense of the North, was granted the clan name of Minamoto by the Emperor in 961, the year he died. Tsunemoto was the father of Minamoto no Mitsunaka. Father: Sadazumi-shinnō, "Prince Sadazumi" Mother: Minamoto no Harako, daughter of Minamoto no Yoshiari. Wife: daughter of Tachibana no Shigefuru or daughter of Fujiwara no Toshinari Son: Minamoto no Mitsunaka Son: Minamoto no Mitsumasa Son: Minamoto no Mitsusue Son: Minamoto no Mitsuuji Children by unknown mother: Son: Minamoto no Mitsuyoshi/Mitsuyasu, founder of the Shina-Genji.
Son: Minamoto no Mitsusei Son: Minamoto no Mitsushige Son: Minamoto no Mitsuyori Daughter: wife of Minamoto no Motosuke, mother of Minamoto no Takamichi Daughter: wife of Fujiwara no Koretake, mother of Fujiwara no Tomoyasu Senior First Rank Papinot, Edmond. Historical and geographical dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Japanese names in modern times consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one given name is not used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation; the kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan; the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, Takahashi. This diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles and were thence transferred to Korea and Vietnam via noble names, the vast majority of modern Japanese family names date only to the 19th century, following the Meiji restoration, were chosen at will.
The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a large population instead of dating to ancient times, since little time has passed, Japanese names have not experienced as significant a surname extinction as has occurred in the much longer history in China. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape. While family names follow consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have become common, with this trend having increased since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", "Masato" have all entered use.
Male names end in -rō -ta or -o, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai. Female names end in -ko or -mi. Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na; the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, called the "name" – or "lower name"; the given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. Myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was the patrilineal surname, why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank; the lower form of the name sei being tei, a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name'Sei' came. There were few sei, most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei.
Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See Kabane. Multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. Few names can serve either as surnames or as given names. Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and, the given name is apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in; this thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order.
However, due to the variety of pronuncia
Dazaifu is a city located in Fukuoka Prefecture, part of the greater Fukuoka metropolitan area. Nearby cities include Chikushino. Although mountainous, it does have arable land used for paddy fields and market gardening; as of October 2018, the city has an estimated population of 72,231 with 29,355 households and a population density of 2,440 persons per km². The total area is 29.58 km². The city was founded on April 1, 1982, although it has been important for more than a thousand years, it was a administrative capital of Fukuoka at around 663 CE. Dazaifu was the imperial office governing Kyūshū after it was moved from present-day Fukuoka City in 663. According to the Taiho Code of 701, an attempt by the Yamato state to exert further control over its territories, Dazaifu was given two principal administrative functions: to supervise the affairs of Tsukushi and to receive foreign emissaries. Dazaifu hosted foreign embassies from Korea. Kōrokan, a guesthouse for foreign embassies, was established.
The Korokan featured in contemporary literature, such as the Man'yōshū, as a place of departure for ocean voyages. From the Nara period through the Heian period and until the Kamakura period, Dazaifu was one of the military and administrative centers of Japan. Government records indicate that the disastrous Japanese smallpox epidemic that took place from 735 to 737 first took hold in Dazaifu. In the Heian period, Dazaifu was a place of exile for high-ranking courtiers. Nobles exiled, his grave is at Dazaifu Tenman-gū. Dazaifu was sometimes attacked by rebels. At other times the head of Dazaifu himself raised a rebellion. In 739 the powerful nobleman Fujiwara Hirotsugu was appointed to Dazaifu, he soon organised a rebellion. After three months, the uprising was suppressed by 17,000 court troops. In 939 another nobleman, Fujiwara Sumitomo, rebelled against the court. Allying himself with pirates, in 941 he landed in Kyushu, he defeated the troops guarding Dazaifu and burned the state buildings. Due to this and other developments, Dazaifu never regained its earlier prestige.
With the invasions of the Mongols and the decline of imperial authority, Dazaifu became less politically significant. In the Muromachi period the political center of Kyūshū was moved to Hakata. In medieval times, Dazaifu was the base of the Shōni clan; the Shōni were expelled by the Ōuchi clan. In the Edo period, Dazaifu was a part of the Kuroda han until its abolition in 1873; the Kyushu National Museum opened on October 16, 2005. A wood and glass building in a hilly landscape, it hosts collections of Japanese artifacts related to the history of Kyūshū. Kōmyōzen-ji is a Zen temple famous for its stone garden, it was built during the Kamakura period just next to Dazaifu Tenman-gū. Another temple, Kanzeon-ji, was built in the 8th century, it was once the chief Buddhist temple on Kyūshū and houses a number of historical and religious treasures. All three are within walking distance of Nishitetsu Dazaifu Station; the ruins of the medieval Dazaifu Administrative Buildings located within walking distance of Dazaifu Station, are today a public park.
There is small museum about Sugawara no Michizane, who died in exile in Dazaifu in 903. The starbucks coffeeshop in Dazaifu has a unique design by Kengo Kuma. There are several universities in the city: Chikushi Jogakuen University Fukuoka International University Fukuoka University of Economics Fukuoka Social Medical Welfare UniversityArea primary and junior high schools are administered by the Dazaifu Board of Education. Dazaifu Minami Elementary School Dazaifu Higashi Elementary School Dazaifu Nishi Elementary School Dazaifu Elementary School Mizuki Nishi Elementary School Mizuki Elementary School Kokubu Elementary School Gakugyouin Junior High School Dazaifu Higashi Junior High School Dazaifu Nishi Junior High School Dazaifu Junior High SchoolThe prefecture operates senior high schools Chikushidai High School Fukuoka Prefectural Dazaifu High School Dazaifu Dazaifu Line Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Taira no Masakado
Taira no Masakado was a samurai in the Heian period of Japan, who led one of the largest insurgent forces in the period against the central government of Kyoto. Masakado was a member of the Kammu Taira clan of Japan, he was the son of Chinjufu-shōgun. His childhood name was Sōma no Kojirō. Taira no Masakado was a powerful landowner in the Kantō region, he is regarded as the first bushi. His life is detailed in the Shōmonki, a detailed book about his life believed to have been completed as early as the 940s by an anonymous author. Due to the religious and political nature of the account, it was most written by a monk or aristocrat connected to Masakado himself. In 939 during the Heian period of Japanese history, Masakado led a minor rebellion, known as Jōhei Tengyo no ran; the armed struggle began when Masakado led an attack on an outpost of the central government in Hitachi Province, capturing the governor. In December of that year, he conquered Kōzuke Provinces. Masakado killed his uncle Kunika, part Taira.
The central government in Kyoto responded by putting a bounty on his head, fifty-nine days his cousin Taira no Sadamori, whose father Masakado had attacked and killed, Fujiwara no Hidesato, killed him at the Battle of Kojima in 940 and took his head to the capital. The head found its way to Shibasaki, a small fishing village on the edge of the ocean and the future site of Edo, which became Tokyo, it was buried. The kubizuka, or grave, located in the present day Ōtemachi section of Tokyo, was on a hill rising out of Tokyo Bay at the time. Through land reclamation over the centuries, the bay has receded some three kilometers to the south. After Masakado's death, his daughter Takiyasha continued living in the ruins of his former palace, in the lands of the Sōma; when Masakado was preparing for his revolt, a vast swarm of butterflies appeared in Kyoto, a portent of the upcoming battle. Over the centuries, Masakado became a demigod to the locals who were impressed by his stand against the central government, while at the same time feeling the need to appease his malevolent spirit.
The fortunes of Edo and Tokyo seemed to wax and wane correspondingly with the respect paid to the shrine built to him at the kubizuka — neglect would be followed by natural disasters and other misfortunes. Hence, to this day, the shrine is well maintained, occupying some of the most expensive land in the world in Tokyo’s financial district facing the Imperial Palace. Other shrines which he is deity of include Kanda Shrine, Tsukudo Jinja His tomb is near exit C5 of Tokyo's Ōtemachi subway station. Fujiwara no Sumitomo, The rebellion leader of the same time Kaze to Kumo to Niji to, a Japanese drama Yoshikawa Eiji, historical fiction Teito Monogatari, a historical fantasy novel by Hiroshi Aramata providing a speculative retelling of the history of Tokyo in which the curse of Masakado influences the development of the city Sōma clan, Even today, the Soma Nomaoi horse-riding festival organized by Taira no Masakado is celebrated Friday, Karl F.. The First Samurai: the Life & Legend of the Warrior Rebel Taira Masakado New York: John Wiley and Sons.
ISBN 047176082X. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Yoshikawa Eiji Rekishi Jidai Bunko, Vol. 46: Taira no Masakado. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-06-196577-5 Waley, P. Tokyo Now & Then. First Edition. John Weatherhill, Inc. ISBN 0-8348-0195-7. Lafcadio Hearn Kwaidan. First edition. Houghton Mifflin & Co. http://www.mackinnon.org/masakado-home.html http://english.tsukudo.jp/
Shimōsa Province was a province of Japan in the area modern Chiba Prefecture, Ibaraki Prefecture. It lies to the north of the Bōsō Peninsula, whose name takes its first kanji from the name of Awa Province and its second from Kazusa and Shimōsa Provinces, its abbreviated form name was Sōshū or Hokusō. Shimōsa is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō, it was bordered by Kazusa Province to the south, Musashi and Kōzuke Provinces to the west, Hitachi and Shimotsuke Provinces to the north. Under the Engishiki classification system, Shimōsa was ranked as a "great country" and a far country. Shimōsa was part of a larger territory known as Fusa Province, divided into "upper" and "lower" portions during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku, it was well-known to the Imperial Court in Nara period Japan for its fertile lands, is mentioned in Nara period records as having supplied hemp to the Court. Shimōsa was divided into 11 counties; the exact location of the capital of Shimōsa is not known, but is believed to have been somewhere within the borders of the modern city of Ichikawa, near Kōnodai Station where the ruins of the Kokubun-ji have been located.
However, the Ichinomiya of Shimōsa Province is the Katori Jingū in what is now the city of Katori, Chiba, on the opposite coast of the province. During the Heian period, the province was divided into numerous shōen controlled by local samurai clans the Chiba clan, which sided with Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Genpei War. During the Kamakura period, much of the province was under the control of the Chiba clan. By the early Muromachi period, the area was a contested region fragmented by various samurai clans. By the Sengoku period, the Later Hōjō clan held sway following the Battle of Kōnodai against the Ashikaga clan and the Satomi clan. Following the installation of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Edo, after the Battle of Odawara, he created eleven han within the borders of Shimōsa to reward his followers, with the remaining area retained as tenryō territory owned directly by the shōgun and administered by various hatamoto; the entire province had an assessed revenue of 681,062 koku. Following the Meiji Restoration, these various domains and tenryō territories were transformed into short-lived prefectures in July 1871 by the abolition of the han system.
Most of Shimōsa Province became part of the new Chiba Prefecture on June 15, 1873, with four districts going to the new Ibaraki Prefecture and the portion to the west of the Edogawa River going to the new Saitama Prefecture. The area of former Shimōsa Province was organized into nine districts by the Meiji cadastral reforms reduced to five: Chiba Prefecture Chiba District – dissolved Inba District – absorbed Shimohabu District on April 1, 1897 Katori District Kaijō District – dissolved Shimohabu District – merged into Inba District on April 1, 1897 Sōsa District – dissolved Ibaraki Prefecture Okada District – merged into Yūki District on March 29, 1896 Sashima District – absorbed Nishikatsushika District on March 29, 1896 Toyoda District – merged into Yūki District on March 29, 1896 Yūki District – absorbed Okada and Toyoda Districts on March 29, 1896 Mixed Sōma District Kitasōma District Minamisōma District – merged into Higashikatsushika District on April 1, 1897 Katsushika District Higashikatsushika District – absorbed Minamisōma District on April 1, 1897.
Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Shimosa Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903