Imperial Seal of Japan
The Imperial Seal of Japan called the Chrysanthemum Seal, Chrysanthemum Flower Seal or Imperial chrysanthemum emblem, is one of the national seals and a crest used by the Emperor of Japan and members of the Imperial Family. It is a contrast to the Paulownia Seal used by the Japanese government. During the Meiji period, no one was permitted to use the Imperial Seal except the Emperor of Japan, who used a 16 petal chrysanthemum with sixteen tips of another row of petals showing behind the first row. Therefore, each member of the Imperial family used a modified version of the seal. Shinto shrines either displayed the imperial seal or incorporated elements of the seal into their own emblems. Earlier in Japanese history, when Emperor Go-Daigo, who tried to break the power of the shogunate in 1333, was exiled, he adopted the seventeen-petal chrysanthemum to differentiate himself from the Northern Court's Emperor Kōgon, who kept the imperial 16-petal mon; the symbol is a orange chrysanthemum with black or red outlines and background.
A central disc is surrounded by a front set of 16 petals. A rear set of 16 petals are half staggered in relation to the front set and are visible at the edges of the flower. An example of the chrysanthemum being used is in the badge for the Order of the Chrysanthemum. Other members of the Imperial Family use a version with 14 single petals, while a form with 16 single petals is used for Diet members' pins, orders and other items that carry or represent the authority of the Emperor; the Imperial Seal is used on the standards of the Imperial Family. National seals of Japan Chrysanthemum Throne Imperial Seal of Korea Order of the Chrysanthemum Mon Media related to Imperial seals of Japan at Wikimedia Commons
Emperor Taishō was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912 until his death on 25 December 1926. The Emperor's personal name was Yoshihito. According to Japanese custom, during the reign the Emperor is called "the Emperor". After death, he is known by a posthumous name, the name of the era coinciding with his reign. Having ruled during the Taishō period, he is known as the "Taishō Emperor" or "Emperor Taishō". Prince Yoshihito was born at the Tōgū Palace in Akasaka, Tokyo to Emperor Meiji and Yanagihara Naruko, a concubine with the official title of gon-no-tenji; as was common practice at the time, Emperor Meiji's consort, Empress Shōken, was regarded as his mother. He received the personal name of Yoshihito Shinnō and the title Haru-no-miya from the Emperor on 6 September 1879, his two older siblings had died in infancy, he too was born sickly. Prince Yoshihito contracted cerebral meningitis within three weeks of his birth; as was the practice at the time, Prince Yoshihito was entrusted to the care of his great-grandfather, Marquess Nakayama Tadayasu, in whose house he lived from infancy until the age of seven.
Prince Nakayama had raised his grandson, Emperor Meiji, as a child. From March 1885, Prince Yoshihito moved to the Aoyama Detached Palace, where he was tutored in the mornings on reading, writing and morals, in the afternoons on sports, but progress was slow due to his poor health and frequent fevers. From 1886, he was taught together with 15–20 selected classmates from the ōke and higher ranking kazoku peerage at a special school, the Gogakumonsho, within the Aoyama Palace. Yoshihito was declared heir on 31 August 1887, had his formal investiture as crown prince on 3 November 1888. While crown prince, he was referred to as Tōgu. In September 1887, Yoshihito entered the elementary department of the Gakushūin, he spent much of his youth by the sea at the Imperial villas at Hayama and Numazu for health reasons. Although the prince showed skill in some areas, such as horse riding, he proved to be poor in areas requiring higher-level thought, he was withdrawn from Gakushuin before finishing the middle school course in 1894.
However, he did appear to have an aptitude for languages and continued to receive extensive tutoring in French and history from private tutors at the Akasaka Palace. From 1898 at the insistence of Itō Hirobumi, the Prince began to attend sessions of the House of Peers of the Diet of Japan as a way of learning about the political and military concerns of the country. In the same year, he gave his first official receptions to foreign diplomats, with whom he was able to shake hands and converse graciously, his infatuation with western culture and tendency to sprinkle French words into his conversations was a source of irritation for Emperor Meiji. In October 1898, the Prince traveled from the Numazu Imperial Villa to Kobe and Etajima, visiting sites connected with the Imperial Japanese Navy, he made another tour in 1899 to Kyūshū, visiting government offices and factories. On 10 May 1900, Crown Prince Yoshihito married the 15-year-old Kujō Sadako, daughter of Prince Kujō Michitaka, the head of the five senior branches of the Fujiwara clan.
She had been selected by Emperor Meiji for her intelligence and pleasant disposition and dignity – to complement Prince Yoshihito in the areas where he was lacking. The Akasaka Palace was constructed from 1899 to 1909 in a lavish European rococo style, to serve as the Crown Prince's official residence; the Prince and Princess had the following children: In 1902, Yoshihito continued his tours to observe the customs and geography of Japan, this time of central Honshū, where he visited the noted Buddhist temple of Zenkō-ji in Nagano. With tensions rising between Japan and Russia, Yoshihito was promoted in 1903 to the rank of colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army and captain in the Imperial Japanese Navy, his military duties were only ceremonial, but he traveled to inspect military facilities in Wakayama, Ehime and Okayama that year. In October 1907, the Crown Prince toured Korea, accompanied by Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, General Katsura Tarō, Prince Arisugawa Taruhito, it was the first time an heir apparent to the throne had left Japan.
During this period, he began studying the Korean language, although he never became proficient at it. On 30 July 1912, upon the death of his father, Emperor Meiji, Prince Yoshihito mounted the throne; the new Emperor was kept out of view of the public as much as possible. On one of the rare occasions he was seen in public, the 1913 opening of the Imperial Diet of Japan, he is famously reported to have rolled his prepared speech into a cylinder and stared at the assembly through it, as if through a spyglass. Although rumors attributed this to poor mental condition, including those who knew him well, believed that he may have been checking to make sure the speech was rolled up properly, as his manual dexterit
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Statism in Shōwa Japan
Shōwa Statism was a political syncretism of Japanese extreme right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration. It is sometimes referred to as Shōwa nationalism or Japanese fascism; this statist movement dominated Japanese politics during the first part of the Shōwa period. It was a mixture of ideas such as Japanese ultranationalism and state capitalism, that were proposed by a number of contemporary political philosophers and thinkers in Japan. With a more aggressive foreign policy, victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War and over Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan joined the imperialist powers; the need for a strong military to secure Japan's new overseas empire was strengthened by a sense that only through a strong military would Japan earn the respect of Western nations, thus revision of the "unequal treaties" imposed in the 1800s. The Japanese military viewed itself as "politically clean" in terms of corruption, criticized political parties under a liberal democracy as self-serving and a threat to national security by their failure to provide adequate military spending or to address pressing social and economic issues.
The complicity of the politicians with the zaibatsu corporate monopolies came under criticism. The military tended to favor dirigisme and other forms of direct state control over industry, rather than free market capitalism, as well as greater state-sponsored social welfare to reduce the attraction of socialism and communism in Japan; the special relation of militarists and the central civil government with the Imperial Family supported the important position of the Emperor as Head of State with political powers, the relationship with the nationalist right-wing movements. However, Japanese political thought had little contact with European political thinking until the 20th century. Under this ascendancy of the military, the country developed a hierarchical, aristocratic economic system with significant state involvement. During the Meiji Restoration, there had been a surge in the creation of monopolies; this was in part due to state intervention, as the monopolies served to allow Japan to become a world economic power.
The state itself owned some of the monopolies, others were owned by the zaibatsu. The monopolies managed the central core of the economy, with other aspects being controlled by the government ministry appropriate to the activity, including the National Central Bank and the Imperial family; this economic arrangement was in many ways similar to the corporatist models of European fascists. During the same period, certain thinkers with ideals similar to those from shogunate times developed the early basis of Japanese expansionism and Pan-Asianist theories; such thought was developed by writers such as Saneshige Komaki into the Hakkō ichiu, Yen Block, Amau doctrines. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles did not recognize the Empire of Japan's territorial claims, international naval treaties between Western powers and the Empire of Japan, imposed limitations on naval shipbuilding which limited the size of the Imperial Japanese Navy at a 10:10:6 ratio; these measures were considered by many in Japan as refusal of by the Occidental powers to consider Japan an equal partner.
The latter brought about the May 15 Incident. On the basis of national security, these events released a surge of Japanese nationalism and resulted in the end of collaboration diplomacy which supported peaceful economic expansion; the implementation of a military dictatorship and territorial expansionism were considered the best ways to protect the Yamato-damashii. In the early 1930s, the Ministry of Home Affairs began arresting left-wing political dissidents in order to exact a confession and renouncement of anti-state leanings. Over 30,000 such arrests were made between 1930 and 1933. In response, a large group of writers founded a Japanese branch of the International Popular Front Against Fascism, published articles in major literary journals warning of the dangers of statism, their periodical, The People's Library, achieved a circulation of over five thousand and was read in literary circles, but was censored, dismantled in January 1938. Ikki Kita was an early 20th-century political theorist, who advocated a hybrid of state socialism with "Asian nationalism", which thus blended the early ultranationalist movement with Japanese militarism.
His political philosophy was outlined in his thesis National Policy and Pure Socialism of 1908 and An Outline Plan for the Reorganization of Japan of 1928. Kita proposed a military coup d'état to replace the existing political structure of Japan with a military dictatorship; the new military leadership would rescind the Meiji Constitution, ban political parties, replace the Diet of Japan with an assembly free of corruption, would nationalize major industries. Kita envisioned strict limits to private ownership of property, land reform to improve the lot of tenant farmers, thus strengthened internally, Japan could embark on a crusade to free all of Asia from Western imperialism. Although his works were banned by the government immediately after publication, circulation was widespread, his thesis proved popular not only with the younger officer class excited at the prospects of military rule and Japanese expansionism, but with the populist movement for its appeal to the agrarian classes and to the left wing of the socialist movement.
Shūmei Ōkawa was a right-wing political philosopher, active in numerous Japanese nationalist societies in the 1920s. In 1
Rising Sun Flag
The Rising Sun Flag was used by feudal warlords in Japan during the Edo period. On May 15, 1870, as a policy of the Meiji government, it was adopted as the war flag of the Imperial Japanese Army, on October 7, 1889, it was adopted as the naval ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy, it is still used in Japan as a symbol of tradition and good fortune, is incorporated into commercial products and advertisements. The flag is flown by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and a modified version is flown by the Japan Self-Defense Forces and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force; the flag of Japan and the rising sun had symbolic meaning since the early 7th century in the Asuka period. The Japanese archipelago is east of the Asian mainland, is thus where the sun "rises". In 607 CE, an official correspondence that began with "from the Emperor of the rising sun" was sent to Chinese Emperor Yang of Sui. Japan is referred to as "the land of the rising sun". In the 12th-century work, The Tale of the Heike, it was written that different samurai carried drawings of the sun on their fans.
A well-known variant of the flag of Japan sun disc design is the sun disc with 16 red rays in a Siemens star formation. The Rising Sun Flag has been used as a traditional national symbol of Japan since the Edo period, it is featured in antique artwork such as ukiyo-e prints through history. Such as the "Lucky Gods' visit to Enoshima", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Yoshiiku in 1869 and "One Hundred Views of Osaka, Three Great Bridges", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Kunikazu in 1854; the Fujiyama Tea Co. used it as a wooden box label of Japanese tea for export in the Meiji period / Taisho period. The Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun"; the character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the red disc symbolizes the red lines are light rays shining from the rising sun. It was used by the daimyō and Japan's military the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The ensign, known in Japanese as the Jyūrokujō-Kyokujitsu-ki, was first adopted as the war flag on May 15, 1870, was used until the end of World War II in 1945. It was re-adopted on June 30, 1954, is now used by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force; the Japan Self-Defense Forces and Japan Ground Self-Defense Force use a variation of the Rising Sun Flag with red and gold colors. The Rising Sun Flag has been used as a traditional national symbol of Japan since at least the Edo period, it has been used in many ukiyo-e prints through history. For example the "Lucky Gods' visit to Enoshima", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Yoshiiku in 1869 and "One Hundred Views of Osaka, Three Great Bridges", ukiyo-e print by Utagawa Kunikazu in 1854; the Fujiyama Tea Co. used it as a wooden box label of Japanese tea for export in the Meiji period / Taisho period. The design is similar to the flag of Japan; the difference compared to the flag of Japan is that the Rising Sun Flag has extra sun rays exemplifying the name of Japan as "The Land of the Rising Sun".
The Imperial Japanese Army first adopted the Rising Sun Flag in 1870. The Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy both had a version of the flag; the flag was used until Japan's surrender in World War II during August 1945. After the establishment of the Japan Self-Defense Forces in 1954, the flag was re-adopted and approved by the GHQ/SCAP; the flag with 16 rays is today the ensign of the Maritime Self-Defense Force while the Ground Self-Defense Force uses an 8-ray version. Commercially the Rising Sun Flag is used on many products, clothing, beer cans, bands, comics, movies, video games, etc; the Rising Sun Flag appears on commercial product labels, such as on the cans of one variety of Asahi Breweries lager beer. The design is incorporated into the logo of the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun. Among fishermen, the tairyō-ki represents their hope for a good catch of fish. Today it is used as a decorative flag on vessels as well as for events; the Rising Sun Flag is used at sporting events by the supporters of Japanese teams and individual athletes as well as by non-Japanese.
The Rising Sun Flag is the war flag and naval ensign of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force since June 30, 1954. JSDF Chief of Staff Katsutoshi Kawano said the Rising Sun Flag is the Maritime Self-Defense Force sailors' "pride"; the Japan Self-Defense Forces and the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force use the Rising Sun Flag with eight red rays extending outward, called Hachijō-Kyokujitsuki. A gold border lies around the edge; the flag is used by non-Japanese, for example, in the emblems of some U. S. military units based in Japan, by the American blues rock band Hot Tuna, on the cover of its album Live in Japan. It is used as an emblem of the United States Fleet Activities Sasebo, as a patch of the Strike Fighter Squadron 94, a mural at Misawa Air Base, the former insignia of Strike Fighter Squadron 192 and Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System with patches of the 14th Fighter Squadron; some ex
Qin was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Traditionally dated to 897 B. C. it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands lost to the Rong. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi; the empire it established was short-lived but influential on Chinese history. According to the 2nd century BC historical text Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian, the Qin state traced its origin to one of the Five Emperors in ancient times, named Zhuanxu. One of his descendents, was granted the family name of "Ying" by King Shun. During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the Ying split in two: a western branch in Quanqiu and another branch that lived east of the Yellow River; the latter became the ancestors of the rulers of the Zhao state. The western Ying at Quanqiu were lords over the Xichui, the "Western March" of the Shang. One, was killed defending King Zhou during the rebellion that established the Zhou dynasty.
The family was allied with the marquesses of Shen and continued to serve under the Zhou. A younger son of line, Feizi, so impressed King Xiao with his horse breeding skills that he was awarded a separate fief in the valley of Qin. Both lines of the western Ying lived in the midst of the Rong tribes, sometimes fighting their armies and sometimes intermarrying with their kings. In 771 BC, the Marquess of Shen formed an alliance with the Zeng state and Quanrong nomads, they attacked and captured the Zhou capital Haojing, killing King You of Zhou. Duke Xiang of Qin led his troops to escort King You's son King Ping of Zhou to Luoyi, where the new capital city of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty was established. In recognition of Duke Xiang's efforts, King Ping formally enfeoffed Duke Xiang as a feudal lord, elevated Qin from an "attached state" to a major vassal state. King Ping further promised to give Qin the land west of Qishan, the former heartland of Zhou, if Qin could expel the Rong tribes that were occupying the land.
The future generations of the Qin rulers were encouraged by this promise, they launched several military campaigns on the Rong expanding their territories to beyond the original lands lost by the Western Zhou Dynasty. The Qin viewed the Zhou rulers Wen and Wu as their predecessors and themselves as inheritors of their legacy. Qin's interaction with other states in eastern and central China remained minimal throughout the Spring and Autumn period, except with its neighbour Jin, a large, mainstay vassal of the Zhou. Qin maintained good diplomatic relations with Jin and there were marriages between members of the royal clans of both states, but relations between both sides had deteriorated to the point of armed conflict before. During the early reign of Duke Mu of Qin, the Jin state was a formidable power under the leadership of Duke Xian of Jin. However, after the death of Duke Xian, Jin plunged into a state of internal conflict as Duke Xian's sons fought over the succession. One of them won the contention and became Duke Hui of Jin, but Jin was struck by a famine not long and Duke Hui requested aid from Qin.
Duke Mu of Qin sent agricultural equipment to Jin. However, Qin was struck by famine and by Jin had recovered and it turned to attack Qin. Qin and Jin engaged in several battles over the next few years. During the battles with Jin, Duke Mu heard that one of Duke Xian's sons, Chong'er, was in exile in the Chu state. After consulting his subjects, Duke Mu sent an emissary to Chu to invite Chong'er to Jin, Qin helped Chong'er defeat Duke Hui and Chong'er became the new ruler of Jin, with his title as "Duke Wen". Duke Wen was grateful to relations between Qin and Jin improved. Qin used the opportunity when its eastern front was stable, to launch military campaigns against the minority tribes in the west. In 627 BC, Duke Mu of Qin planned a secret attack on the State of Zheng, but the Qin army retreated after being tricked into believing that Zheng was prepared for Qin's invasion. Duke Wen had died and his successor, Duke Xiang of Jin, ordered his troops to lay an ambush for the retreating Qin army.
The Qin forces were defeated in an ambush by Jin at the Battle of Xiao near present-day Luoning County, Henan Province and suffered heavy casualties. Three years Qin attacked Jin for revenge and scored a major victory. Duke Mu refused to advance east further after holding a funeral service for those killed in action at the Battle of Yao, focused on the traditional policy of expanding Qin's borders in the west. Duke Mu's achievements in the western campaigns and his handling of foreign relations with Jin earned him a position among the Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn period. During the early Warring States period, as its neighbours in east and central China began developing, Qin was still in a state of underdevelopment and decline; the Wei state, formed from the Partition of Jin, became the most powerful state on Qin's eastern border. Qin was equipped with Hangu Pass in the east and Tong Pass in the west. Between 413 and 409 BC during the reign of Duke Jian of Qin, the Wei army led by Wu Qi, with support from Zhao and Han, attacked Qin and conquered Qin territories west of the Yellow River.
Despite suffering losses in the batt