A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Fujiwara no Teika
Fujiwara Sadaie, better-known as Fujiwara no Teika, was a Japanese poet, calligrapher, anthologist and scholar of the late Heian and early Kamakura periods. His influence was enormous, he is counted as among the greatest of Japanese poets, the greatest master of the waka form – an ancient poetic form consisting of five lines with a total of 31 syllables. Teika's critical ideas on composing poetry were influential and studied until as late as the Meiji era. A member of a poetic clan, Teika was born to the noted poet Fujiwara no Shunzei. After coming to the attention of the Retired Emperor Go-Toba, Teika began his long and distinguished career, spanning multiple areas of aesthetic endeavor, his relationship with Go-Toba was at first cordial and led to commissions to compile anthologies, but resulted in his banishment from the retired emperor's court. His descendants and ideas would dominate classical Japanese poetry for centuries afterwards. Teika was born to a minor and distant branch of the aristocratic and courtly clan, the Fujiwara, in 1162, sometime after the Fujiwara regents had lost their political pre-eminence in the Imperial court during the Hōgen Rebellion.
His branch of the clan sought prestige and power in the court by aligning itself with the Mikohidari family, by specializing in artistic endeavors, principally poetry. Such specialization was not unusual. Teika's grandfather was the venerable poet Fujiwara no Toshitada, his father was Fujiwara no Shunzei, a well known and respected poet, who had compiled the seventh Imperial anthology of waka. His niece would become a well-respected poet of waka and renga, known as Kengozen or Shunzei's Daughter, whom he would seek out for poetic advice, his elder brother, Fujiwara no Nariee, would be somewhat successful in court, but not nearly as much as his niece. Teika's foster-brother, the priest Jakuren or "Sadanaga" c. 1139–1202 would be successful as a poet although his career was cut tragically short. Teika's goals as the senior male of his branch were to inherit and cement his father's position in poetry, to advance his own reputation. While his life would be marked by repeated illness and wildly shifting fortunes – only moderated by his father's long-lasting influence in court, the young and poetically inclined Retired Emperor Go-Toba's patronage would prove to lead to some of Teika's greatest successes.
The Retired Emperor Go-Toba announced, in the second year of his abdication that he would be conducting a poetry contest. Retired Emperors became more influential after their retirement from the office of Emperor rather than as the actual Emperor, since they were free from the restricting ceremonial requirements and politics of the court. Go-Toba was 20. Go-Toba regarded all these pursuits as hobbies, dropping another. One of these was his support of poetry the waka. After his abdication, he had announced that he would hold two poetry contests, each requiring a number of preeminent poets to compose some 100 waka in a particular thematic progression, known as the hyakushu genre of poem sequences; the first contest was considered a crucial political nexus. Teika's diary records, he was 38, had reached middle age. While he was recognized as a talented poet, his career was stagnant, he was "Lesser Commander of the Palace Guards of the Left" with little prospect of further advancement. He had wider political problems: The influence of his patrons, the Kujōs, over the Emperors had declined drastically.
Minamoto no Michichika had insinuated himself into Imperial circles through Go-Toba's former nursemaid. As Ninshi was the daughter of the Kujō's leader Kujō Kanezan
Nise-e, or "likeness pictures," were a style of portraiture popular in the court circles of Japan's Kamakura period. Prior to the 12th century Japanese art was purely religious in character, but nise-e introduced the realistic depiction of lay figures such as courtiers and samurai; the popularity of nise-e helped to end the taboo against artistic depictions of the emperor, with one of earliest nise-e to depict a living emperor being a portrait of Emperor Hanazono by Gōshin. The aim of a nise-e portrait was to capture a man's character with a few simple lines. Fujiwara Takanobu is considered to have originated the nise-e style and technique, he innovated the use of jutting, angular outlines and dense swaths of color which came to characterize nise-e portraiture as a whole. Takanobu's influence is seen in the works of his son Fujiwara Nobuzane, descendants Tametsugu, Tamenobu, Gōshin, who continued to develop the nise-e school alongside others such as Shinkai and Tametaga. Nise-e portraiture greatly influenced the 18th century portrait style nigao-e, pioneered by Katsukawa Shunshō in response to a desire for actor portraits with realistic and expressive facial features
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Kyoto National Museum
The Kyoto National Museum is one of the major art museums in Japan. Located in Kyoto's Higashiyama ward, the museum focuses on Asian art; the Kyoto National Museum the Imperial Museum of Kyoto, was proposed, along with the Imperial Museum of Tokyo and the Imperial Museum of Nara, in 1889, construction on the museum finished in October, 1895. The museum was opened in 1897; the museum went through a series of name changes, in 1900 changing its name to the Imperial Household Museum of Kyoto, once more in 1924 to the Imperial Gift Museum of Kyoto. The current name, the Kyoto National Museum, was decided upon in 1952; the growth and development of today's museum has been an evolving process: history 1897—Museum is established as the "Imperial Museum of Kyoto." 1900—Museum is renamed the "Imperial Household Museum of Kyoto." 1924—Museum is donated to City of Kyoto. 1952—Committee for the Preservation of Cultural Properties assumes responsibility for Museum collections. 1966—Collection Hall is completed.
1969—Special Exhibition Hall, Main Gate, ticket booth, fences are designated "Important Cultural Properties" under the name of the former "Imperial Museum of Kyoto." 1973—Saturday Lecture Series, 1st session is held. 1979—Conservation Center for Cultural Properties is completed. 2001—South Gate is constructed as a part of a project for the 100th Year Anniversary Hall. 2001—Museum is renamed the "Kyoto National Museum" of the "Independent Administrative Institution National Museum". 2005—IAI National Museum is expanded with addition of Kyushu National Museum. 2007—IAI National Museum is merged into Independent Administrative Institution National Institutes for Cultural Heritage, combining the four national museums with the former National Institutes for Cultural Preservation at Tokyo and Nara The museum consists of several buildings, the most prominent being the Special Exhibition Hall, designed by Katayama Tōkuma in 1895, The Collections Hall, designed in 1966 by Morita Keiichi. In September 2014, the museum completed renovations on a new permanent collections hall, the Heisei Chishinkan Wing, designed by Yoshio Taniguchi, known for his redesign of the Museum of Modern Art in New York and his design of the Gallery of Hōryū-ji Treasures at the Tokyo National Museum.
The regular exhibitions are shown in The Collections Galleries, while the Special Exhibition Hall is used for special exhibits. The Main Exhibition Hall, the Main Gate, the Ticket Area have all been designated as Important Cultural Properties in Japan; the museum was built to house and display art treasures owned by temples and shrines, as well as items donated by the Imperial Household Ministry. Most all of the items in the museum are more or less on permanent loan from one of those places; the museum focuses on pre-modern Japanese works and Asian art. The museum is well known for its collections of rare and ancient Chinese and Japanese sutras. Other famous works include senzui byōbu from the 11th century, the gakizōshi from the 12th century; the museum is divided into three parts: Fine Arts, including sculptures and works of calligraphy. Altogether, the museum houses over 12,000 works; the museum boasts photographic archives containing over 200,000 photographic negatives and color transparencies.
In the Fine Arts collections alone, there are more than 230 pieces that have been designated as either National Treasures or Important Cultural Properties. List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Kyoto National Museum Official Website The Collections - Masterworks